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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Rundfunkhörer in Form

Peters, Friedrich Ernst January 2012 (has links)
Essay zu technischem Fortschritt und geistiger Bildung am Beispiel des Rundfunks.
2

How has technical progress contributed to the economic development of countries? - Are these countries converging or diverging away from each other, economically? : Global economic growth: A study on how technical progress contributes to economic growth

Hachichou, Julia Maria January 2018 (has links)
The question of economic growth is one of the most fascinating concepts the development economics department is experiencing. It has been proven that some theories of economic growth can explain the course of development at an accumulated degree in this paper I’m going to investigate if the countries technical progress contributes to its economic growth. Another interesting thing to look at is how growth emerges in different places at different times. This big change in GDP first started to appear in Britain and then in the United States. In countries like Brazil and Japan the standards of living started to rise in the past century and in China GDP growth started just a few decades ago.  GDP have exploded in the most recent two or three centuries. Standard of living has been very low thru most of history. This thesis investigates the relationship between economic growth and the level of technology, and how ever the countries are converging or diverging away from each other. With the help of secondary collected data and a cross country regression model. The results showed similar results according to previous studies, that technical progress contribute to economic growth, some evidence indicating economic convergence were also found.
3

Les incitations à investir dans les réseaux de télécommunications / Incentives to invest in telecommunications networks

Jeanjean, François 16 March 2015 (has links)
Cette thèse présente 4 articles de recherche qui étudient les relations entre la structure de marché, la concurrence, la régulation et les investissements dans les réseaux de télécommunications. Les réseaux de télécommunications nécessitent des investissements réguliers et importants. Ces investissements sont essentiels pour incorporer le progrès technique dans le réseau et ont une influence importante sur la croissance et l’emploi . C’est pourquoi la question des incitations à investir revêt une importance particulière. Le premier article étudie les relations entre la régulation ( tarif de la charge d’accès au réseau cuivre, taux d’accès cuivre vendu en gros) et les taux de pénétration des différentes technologies (cuivre, fibre optique et câble). Il montre qu’une régulation trop favorable au cuivre, diminue les incitations à investir et peut donc ralentir le développement des autres technologies et en particulier les technologies de nouvelle génération. Le deuxième article étudie la relation entre les investissements dans la téléphonie mobile et les prix moyens du trafic (en mégaoctet). Il montre que ledéveloppement du trafic est lié aux investissements et au progrès technique. Un investissement régulier produit une croissance exponentielle du trafic. Il montre aussi que la baisse des prix unitaires du mégaoctet est principalement due à la croissance du trafic et donc aux investissements. Le troisième étudie la relation entre la marge et l’investissement des opérateurs de téléphonie mobile. Il met en évidence une rupture de comportement des opérateurs en fonction de leur niveau de marge. Il montre aussi qu’il existe un niveau d’investissement qui maximise le profit. Ce niveau d’investissement dépend de la structure du marché et de la demande des consommateurs. Lorsque la marge des opérateur est suffisante, le niveau d’investissement maximisant le profit est atteint, dans le cas contraire, l’investissement est plus faible ce qui ralentit l’incorporation du progrès technique dans le réseau, la croissance du trafic et finalement la baisse des prix de mégaoctet au détriment des consommateurs. Le quatrième étudie empiriquement de manière précise la relation entre le taux de marge et l’investissement dans la téléphonie mobile. Il met en évidence une relation en U inversé. L’investissement maximum est atteint pour un taux de marge de 37,2%. Un modèle théorique complète cette étude et montre que le progrès technique, c’est-à-dire la réponse à l’investissement en terme d’utilité pour les consommateurs, joue un rôle important dans la forme de la relation entre marge et investissement. Lorsque le progrès technique est faible, la relation est monotone et décroissante. Laprobabilité d’avoir une relation en U inversé augmente avec le progrès technique et lorsque la relation est en U inversé, le sommet de la courbe se déplace vers des niveaux de marge plus élevés. / This thesis presents four research papers studying the relationship between market structure, competition, regulation and investment in telecommunications networks. Telecommunications networks require regular and substantial investments. These investments are essential to incorporate the technical progress in the network and have a large impact on growth and employment. This is why the issue of investment incentives is especially important. The first paper examines the relationship between regulation (price of the access charge to legacy network, copper wholesale access share) and penetration of different technologies (copper, optical fiber and cable). It shows that a regulation which is too favorable to copper, decreases incentives to invest in other technologies and may slow down their development , especially the new generation technologies. The second paper examines the relationship between investment in mobile telephony and the average prices of the traffic (in megabytes). It shows that traffic growth depends on investments and technical progress. Regular investment yields an exponential growth of traffic. It also shows that the fall in average prices of the megabyte is mainly due to traffic growth and therefore investment. The third paper examines the relationship between margin and investment of mobile telephony operators. It shows a break in operators behavior based on their level of profit margin. It also shows that there is a level of investment that maximizes profit. This level of investment depends on the structure of the market and consumers’ demand. When the margin of the operator is sufficient, the level of investment to maximize profit is reached, otherwise, the investment is lower which slows down the incorporation of technical progress in the network, traffic growth and ultimately the fall in megabyte prices to the detriment of consumers. The fourth paper empirically examines precisely the relationship between the rate of margin (margin/revenues) and investment in mobile telephony. It highlights an inverted U-shaped relationship. The maximum investment is achieved for a 37.2% rate of margin. A theoretical model complements this study and shows that technical progress, that is to say, the response to the investment in terms of usefulness to consumers, plays an important role inshaping the relationship between the rate of margin and investment. When technical progress is weak, the relationship ismonotonic and decreasing. The likelihood of having an inverted U relationship increases with technological progress andwhen the relationship is inverted U, the peak of the curve shifts to higher rates of margin.
4

O panorama da interação entre universidades e a industria no Basil / The university-industry linkage panorama in Brazil

Righi, Herica Morais 15 August 2018 (has links)
Orientador: Wilson Suzigan / Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Geociencias / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-15T02:50:18Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Righi_HericaMorais_M.pdf: 1625121 bytes, checksum: 6f7910c62c5cdbcf5a644389b467e4a8 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2009 / Resumo: Esta dissertação apresenta um panorama do padrão de interação universidade-indústria no Brasil a partir de dados do Diretório do CNPq, que representam a visão da universidade sobre o tema, e de dados da Pesquisa de Inovação Tecnológica do IBGE (Pintec), que mostram a percepção da indústria acerca da importância dos projetos cooperativos para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos e de novos processos. O objetivo deste estudo é entender quais os setores que mais utilizam as universidades na promoção de inovações e quais as áreas do conhecimento que contribuem de forma direta e ativa com a atividade inovativa industrial no Brasil. Além dos dados destacados acima, este trabalho também discute a importância da aproximação entre a esfera científica e a tecnológica para garantir um processo de desenvolvimento consistente e sustentado. E, considerando que a formação das instituições é um fator relevante e determinante para a constituição desse relacionamento, também será apresentado o histórico do cenário científico e industrial e assim mostrar que a fraca interação observada no país é em grande medida influenciada pela maneira como esses atores foram constituídos e consolidados. A partir de informações coletadas no Diretório dos Grupos de Pesquisa do CNPq, foi possível elaborar uma matriz com a quantidade de grupos de pesquisa e empresas que se relacionam a partir das disciplinas acadêmicas e dos setores. Foram localizadas nessa matriz apenas 15 "manchas de interação", isto é, 15 pontos em que o diálogo e o feedback entre universidade e indústria é relevante. Poucos são os pontos em que se observa o relacionamento universidade-indústria e raros os que ocorrem com maior intensidade. Dentre as "manchas" encontradas nesta dissertação foi descrita a ligação com o processo histórico de quatro casos. A partir desses casos descritos brevemente, é possível afirmar que as "manchas de interação" têm raízes no desenvolvimento pautado em incentivos cooperativos, políticas de desenvolvimento e consolidação setoriais, na presença de uma indústria nacional instigada a competir e exportar, na formação de setores intensivos em conhecimento e demandantes de tecnologia, no estímulo à produção científica via formação de novos pesquisadores, no financiamento à ciência e interesse da comunidade científica em contribuir com o plano de capacitação tecnológica desses setores. Por mais que o panorama apresentado reflita uma fragilidade no diálogo entre universidade e indústria, e que essa fraqueza influencie o processo inovativo, o cenário brasileiro ainda pode ser avaliado como otimista. Se for considerado o início recente da conscientização quanto à importância do processo inovativo como fonte de competitividade e desenvolvimento (década de 1990), o Brasil pode ser considerado um país em que o processo de busca pela produção de tecnologia está no início e apresenta uma evolução positiva / Abstract: This dissertation presents the university-industry linkage panorama in Brazil, by CNPq's Directory data, that represents a university's overview, and Pintec's data, that shows industry's opinion of the importance of cooperative projects to develop new process and products. The focus of this study is to understand which sectors use more universities to develop innovations and which science fields contribute directly with innovative active in Brazil. This work also discusses the relationship between science and technology importance to assurance a development process coherent and sustainable. Considering that institutions' construction are significant elements and determines the building of this relationship, it also presents an historical overview of scientific and industrial building and then shows that weak university-industry linkages detected is influenced by how those actors were built up and consolidated. Using information collected on CNPq's Directory it could be elaborated a matrix that show the number of research groups and firms that interact dividing by science fields and industrial sectors. To Brazil were founded 15 "spots of interactions" where it is relevant the dialogue and feedback between universities and industry. There are few points where there is university-industry relationship and rare of them are intense. Among the "spots" founded in this dissertation it was described briefly four cases and their linkage to their histories' constitution. From these cases described in a few words, it can be said that the "spots of interaction" have roots in the development based on incentives for cooperation, development and sectorial consolidation policy, existence of a domestic industry instigated to compete and export, constitution of knowledge-based and technological sectors, support to scientific production by stimulating the formation of new researchers, funding for science and scientific community concern to contribute to technological capabilities of those industries. Even though the picture presented reflects a weakness in the university-industry linkages, and this weakness influences innovative process, the Brazilian scenario can still be estimated as optimistic. If considered the beginning of the recent concern about the importance of innovative process as a source of competitiveness and development (the 1990s), Brazil can be considered a country where the owned technology production is in its beginning and provides a positive progress / Mestrado / Mestre em Política Científica e Tecnológica
5

Investir dans le stockage géologique du carbone à partir de biomasse : une approche par les options réelles / Invest in biomass with carbon capture and storage : a real option approach

Laude, Audrey 02 December 2011 (has links)
La conversion de la biomasse en énergie génère des flux de gaz carbonique qui peuvent être captés,transportés puis stockés dans des strates géologiques. Ce procédé, nommé BCCS (Biomass Carbon Captureand Storage), réduit drastiquement les émissions carbonées et dans certaines conditions le puits artificiel peutstocker plus de carbone que le système de conversion n’en aura produit (émissions négatives). Ainsi, le BCCSrend plus envisageable l’obtention de certains plafonds de concentrations de CO2 atmosphériques inférieurs ouégaux à 450ppm. Des incitations économiques sont nécessaires pour déclencher l’investissement dans leBCCS de la part d’acteurs du secteur privé. Ceux-ci sont confrontés à une incertitude de grande ampleurconcernant le prix du carbone. Nous étudions dans cette thèse le comportement d’un décideur ayant le choixd’investir dans une variante du BCCS, à savoir la production de bioéthanol à partir de betteraves sucrières.Après une analyse déterministe sur un cas réel, nous étudions l’influence de différentes incertitudes sur le profild’investissement via une approche par options réelles. Nous analysons notamment l’influence de l’incertitudedu progrès technique via une loi de Poisson et montrons que l’investisseur tend à attendre l’innovation. Nousdistinguons ensuite progrès de court terme et de long terme. Puis, nous nous intéressons à l’incertitude derégulation climatique. Le marché du carbone est alors modélisé par un mouvement de retour à la moyenneavec des sauts de prix à dates fixes / Using biomass to produce energy emits carbon dioxide. These emissions can be captured, transported andstored into geological formations. This process is named BCCS (Biomass Carbon Capture and Storage). Itleads to massive reductions and the whole system carbon balance system could be negative given specificassumptions, which is called ‘negative emissions’. BCCS may help to achieve low CO2 concentration target,even below the 450ppm threshold. Providing suitable incentives is necessary to trigger private investment.Private investors are facing considerable uncertainty, about the carbon market. We study in this dissertation thebehavior of decision makers who can invest in a specific variant of BCCS, which is the production ofbioethanol coming from sugar beets. After a deterministic analysis based on a real case study, we consider theinfluence of different kinds of uncertainties on the investment profile through a real option approach. Thetechnical progress uncertainty has been modeled with Poisson jumps. We show that investors tend to wait forinnovations. We distinguish two cases depending on the progress rate: early or delayed technical progressrate. First allowance price is driven by geometric Brownian motion. Second, the price follows a mean revertingprocess with jumps at specific fixed dates, to take into account the international round of negotiations aboutclimatic change, as a kind of climate regulation uncertainty.
6

Renda da terra e desenvolvimento econômico : uma crítica smithiana à teoria dos rendimentos decrescentes ricardiana

Celi, Guilherme Cezere January 2010 (has links)
Este trabalho tem por objetivo confrontar a teoria da renda da terra de David Ricardo com a análise de Adam Smith sobre este mesmo assunto. Isto significa que este trabalho irá encontrar na obra “A Riqueza das Nações” uma suposta teoria da renda da terra e mostrar que Adam Smith possui uma teoria tão rica quanto à análise de David Ricardo sobre a renda da terra. Será abordada a análise da renda da terra sob o enfoque do desenvolvimento econômico, ou seja, será verificada qual das teorias têm melhores condições de explicar a temática do desenvolvimento econômico sob a ótica da fertilidade da terra e seus rendimentos. Os objetivos específicos serão comprovar a importância do progresso técnico e dos rendimentos crescentes da terra como enfoque de confrontação da teoria da renda da terra de David Ricardo e também verificar a importância da produtividade da terra, inserida na análise de ambos os autores, para o progresso contínuo do desenvolvimento econômico. Para tanto, foram buscadas referências nas próprias obras de Adam Smith e David Ricardo, textos que abordassem o pensamento destes autores e trabalhos que relacionassem o tema progresso técnico e fertilidade da terra. / The aim of this dissertation is to confront the theory of land rent of David Ricardo with the theory of Adam Smith. It means that this dissertation will try to find in the “Wealth of Nation” a theory of land rent and show that Adam Smith have a theory as better as the analyze of land rent by David Ricardo. The dissertation will analyze the land rent by the conception of economic development. It means verify what theory has more condition to explain the economic development by optic of the land fertility. The specific aim will be prove that technical progress and increase fertility, inside analyze of Smith, can confront Ricardo’ theory and verify that land productive, inside analyze of both authors, is important to keep economic development and progress of nations. To build this work, it will be find references own by Adam Smith and David Ricardo, papers by others authors that study the theory of this two authors and books that make connection between technical progress and land fertility.
7

Renda da terra e desenvolvimento econômico : uma crítica smithiana à teoria dos rendimentos decrescentes ricardiana

Celi, Guilherme Cezere January 2010 (has links)
Este trabalho tem por objetivo confrontar a teoria da renda da terra de David Ricardo com a análise de Adam Smith sobre este mesmo assunto. Isto significa que este trabalho irá encontrar na obra “A Riqueza das Nações” uma suposta teoria da renda da terra e mostrar que Adam Smith possui uma teoria tão rica quanto à análise de David Ricardo sobre a renda da terra. Será abordada a análise da renda da terra sob o enfoque do desenvolvimento econômico, ou seja, será verificada qual das teorias têm melhores condições de explicar a temática do desenvolvimento econômico sob a ótica da fertilidade da terra e seus rendimentos. Os objetivos específicos serão comprovar a importância do progresso técnico e dos rendimentos crescentes da terra como enfoque de confrontação da teoria da renda da terra de David Ricardo e também verificar a importância da produtividade da terra, inserida na análise de ambos os autores, para o progresso contínuo do desenvolvimento econômico. Para tanto, foram buscadas referências nas próprias obras de Adam Smith e David Ricardo, textos que abordassem o pensamento destes autores e trabalhos que relacionassem o tema progresso técnico e fertilidade da terra. / The aim of this dissertation is to confront the theory of land rent of David Ricardo with the theory of Adam Smith. It means that this dissertation will try to find in the “Wealth of Nation” a theory of land rent and show that Adam Smith have a theory as better as the analyze of land rent by David Ricardo. The dissertation will analyze the land rent by the conception of economic development. It means verify what theory has more condition to explain the economic development by optic of the land fertility. The specific aim will be prove that technical progress and increase fertility, inside analyze of Smith, can confront Ricardo’ theory and verify that land productive, inside analyze of both authors, is important to keep economic development and progress of nations. To build this work, it will be find references own by Adam Smith and David Ricardo, papers by others authors that study the theory of this two authors and books that make connection between technical progress and land fertility.
8

Dinâmica industrial na agroindústria canavieira brasileira: uma abordagem da mudança industrial via mudança técnica / Industrial dynamics in brazilian sugar cane: on approach to industrial change via technical change

Amorim, José Francisco Oliveira de 20 August 2013 (has links)
The evolution within an economic context is the result of the adaptation process of the firms the industrial structure of the sector, these ' adaptations ' correspond to the result of an intense action of search and selection, where the economic imbalance corroborates the existence of this process. Within the notion of technological paradigm established by Dosi (1988), the firm chooses the best alternative, procedures, criteria and rules established ex ante, their actions are derived from the conditions of uncertainty, defined by the basis of information obtained in addition to the accumulation of knowledge - formal and informal - the capacity to acquire technologies and viewing opportunities. Nelson and Winter (1982) show that technical progress is endogenous in nature, this progress can be built from the establishment of patterns of response actions, or rather routines. These routines can be divided into long and short term. As the dynamics of technical progress is endogenous technical change is coming this procedure adaptive routines, from the same are established technological trajectories, which differ from industry to industry, as the dominant technology in an industry is not necessarily put to other. In this context, this dissertation seeks to demonstrate the existence of such a process applied to the sugarcane sector, after it has undergone sweeping changes since the merger and acquisition through foreign capital investment companies or other sectors, corroborating the concentration of productive activity the hands of some economic groups thus are identified characteristics of both technology standards Schumpeter Mark I and Schumpeter Mark II, many firms are in this industry, however, the process of creative destruction promoted by the accumulation of knowledge is intense. The aim was to analyze the industrial dynamics present in the sugarcane industry through models, aiming at a better understanding about the transformation started with Proálcool and heated with deregulation and lastly the impact of the international economic crisis in 2008. For this purpose, we used data collected from the Procana, ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels) and reports production cost PECEGE (Continuing Education Program in Economics and Business Management) linked to ESALQ. For the analysis, we used statistical and econometric models (Factor Analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis and Analysis of Panel Data). How relevant results it is found that: i) the changes occurred may last for a few more years, ii) the endogenous variables of each plants is that they are influencing the intense transformation, since the applied technologies has originated in response patterns, iii) routinization has shown strong impact on industry structure resulting from the process of search and selection, plants are failing to adapt are declaring bankruptcy or being acquired by larger iv) as a result of creative destruction, economic groups are influencing the concentration of industry, this action is a result of the accumulation of capital and better adaptation v) the concentration of capital is taking place in the South Central region of the country, approximately within the ' polygon ' development, highlighted by Breitbach (2004) and expanding around this region. / A evolução, dentro de um contexto econômico é resultante do processo de adaptação das firmas a estrutura industrial do setor, essas ‘adaptações’ correspondem ao resultado de uma intensa ação de busca e seleção, onde o desequilíbrio econômico corrobora com a existência desse processo. Dentro da noção de paradigma tecnológico, estabelecido por Dosi (1988), a firma escolhe as melhores alternativas, procedimentos, critérios e regras estabelecidas ex-ante, suas ações derivam das condições de incerteza, definidas pela base de informações obtidas, além da acumulação de conhecimentos – formais e informais –, da capacidade de apropriação de tecnologias e da visualização de oportunidades. Nelson e Winter (1982) evidenciam que o progresso técnico é de natureza endógena, esse progresso pode ser construído a partir do estabelecimento de padrões de ações de respostas, ou melhor, rotinas. Essas podem ser divididas em rotinas de longo e curto prazo. Como a dinâmica do progresso técnico é endógena, a mudança técnica é oriunda desse procedimento de rotinas adaptativas, a partir do mesmo são estabelecidas as trajetórias tecnológicas, as quais diferem de indústria para indústria, pois a tecnologia dominada em um setor não necessariamente está posta para outro. Diante desse contexto, essa dissertação busca evidenciar a existência de tal processo aplicado ao setor canavieiro, afinal este tem passado por intensas transformações, desde fusão e aquisição até o investimento de capital estrangeiro ou de empresas de outros setores, corroborando para a concentração da atividade produtiva nas mãos de alguns grupos econômicos, dessa forma são identificadas características de ambos os padrões tecnológicos de Schumpeter Mark I e Schumpeter Mark II, diversas firmas estão presente no setor, entretanto, o processo de destruição criadora promovido pela acumulação de conhecimento é intenso. O objetivo foi analisar a dinâmica industrial presente no setor canavieiro através de modelos, visando uma melhor compreensão a respeito das transformações iniciadas com o Proálcool e acaloradas com a desregulamentação e por último com o impacto da crise econômica internacional de 2008. Para tanto, foram utilizados dados colhidos junto ao Procana, ANP (Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis) e relatórios de custo de produção do PECEGE (Programa de Educação Continuada em Economia e Gestão de Empresas) vinculado a ESALQ. Para a análise, foram utilizados modelos estatístico e econométricos (Análise Fatorial, Análise de Regressão Múltipla e Análise de Dados em Painel). Como resultados relevantes verifica-se que: i) as transformações ocorridas poderão perdurar por mais alguns anos; ii) as variáveis endógenas das usinas estão influenciando a intensa transformação, visto que as tecnologias aplicadas apresentam origem em seus padrões de resposta; iii) a rotinização tem apresentado forte impacto na estrutura do setor, resultante do processo de busca e seleção, as usinas que não estão conseguindo adaptar-se estão declarando falência ou sendo adquiridas por outras maiores; iv) como resultado da destruição criadora, grupos econômicos passam a influenciar na concentração do setor, essa ação é resultado da acumulação de capital e melhor adaptação v) a concentração do capital está ocorrendo na região Centro-Sul do país, aproximadamente dentro do ‘polígono de desenvolvimento’, destacado por Breitbach (2004) e se expandindo ao redor dessa região.
9

Renda da terra e desenvolvimento econômico : uma crítica smithiana à teoria dos rendimentos decrescentes ricardiana

Celi, Guilherme Cezere January 2010 (has links)
Este trabalho tem por objetivo confrontar a teoria da renda da terra de David Ricardo com a análise de Adam Smith sobre este mesmo assunto. Isto significa que este trabalho irá encontrar na obra “A Riqueza das Nações” uma suposta teoria da renda da terra e mostrar que Adam Smith possui uma teoria tão rica quanto à análise de David Ricardo sobre a renda da terra. Será abordada a análise da renda da terra sob o enfoque do desenvolvimento econômico, ou seja, será verificada qual das teorias têm melhores condições de explicar a temática do desenvolvimento econômico sob a ótica da fertilidade da terra e seus rendimentos. Os objetivos específicos serão comprovar a importância do progresso técnico e dos rendimentos crescentes da terra como enfoque de confrontação da teoria da renda da terra de David Ricardo e também verificar a importância da produtividade da terra, inserida na análise de ambos os autores, para o progresso contínuo do desenvolvimento econômico. Para tanto, foram buscadas referências nas próprias obras de Adam Smith e David Ricardo, textos que abordassem o pensamento destes autores e trabalhos que relacionassem o tema progresso técnico e fertilidade da terra. / The aim of this dissertation is to confront the theory of land rent of David Ricardo with the theory of Adam Smith. It means that this dissertation will try to find in the “Wealth of Nation” a theory of land rent and show that Adam Smith have a theory as better as the analyze of land rent by David Ricardo. The dissertation will analyze the land rent by the conception of economic development. It means verify what theory has more condition to explain the economic development by optic of the land fertility. The specific aim will be prove that technical progress and increase fertility, inside analyze of Smith, can confront Ricardo’ theory and verify that land productive, inside analyze of both authors, is important to keep economic development and progress of nations. To build this work, it will be find references own by Adam Smith and David Ricardo, papers by others authors that study the theory of this two authors and books that make connection between technical progress and land fertility.
10

Produktivitätsmotor Gesundheitswirtschaft:: Finanziert sich der medizinisch-technische Fortschritt selbst?

Karmann, Alexander, Rösel, Felix, Schneider, Markus 15 July 2020 (has links)
Der medizinisch-technische Fortschritt (MTF) gilt als wesentlicher Treiber der Gesundheitsausgaben und Hauptursache düsterer Beitragssatzprognosen für die Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung (GKV). Übersehen wird hierbei zumeist, dass der MTF zugleich Produktivitätszuwächse im Gesundheitswesen sowie eine bessere Gesundheit der Erwerbstätigen generiert. Dies sorgt für gesamtwirtschaftliches Wachstum und damit letztlich für eine Verbreiterung der Einnahmenbasis der Sozialversicherung. In diesem Beitrag wird die Auswirkung des MTF sowohl auf die Ausgaben- als auch auf die Einnahmenseite der GKV zwischen 2002 und 2010 berechnet und einander gegenübergestellt. Wir zeigen auf Basis konservativer Rechnungen, dass sich der MTF allein durch zwei seiner Teilaspekte – Produktivitätsgewinne in der Gesundheitswirtschaft und Rückgang des krankheitsbedingt verlorenen Arbeitsvolumens – zu mindestens rund 20 Prozent selbst finanziert. Dieses Ergebnis relativiert allzu pessimistische Aussichten einer fehlenden Finanzierbarkeit des MTF. Der Druck zu weiteren Strukturreformen im Gesundheitswesen wird hierdurch allerdings keinesfalls aufgehoben.

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