Cities today are suffering from public dependence on the automobile and a tendency to sprawl. The preference afforded to privatized means of mobility and dwelling has diminished opportunities for interaction and exchange in the public realm. The role of public transportation infrastructure must be elevated to reconnect our fractured communities. To achieve this, the identity of place must be translated into infrastructure- something that is by definition a regularized system of support. Combining the utility of infrastructure and a contextual reading of place, stations have a unique opportunity to communicate to the public. One station simultaneously reflects the identity of the regional network, the particular line it is located along, and the neighborhood it serves. An investigation into the need for redesign of transportation infrastructure in New Orleans explores the relationship between the ephemeral experiences of mobility through a city of shifting identity. Stations designed along a local and an express line demonstrate an approach to transportation planning and design that reinforces local identity in order to redefine the city. / 0 / SPK / email@example.com
This thesis analyzes and discusses the development of the Swedish government’s role as owner and financier of roads and railroads from the 1930s until the 2010s. The influence on the development of the government’s role from two main theoretical paradigms is discussed and analyzed. These are: a) neoclassical and welfare economics; and b) new institutional economic theory with an organizational focus. The thesis shows that there has been a shift from an institutional view on the organization and financing of the road and railroad systems following the nationalization in the 1930-40s, to a view more based on welfare economics from the 1970s. Technology, economics and politics are three important factors influencing the development of the transport systems and of the government’s role. In the thesis these factors are covered in a co-evolutionary approach applied for analysis of the historical development. This approach connects to a dynamic view on organizations and firms in institutional theory. Over time there have been shifts in the strength of the factors (technology, economics and politics) influencing the development. There have also been controversies around financing principles and contradictions between different elements in the policies actually pursued over time. One such controversy has been whether to aim for full cost coverage or for marginal cost coverage. The thesis discusses how planning and coordination in the transport infrastructure sector can come about. A centralized public sector planner mode is contrasted towards a private sector spontaneous ordering mode. It is argued that it is difficult for a centralized planner to collect the necessary information and transform it into deepened knowledge in order to coordinate. A decentralized spontaneous ordering mode might though allow for including the necessary knowledge. The thesis illustrates a number of trade-offs that must be taken into consideration when discussing a possible future development for transport infrastructure and the government’s role. The following aspects are discussed: - the balance between public and private as the basic organizing principle; - the balance between government and regions/local governments when it comes to - the geographical division of responsibility; and - the balance between the national and EU levels for strategic transport infrastructure planning and coordination, also in relation to spontaneous coordination and centralized planning. The government has acted reluctantly and pragmatically and gradually developed its ownership role and the general policies in the sector. The government’s emphasis on market failure as its basic assumption has become stronger over time. The thesis brings a deepened understanding of the long-term development of the government’s ownership and policy formation in the transport infrastructure sector in relation to the two theoretical paradigms. This combination of a historical view with the theoretical economic background gives new insights into the past and future of the government’s role for transport infrastructure. / <p>QC 20130614</p>
Civic spaces are designed in the absence of the people they most greatly impact. Conventional engagement efforts consist of formalities such as community meetings that deny participants the agency of hand-making and are built upon relationships of obligation. This runs contrary to a body of research that positions hand-making and solidarity as elemental to human nature: Matthew Crawford equates explorations of “manual engagement” to existential questioning, 1 and Karl Marx saw collaboration as integral to our “species character.” 2 The potential outcomes of this disconnect are undignified spaces that fail to accommodate the most basic human needs. 3 This thesis offers a model of praxis to challenge this disconnect. Nadia Anderson writes that praxis is focused on “process and action” 4 as opposed to products, while Marx characterized praxis as the union of thinking and social practice. 5 Accordingly, this model of praxis is composed of two parts. First, an engagement toolkit implemented in a real community; and second, an architectural proposal developed alongside a partner organization. In New Orleans, the disconnect between users and the creation of civic space is manifested in public transit. The RTA (Regional Transit Authority) bus system converges at a few critical intersections in the city’s Central Business District. Each day, thousands of riders must transfer at these stops, despite a lack of adequate seating, shade, and other basic amenities. 6 Currently, the RTA is conducting a feasibility study for a downtown transit hub. In partnership with Ride New Orleans, a local advocacy group, this thesis will deploy a community engagement toolkit that will enable transit riders to shape the design a dignified transit hub. / 0 / SPK / firstname.lastname@example.org
The Reluctant Infrastructure Manager : 70 Years of Government Ownership of Transport Infrastructure in SwedenHasselgren, Björn January 2013 (has links)
Governments have a choice whether to intervene in the transport infrastructure sector to manage, finance and organize and sometimes own the assets of the sector or to rely on markets and private sector actors for the provision of these systems. In Sweden, like in most other countries, the government has, since the 19th century, gradually taken a more active role both for railroads and roads, including most of the roles outlined above. From the 1840s, railroads and a more modern road system developed based on a mix of government and private/local government initiatives. A step towards centralization was taken in the 1930-40s, as the private- and local government-owned railroads and rural public roads, a majority of the total system, were taken over (nationalized) by the State. The government still owns these assets. In this paper, the development of railroad and road infrastructure is analyzed based on a co-evolutionary perspective, including the influence of technology, economics and politics. The perspective is used in order to facilitate an understanding and explanation of the successive steps that led to the decision to nationalize railroads and roads. The following time periods up to 2010 are also analyzed with the perspective as a relief. Based on a study primarily of the public documents of the time it is argued that the nationalization can be seen as a more or less logical step in a process of centralization that had been going on since the mid-1800s. Business economics rationality and cost reduction were important arguments for nationalization. Arguments in favor of the nationalization were that it was seen as a modernization of the sector, which also allowed for the introduction of new technology and a reduction of differences in road taxes. Welfare economics reasoning and discussions on natural monopolies were, however, not the focus. It is further argued that the government waited for some time to take the final steps to nationalize the railroads and roads. The government entered the scene as a rather reluctant infrastructure manager. The Parliament’s 1963 decision on transport policy, which is generally seen as among the most important policy decisions in the sector since the 1940s, might, it is argued, have been given a too important role. However, it is argued that the proposals put forward by the 1944 Transport Committee, which were never formally decided upon, were perhaps more influential. These proposals were largely market-friendly within the framework of the government ownership and financing model. The railroad and road systems should be run more or less as private businesses within this framework, with a focus on business economics efficiency, a full cost responsibility, and a competition view on the transport market. The transport policy decision was formally approved in 1963, and it was largely based on the principles of the 1944 Transport Committee. These policies opened for a further restructuring of the transport sector, including transport infrastructure. The road system was expanded, while the railroads contracted, suffering from high costs and a decreasing market. There was, however, a gradually growing criticism towards both the planning practices and new construction programs for the road system, and against the effects the policies seemed to have for the railroad system. The transport polices were changed during the 1970s. The 1979 Parliamentary decision on a revised transport policy brought a formal end to the policies based on market forces, competition and business economics, all of which were features of the 1963 decision. The new management philosophy was based on welfare economics, which should be the new basis for transport infrastructure and transport policies when it came to planning, management and pricing/taxation. An interesting phase in the historical development of transport policy was a return in the 1988 Parliamentary decision to a goal structure closer to the earlier (1963) formulation of transport policies. In a following decision in 1998, another turn was made, which has since established welfare economics as the basis for transport infrastructure policies. The principles set in the 1940s, with a firm base in a “cost responsibility principle” and a business economics perspective on transport infrastructure combined with government ownership and financing, was finally shifted to more of a welfare economics basis during the 1980-90s. This was, it is argued, a way of reflecting a more active political agenda with new goals for transport policy. The policy shift was combined with deregulation and some privatization steps from the 1980s onwards. If the former policies might be seen as expressing a contradiction between government ownership and business economics, the new policies made a contradiction between deregulation and more developed and wider political goals in combination with welfare economics obvious. The government might be seen having gone from reluctance to contradiction as the basic stance of its policies as owner of railroads and roads. / <p> 20130614</p>
Deriving and validating performance indicators for safety mobility for older road users in urban areasRackliff, Lucy January 2013 (has links)
This thesis derives and validates Performance Indicators for Safe Mobility for Older Road Users in Urban Areas. Performance Indicators are objective, auditable parameters, which when used as a set can provide additional information to decision-makers about the operation of the transport system. Great Britain, in common with many countries across Europe has an ageing population. The proportion of older people who hold a driving licence and have the use of a car is also expected to rise, with future generations of older people travelling further and more frequently than previous generations. Older road users are already over-represented in traffic fatalities, particularly in urban areas. Measures to protect older road users from risk in traffic will be of crucial importance as the population ages. However, against this background the need remains for them to access key facilities such as shops, leisure activities and health care. Maintaining independent mobility is essential in maintaining mental and physical health. Traditionally, outcomes-based measures such as accident or casualty figures have been used to monitor road safety. Techniques such as hotspot analysis have identified locations on the road network where accident numbers are high, allowing modifications to road infrastructure to be designed and implemented. Using outcomes measures alone however, it is difficult to ascribe improvements in accident or casualty figures to particular policy interventions. Moreover, the effect of road safety interventions on other related policy areas mobility being one is impossible to assess without access to detailed, disaggregated exposure data. To make fully informed policy decisions about infrastructure design and how it affects older users, a better understanding of the linkages between safety and mobility is required. Performance Indicators offer the possibility to look at these linked policy objectives within a single framework. Focus group data was used in conjunction with the results of previous studies to identify the infrastructure features which present a barrier to older users safe mobility in urban areas. These included factors which increased risk, such as wide carriageways, complex junctions and fast-moving traffic, and factors which hindered mobility, such as uneven or poorly maintained pavements, poor lighting and traffic intrusion. A thematic audit of infrastructure in a case study city (Coventry) was undertaken, in order that the incidence of such infrastructure could be recorded. It was found that in many areas of the city, safe mobility for older road users was not well provided for, with the majority of locations having barriers to safety and/or mobility for both drivers and pedestrians. The audit data was then used to calculate a set of Performance Indicators, presented via spider graphs, which describe the degree to which the infrastructure caters for the safety and mobility of older drivers and pedestrians. The spider graphs allow for easy comparisons between the different geographical areas, and also between the different policy areas, allowing policy priorities to be identified. The calculated Performance Indicators were validated using case studies collected from the focus group participants. The case studies identified features that affected travel habits by causing a change of route or change of mode, providing evidence of the link between infrastructure design and safe mobility for older users. The results of the Performance Indicator analysis were then compared to accident figures, in order to identify differences between the two approaches, and to understand what policy implications would result from a monitoring framework that used Performance Indicators for safe mobility, rather than outcomes-based measures alone. One implication of the Performance Indicator approach is that it may identify different areas for priority action from those identified by accident or casualty figures. A location which does not have high accident numbers may nevertheless perform poorly on a Safety Performance Indicator measure. This is because older users who feel at risk make different route or mode choices to avoid the infrastructure, the lower accident rate being explained by lower exposure to risk. Conversely, measures to promote independent mobility for older users may increase their accident involvement, not because the environment becomes more risky, but because the exposure of older users to risk increases, because they are willing and able to walk or drive in an area they previously avoided. The thesis concludes that infrastructure design does not currently cater well for the needs of older pedestrians and drivers, and that a framework which incorporated Performance Indicators could make more explicit the trade-offs between safety and mobility, and between different categories of user. This additional information would enable policy makers and practitioners to make more informed decisions about how to prioritise competing objectives in complex urban areas.
Elaboración de una guía como propuesta de mejora al Plan de Compensación y Reasentamiento Involuntario (PACRI) para proyectos de infraestructura de transporte en Lima Metropolitana / Elaboration of a guide as a proposal for improvement to the Compensation and Involuntary Resettlement (PACRI) for transport infrastructure projects in Lima MetropolitanaGamarra Chumbiauca, Carlos Alberto, Rondinel Cardenas, Patrick 28 October 2019 (has links)
El inicio de la ejecución de proyectos de infraestructura de transporte en Lima Metropolitana ha presentado retrasos; y en muchos de los casos, se ha visto paralizado por la oposición de los expropiados por dejar sus predios, lo cual ha imposibilitado la adquisición parcial y/o total de estos. Esta problemática reside en la deficiente elaboración del Plan de Compensación y Reasentamiento Involuntario (PACRI) que se ha implementado en los proyectos de estudio de la presente tesis: La Ampliación del Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez, Línea 2 y Ramal Av. Faucett; y la Ampliación de la Autopista Ramiro Prialé, los cuales han mostrado un significativo retraso de su ejecución tras un conflicto constante entre población afectada y la entidad ejecutora del PACRI. Como propuesta de solución, se elaboró una guía dirigida a proyectos de infraestructura de transporte en Lima Metropolitana, la cual brindará un procedimiento uniforme para la elaboración y posterior implementación del PACRI a partir del uso de buenas prácticas y aplicación de herramientas de gestión, a fin de garantizar el bienestar socioeconómico y cultural de los expropiados. Para su validación, se procedió a un juicio de expertos en el área de estudio con la finalidad de extraer una retroalimentación de la propuesta de guía obteniendo una mejora del plan compuesto por tres fases: formulación, implementación y expost, las cuales pretenderán velar por el bienestar de la población afectada, minimizando los impactos negativos que puedan generar los proyectos y mejorar la calidad de vida de los mismos después del reasentamiento. / The beginning of the execution of transport infrastructure projects in Metropolitan Lima has presented delays; and in many of the cases, it has been paralyzed by the opposition of the expropriated ones for leaving their properties, which has made partial and / or total acquisition of these impossible. This problem lies in the deficient preparation of the Involuntary Compensation and Resettlement Plan (PACRI) that has been implemented in the study projects of this thesis: The Expansion of the Jorge Chávez International Airport, Line 2 and Av. Faucett Branch; and the Extension of the Ramiro Prialé Highway, which have shown a significant delay in their execution following a constant conflict between the affected population and the executing agency of the PACRI. As a solution proposal, a guide was developed for transport infrastructure projects in Lima Metropolitana, which will provide a uniform procedure for the development and subsequent implementation of PACRI based on the use of good practices and implementation of management tools to ensure the socio-economic and cultural well-being of expropriated people. For its validation, a judgement of experts in the area of study was carried out in order to extract a feedback of the proposed guide obtaining an improvement of the plan composed of three phases: formulation, implementation and expost, which will aim ensure the well-being of the affected population, minimizing the negative impacts that projects can generate and improving their quality of life after resettlement. / Tesis
Enhancing integrated transport planning: A spatial multi-criteria analysis approach to the MyCiTi integrated rapid transit system, South AfricaBarendse, Caro-Joy January 2016 (has links)
Since the birth of the automobile in 1886, its popularity amongst people has risen dramatically owing to the freedom, comfort, speed, safety and unique designs offered by this mode of transport. 2014 saw approximately 71.15 million units of new vehicle sales globally, showing that private car usage is still on the rise. Rapid degradation of the environment and slumped economic growth can be attributed to the automobilecentric transport system. Raised environmental and social awareness has driven campaigns to promote greener modes of transport instead, such as public and nonmotorised transportation. This has seen the introduction of BRT systems in South African cities however; fully integrated transport systems are yet to be achieved. Thus there is a dire need for a design support tool that is adequately capable of processing built environment characteristics in the development of a BRT feeder network that is fully appreciative of the influence of NMT and the urban fabric, and is thus appropriate to the needs of the community it is trying to serve. This study comprised the application of two Spatial Multi-Criteria based methodologies in which a list of built environment characteristics and public transport demand formed the inputs for the analyses. The analysis produced a composite suitability map for each approach, in which each pixel represented the appropriateness of having a BRT feeder route located in that respective pixel. Routes between O-D pairs identified were solved by carrying out a least cost path assessment based on the mean impedance values along the existing road network. The routes developed were compared to the MyCiTi feeder bus routes using Key Performance Indicators established in this research to determine whether this study was successful in producing an enhanced BRT feeder route planning tool. Apart from one route, the set of feeder routes developed for each approach were exactly the same with the second method producing lower average impedance values per kilometre thus it was deemed stronger. When compared to the MyCiTi feeder routes, similar operational efficiencies were achieved with respect to average travel time, coverage and directness. However; the study methodologies provided a greater level of NMT planning inclusion and consideration of environmental factors. Furthermore; it achieved this in a systematic and transparent manner, providing immensely powerful benefits for transportation planners in the public sector. This study was successful in demonstrating that SMCA combined with the Network Analyst tool in ArcGIS has the ability to enhance the quality and appropriateness of BRT feeder routes, whilst achieving acceptable operational efficiencies. The results could further be improved by incorporating more data on local NMT trends and behaviour. Furthermore; this tool can be applied to solving pedestrian, bicycle and other public transport routing problems.
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Diss. (sammanfattning) Linköping : Linköpings universitet, 2006. / Härtill 5 uppsatser.
08 June 2015
China’s mega-regions, in addition to cities and metropolitan areas, have become the engines for economic development, and the target areas for regional and national policies. Reflecting upon China’s current path of regional urbanization, the proposed research examines a fundamental issue for China’s megaregional development: the impact of transport network development on the spatial pattern of China’s megaregions. Using the multiple national Censuses (1982, 1990, 2000, 2010) and the transport network GIS data in the corresponding years, this research 1) constructs measures of megaregional spatial patterns, 2) assesses the spatial trajectory of megaregional growth based on the differentiated growth rates of metropolitan cities, 3) computes indicators of megaregional transport network connectivity and accessibility, 4) examines the impacts of transportation infrastructure on megaregional growth trajectory. This research helps understand the spatial structure of China’s megaregions with newly constructed quantitative measures of polycentric spatial development, as well as the intra-megaregion and inter-megaregion variation of transport network in China. It also clarifies the link between transport infrastructure and megaregional spatial structure in China’s unique context by providing quantitative evaluation of the implications of transport investment for the spatial pattern in Chinese megaregions. Finally it enriches the megaregional solutions to China’s vision of economic, social and environmental sustainability.
In October 2000 the Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America (IIRSA) was launched. The purpose of the IIRSA is to improve integration of the South American countries and intraregional trade between them. One of the ultimate goals is to promote sustainable growth. The purpose of this paper is to find out if a better quantity and quality of transport infrastructure increases intraregional trade in South America. It is found that the quantity of transport infrastructure increases intraregional trade. On the other hand, there is no evidence for the quality of transport infrastructure increasing intraregional trade in South America. Furthermore, this paper investigates whether economic growth can be obtained through more trade. In other words, this paper examines if trade causes growth. The results do not confirm the trade-growth causality for all countries. The difference between the existence of a trade-growth causal relationship or not could be explained by the core commodities that the different South American countries export.
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