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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

A historical overview of the origins of anti-shark measures in Natal, 1940-1980.

Van Oordt, Melissa Joyce. January 2006 (has links)
This thesis studies the origins of anti-shark measures in Natal, highlighting the relationship between beach recreation, anti-shark measures and the important influence of human perceptions of sharks. It focuses on key events such as the "Black December" when seven shark attacks occurred off the South Coast of Natal between December 1957 and April 1958; the rise of beach recreation in Natal; the role of the press (and later the electronic media) in the dissemination of the 'man-eating' shark myth; and the deployment of anti-shark measures off the Natal coast. The increased popularity of the beach in Natal during the 1940s and 1950s meant that the beach was frequently being used for recreational activities. However, with this increase there was an increase in shark attacks off the Natal coast. The relationship between beach recreation and shark attacks is key to this study. The first nets were deployed off the Durban beachfront in 1952. The influence of the press, the increase of popular beach recreational activities in the 1950s and the unfortunate events of "Black December" led to the deployment of the nets off the South Coast in the 1960s, and these are currently still in use. Alongside the deployment of the nets was a rise in scientific research into shark biology and anti-shark measures in the 1960s. This thesis traces shifting trends in shark research from the 1960s to the 1970s. For instance, in the 1960s, shark research focused primarily on shark biology and the ways in which the study of the behaviour of sharks could prevent shark attacks. In. the 1970s, shark research shifted towards the study of anti-shark measures. Both beach recreation and shark research have influenced human perceptions of sharks. This thesis covers a period when the human perception of sharks was more hostile than it would become after the rise of marine conservation and the commercial regard for the preservation of sharks from the 1980s. It also analyses the human fear of sharks and how this fear has developed over time. / Thesis (M.A.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2006.

Shepstone and Cetshwayo, 1873-1879.

Cope, Richard Lidbrook. January 1967 (has links)
No abstract available. / Thesis (M.A.)-University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 1967.

No easy walk : building diplomacy in the history of the relationship between the African National Congress of South Africa and the United States of America, 1945-1987.

Ramdhani, Narissa. January 2008 (has links)
This dissertation examines the attempts of the African National Congress / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2008.

Marxism and history : twenty years of South African Marxist studies.

Deacon, Roger Alan. January 1988 (has links)
This thesis attempts to contextualize the emergence and development of South African Marxist studies in terms of political and economic changes in South Africa, the influence of overseas Marxist and related theories and internal and external historiographical developments. The early Marxist approach was constituted by the climate of political repression and economic growth in South Africa during the 1960's, by its antagonism to the dominant liberal analyses of the country, and by the presence of indigenous Marxist theories of liberation. The unstable theoretical foundations of this approach prompted a critique and reassessment, which led to the coalescence of a stable Marxist paradigm and the start of the second phase of Marxist studies. The debate on the nature of the state that characterized this second phase was informed by the rival Marxist political theories of Nicos Poulantzas and the West German Staatsableitung school, and proved to be largely inconclusive. However, under circumstances of a resurgence of resistance and economic decline in South Africa, the late-1970's debate focussed attention squarely upon the revolutionary potential of the black working class. The heightening of struggle and a growing awareness of crisis formed the basis for the 1980's shift away from the reductionism and instrumentalism of the earlier literature. Continuing research on the state highlighted issues of strategy, the spaces for struggle opened up by the restructuring of the state and capital, and the degree of state autonomy. The political and economic gains made by the oppressed also combined with the influence of elements of British Marxist historiography and a reaction to the 'structuralism' of the 1970's to produce Marxist social history, emphasizing subjective human agency and 'history from below'. The social historical perspective dominates Marxist studies in the 1980's, and has influenced both the tradition of Marxist Africanism, focussing on pre-colonial African social formations, and the related approach to agrarian history. It is argued in the . conclusion that recent calls for a synthesis of structuralist Marxism and social history within South African Marxist studies take for granted the dualist appearance of Marxism and fails to reflect upon Marxism's essentially monistic presupposition. / Thesis (M.A.)-University of Natal, Durban, 1988.

The idea of a hermeneutic of history.

Posel, Rosalind. January 1982 (has links)
Constantly confronted by history, man has what may be termed a natural impulse to make sense of the past. And indeed, the past cannot be understood without also understanding the present. Thus that fundamental historical impulse is profoundly philosophical in the Socratic sense. It is because hermeneutics explicitly identifies itself with the Socratic tradition, that my attempt to elucidate the nature of written history as an academic discipline has been located within a hermeneutic point of view. In the course of this thesis I refer to several major debates in social theory. However, I make no pretense at covering these debates fully. They are cited insofar as they bear on issues arising in the development of the idea of a hermeneutic of history. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of Natal, Durban, 1982.

A history of the professionalisation of human resource management in South Africa : 1945-1995.

Legg, Ronald Leslie. January 2004 (has links)
Human resource management as practiced today within organisations carries a century of history. Focus has shifted from its simple origins as a welfare concern for the lot of workers by certain enlightened employers in Great Britain to the current human resource management which is an integral part of the management of an organisation. It has moved from being a peripheral to an essential service. This shift has been accompanied by an ongoing attempt to achieve professional recognition for human resource practitioners whose occupation it is to implement the principles and practices of human resource management. The study endeavours to present and analyse the history of the professionalisation of human resource management in South Africa. It is a story which has not been previously researched, other than in a passing manner by a few authors in South Africa in text books on the theories and practices of human resource management. This study is therefore a first detailed investigation into the subject of the professionalisation of human resource management in this country. The study focuses on a period from 1945 to 1995 which represents the most formative years of professionalisation in South Africa. Appropriate background contextual material is included to enable an informed assessment to be made ofthe South African experience, which covers the concept of professionalisation, experience in Great Britain and the United States of America together with relevant references to South African history. Human resource management is not practiced in isolation and the historical process of professionalisation needs to be assessed both contextually and conceptually. The fifty year period of the study allows for an understanding of the nature of human resource management to emerge and to assess whether professional status has been achieved. The research period commences with the establishment of the Institute of Personnel Management in 1945 and traces developments from then up to a unique Institute convention in 1995 where a symbolic reconciliation takes place between black and white practitioners. South African racial history had an effect on the process of professionalisation and the study reveals th.e implications. The process of professionalisation is observed to be ongoing and continued attempts at achieving statutory recognition for the profession are noted in the study and assessed. / Thesis (M.A.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2004.

Die geskiedenis van die Suid-Afrikaanse Militêre Akademie, 1950-1990

Visser, Gideon Erasmus January 2000 (has links)
Thesis (PhD) -- Universiteit van Stellenbosch, 2000. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The South African Military Academy was established on 1 April 1950 with a view to placing candidate officer training in the Union Defence Force on par with standards abroad and at the same time to elevating it to the level of a university degree. In addition, the Minister of Defence, F.C. Erasmus, wanted to use the Academy as an instrument enabling Afrikaners to take up their rightful place alongside English-speaking citizens in the officer corps. In so doing, he hoped, eventually, to replace the predominant British character of the Union Defence Force with a unique South African, and more particularly an Afrikaner, character. Despite strong resistance to change from within the officer corps, motivated by political sentiment and more so by opposition to the novel idea of degree studies for officers, the Academy developed into a viable training institution. Broadly based on the training systems of Sandhurst and West Point, and following the example of the Indian National Defence Academy, the Military Academy became a joint training institution for all four arms of the service. Yet financial constraints, a lack of suitable candidates, as well as the conflicting sentiments and training needs of the arms of the service, prevented the formative training of all candidate officers from being assigned to the Academy. The absence of formative training, together with the admittance of junior officers, instead of solely candidate officers, resulted in the Academy gaining the character of a military university rather than a traditional military academy. The Academy was deprived of a distinct function in the overall officers' development system, which put its survival in the balance and triggered a series of investigations into its role and function. The opposing subcultures that developed between the Dean and the Faculty of Military Science on the one hand, and the Officer Commanding and the Military Training Branch on the other, formed part of the debate. Also in dispute, was the location of the Academy at Saldanha, rather than in the military heart-land in Pretoria. By interpreting the academic training needs of the Defence Force correctly and positioning itself accordingly, the Academy survived that crisis. Thereafter, the Academy time and again adapted to the changing military and socio-political environment and strove towards ever increasing relevance to the Defence Force. In this way female and non-European students were admitted to the Military Academy, whilst the way was also paved for the admittance of students from other African states. In anticipation of the new political dispensation in South Africa, a concerted effort was launched in 1990 to make the student body more representative of the South Africa population in terms of race and sex. The Military Academy has through the years established itself as a credible militaryacademic institution and has made a significant contribution towards military professionalism in South Africa. By 1990 it favourably positioned itself to continue that role in future. Though forming only a small percentage of the total officer corps, the Academy graduates have gradually been distributed at all levels of the officer corps and have dominated the top posts in the SA Defence Force since the early 1970's. They were consequently well placed in 1990 to playa significant role in preparing the Defence Force for the so-called "New South Africa". / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Suid-Afrikaanse Militêre Akademie is op 1 April 1950 gestig met die doelom die militêrakademiese . opleiding van kandidaatoffisiere hier te lande op dieselfde peil as in die buiteland te bring en dit terselfdertyd tot universiteitsvlak te verhef. Die Minister van Verdediging, F.e. Erasmus, wou egter ook die Akademie gebruik as instrument om die Afrikaner sy regmatige plek, naas Engelssprekendes, in die offisierskorps te laat inneem en sodoende die oorwegend Britse karakter van die Unieverdedigingsmag met 'n eie, Suid- Afrikaanse karakter, en meer bepaald 'n Afrikaner-karakter, te vervang. Ondanks sterk weerstand teen verandering vanuit die offisierskorps, hetsy vanweë politieke sentimente, of, meer bepaald, teenkanting teen die idee van graadstudie vir offisiere, het die Akademie tot 'n lewensvatbare opleidingsinrigting ontwikkel. Breedweg geskoei op die opleidingsmodelle van Sand hurst en West Point, het die Militêre Akademie, na die voorbeeld van die Indiese National Defence Academy, 'n gesamentlike opleidingsinrigting vir al vier weermagsdele geword. Finansiële beperkings, 'n gebrek aan geskikte kandidate, asook die botsende opleidingsbehoeftes en sentimente van die onderskeie weermagsdele, het egter verhoed dat die vormingsopleiding van alle kandidaatoffisiere, met die uitsondering van die vroeë sewentigerjare, aan die Akademie toevertrou is. Die afwesigheid van vormingsopleiding, tesame met die toelating van junior offisiere, in stede van kandidaatoffisiere alleen, het daartoe gelei dat die Akademie mettertyd die karakter van 'n militêre universiteit, eerder as 'n tradisionele militêre akademie, aangeneem het. Die Akademie is in dié proses 'n duidelike rol in die totale offisiersontwikkelingsproses ontneem, wat sy voortbestaan ernstig in die weegskaal geplaas het en tot verskeie ondersoeke na sy rol en funksie gelei het. Deel van die debat, was die botsende subkulture wat deur die jare tussen die Dekaan en die Fakulteit Krygskunde aan die een kant, en die Bevelvoerder en die Tak Militêre Opleiding aan die ander kant, ontstaan het, asook die moontlike verskuiwing van die Akademie van Saldanha na die militêre hartland in Pretoria. Deur die akademiese opleidingsbehoeftes van die Weermag korrek te vertolk en hom dienooreenkomstig te posisioneer, het die Akademie egter dié krisis afgeweer. Hy het daarna telkens by die veranderende militêre en sosio-politieke omstandighede aangepas en immer groter diensbaarheid in die militêr-akademiese milieu nagestreef. Só het dames en anderskleuriges mettertyd hul pad na die Akademie gevind en is die weg ook vir die toelating van studente uit ander Afrikastate gebaan. In 1990, in afwagting van die nuwe politieke bedeling in Suid-Afrika, het die Akademie 'n doelgerigte poging van stapel gestuur om die studentekorps meer verteenwoordigend van die bevolkingsamestelling ten opsigte van ras en geslag te maak. Die Militêre Akademie het hom deur die jare as 'n geloofwaardige militêr-akademiese instelling gevestig en 'n betekenisvolle bydrae tot militêre professionalisme in Suid-Afrika gelewer. Teen 1990 was hy reeds besig om hom gunstig te posisioneer om ook in die toekoms dié rol te kon speel. Hoewel 'n klein persentasie van die totale offisiersterkte, het die Akademie-graduandi geleidelik alle vlakke van die offisierskorps deurspek en sedert die vroeg-sewentigerjare die topposte in die SA Weermag gedomineer. Teen 1990 was hulle dus goed geplaas om 'n betekenisvolle rol in die voorbereiding van die Weermag vir die sogenaamde "Nuwe Suid-Afrika" te speel.

Die laat-Victoriaanse Mosselbaai 1870-1902

Scheffler, Helena Maria 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (PhD) -- Stellenbosch University, 1990. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The development of Mossel Bay was subject to the opening of passes accross the two mountain ranges between the coast and the interior of the country. As the harbour gradually became more accessible to its hinterland, the Karoo, imports and exports increased. The granting of municipal status in 1852 precipitated a period of growth and by 1871, the town even had its own newspaper. Until the mid eighties, Mossel Bay was an arid town with little vegetation and scarcely enough water for domestic use. The serious shortage of water hindered the inhabitants in almost every way. With the completion of a water scheme in 1886 whereby water was received from the Outeniqua mountains, not only was the town embellished by the planting of trees but the drains could be cleaned and the fires successfully extinguished. The Town Council had to deal with squatters, roaming dogs and other stray animals. The general hygienic conditions left much to be desired. The drains were dirty, sanitation poor, dumping sites unfavourably situated and until 1891, animals were slaughtered in town. Typhus and Bubonic Plague broke out in the late nineties. The town had its own doctor and pharmacist, while a dentist made sporadic visits. A Cottage Hospital was established. The crime rate was low and the judge of the Circuit Court often had no criminal cases to hear. Commercially a market was established and an unusually high number of wholesalers began trading in the bay. Three large hotels accommodated the many visitors. Travelling ph.o tographers visited regularly and at one stage Mossel Bay even had its own resident photographer. The Mossel Bay Advertiser made an important contribution in influencing public opinion and in participating in the struggle for obtaining a rail link. This struggle was the major issue of the time. The link was frequently promised but it was only the last assurance in 1895 that was ultimately honoured. Major development took place in Shipping: Steam cranes and steam tugs were acquired and large oceanliners called, first fortnightly and then weekly. In so doing, regular contact was established with England. However the Coode Report found that the bay was becoming shallower and for this reason harbour development was rejected. Immense dissatisfaction prevailed after steam ships began calling in on Sundays, thereby forcing the inhabitants to work on the Sabbath. With the completion of the railway lines linking Port Elizabeth and Cape Town to the diamond fields, these ports gradually took over the trade generated by the Karoo. The services of the steamship companies were curtailed in the nineties resulting in diminished trade. At the end of the decade, it was announced that the harbour would receive a new breakwater and wharf. The number of shipwrecks were relatively small in comparison with other places. After the completion of the Kleinbosch Water Scheme in 1886, the town was marketed as a watering place and health resort. Many holiday makers flocked to the bay to swim in the natural bathing place at the Point. Farmers from the interior began to camp near the beach at Diepkloof. After the introduction of a halfday holiday on Saturdays, sporting activities became popular and sports clubs were established. Societies enabled participants to spend their leisure time in a constructive manner. The contribution of the church was large. A few ministers held their posts for lengthy periods and left their stamp on the community. Education was characterised by the struggle between the state supported schools and those run by the church. Although small, the schools produced outstanding students. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Mosselbaai was aanvanklik moeilik van sy natuurlike hinterland, die Karoo, bereikbaar aangesien dit deur twee bergreekse van die binneland geskei word. Met die oopstelling van passe het die hawe algaande meer toeganklik geword en het die nedersetting, soos die in- en uitvoer toegeneem het, gegroei. Die Munisipaliteit is in 1852 gestig en daarna het die dorp in so 'n mate ontwikkel dat dit in 1871 'n koerant gehad het. Mosselbaai was tot in die middel tagtigerjare 'n droe, boomlose dorpie met skaars genoeg water vir huishoudelike gebruik. Die ernstige gebrek aan water het stremmend op bykans elke gebied ingewerk. Nadat water in 1886 van die Outeniekwaberge aangel~ is, kon die dorp nie slags verfraai word nie, maar kon afvoerslote gewas en brande met sukses geblus word. Die Dorpsraad het te kampe gehad met plakkers, loslopende diere. Die algemene higiene het veel rondloperhonde en ander te wense gelaat. Die afvoerslote was vuil, sanit~re geriewe swak, stortingsterreine ongunstig gelee en daar is tot in 1891 midde-in die dorp geslag. Tifus en builepes het in die negentigerjare uitgebreek. Die dorp het oor 'n geneesheer en apteker beskik en tandartse het sporadies op besoek gekom. 'n ·"cottage Hospital" is gestig. Die misdaadsyfer was laag en die regter van die Rondgaande Hof het dikwels geen strafsake gehad om te verhoor nie. Op sakegebied was daar 'n mark, 'n ongewoon hoe aantal groothandelaars en verskeie ander sakeondernemings. Drie groot hotelle het huisvesting aan besoekers verskaf. Reisende fotograwe het die dorp gereeld besoek en 'n dekade lank was daar ook 'n residensiele fotograaf. Die Mossel Bay Advertiser het 'n belangrike bydrae gelewer deur die openbare mening te be1nvloed. Die blad het eweneens 'n groot rol gespeel van die stryd om spoorverbinding, wat die grootste deel van Victoriaanse Tydperk gekenmerk het. Alhoewel 'n spoorlyn meermale is dit eers in 1895 toegestaan. ten opsigte die Laatbeloof is, Op maritieme gebied was daar groot ontwikkeling: stoomhyskrane en · -sleepbote is bekom en groot oseaanskepe het Mosselbaai tweeweekliks en later weekliks aangedoen en sodoende gereelde verbinding met Engeland bewerkstellig. Die Coode-verslag het egter bevind dat die baai besig was om vlakker te word en haweontwikkeling is afgekeur. Stoomskepe het op Sondae begin aandoen en het sodoende Sondagwerk op die inwoners afgedwing. Nadat die spoorweg tussen die Diamantveld en die hawestede Kaapstad en Port Elizabeth voltooi is, is Mosselbaai stadig as hawe vir die Groot Karoo verdring. In die negentigerjare is die diens van die stoomskiprederye ingekort, wat 'n geweldige slag vir die handel was. Aan die einde van die dekade is aangekondig dat die hawe 'n golfbreker en nuwe kaai sou kry. Alhoewel verskeie skepe deur die jare vergaan het , was dit min in vergelyking met die skipbreuke elders. Na die voltooiing van die Kleinbosch-waterskema in 1886 is die dorp as badplaas en gesondheidsoord bemark en het groot getalle vakansiegangers na die Baai gestroom om veral in die natuurlike swemsloep by die Punt te baai. Boere van die binneland het ook naby die strand by Diepkloof begin kampeer. Na die installing van 'n halfdagvakansie op Saterdae het sport groot aftrek geniet en is verskillende klubs gestig. Inwoners het ook by verskillende verenigings aangesluit om hul vryetyd op 'n opbouende wyse te verwyl. Op kerklike gebied het 'n paar leraars besonder lank op Mosselbaai gearbei en het veel tot die ontwikkeling van die gemeenskap bygedra. Die onderwys is gekenmerk deur 'n stryd tussen die staatsondersteunde skole en die van die kerke. Alhoewel klein, het die plaaslike skole goeie uitslae behaal en uitstekende studente opgelewer.

'Much to praise, much to blame in troubled times' : a history of educational performance at selected schools in Pietermaritzburg from the early 1908s to the mid 1990s.

Mkhulisi, Nhlanhla Alfred January 2000 (has links)
No abstract available. / Thesis (M.A.)-University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2000

The transfrontiersman : the career of John Dunn in Natal and Zululand 1834-1895.

Ballard, Charles Cameron. January 1980 (has links)
No abstract available. / Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of Natal, Durban, 1980.

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