Aborokbah, Majed Mohammeda
This thesis investigates empirically multimodal socially interactive e-commerce interfaces. The overall hypothesis is that multimodal social interaction will improve the usability of e-commerce interfaces and increase the user‘s feeling of social presence, decision making and product understanding when compared to an equivalent non-multimodal socially interactive interface. The investigation consisted eight conditions in three experimental phases. The first experimental phase investigated non-socially interactive, static-socially interactive, and interactive-socially interactive interfaces (three conditions) using an e-commerce platform with a dependent sample of users (n=36). The second experimental phase continued with the comparative evaluation of a further two conditions based on the results of the first phase. An audio and an avatar-based socially interactive conditions were evaluated with two independent groups of users (n=18 for each group). The third experimental phase investigated three socially interactive conditions. These were text with graphics, auditory stimuli, and avatars. The results demonstrate that socially interactive metaphors in e-commerce interfaces improved the ability of users to use presented information effectively, make decisions in comparison to non-social or static social interactive interfaces. An avatar-based socially interactive e-commerce interface improved the user‘s social presence. A set of empirically derived guidelines for the design and use of these metaphors to communicate information in a socially interactive atmosphere is also introduced and discussed.
In the field of Human computer interaction, currently aesthetics has become one of the most frequently research dimension. Most of the researchers have found the correlation between aesthetics and usability, while some other could not discover the correlation between aesthetics and usability. This irregularity to find the correlation between aesthetics andusability makes to further research on this topic.Also based on the previous studies and empirical analysis, it is unclear the factors and issues that are affecting usability and aesthetics while analyzing the correlation. This thesis clearly discusses about the previous empirical studies on aesthetics and usability, methods followed by authors to find the correlation and the results obtained by the authors. In this study, systematic review method  was followed to extract the knowledge from the databases (ACM and Science Direct). Two persons have participated in the review and 13 articles from 1995-2012 are taken into the study. Three research questions are discussed in detail to analyze the correlation between aesthetics and usability and the factors affecting the correlation between aesthetics and usability. Finally this study is concluded, by discussing the reasons for irregularity in the correlation results.
Web-Based Drawing Tool in GWT with Usability Testing and Usability Evaluation / Webbaserat ritningsverktyg i GWT med användartester och användbarhets utvärderingBjelkenstedt, Alf January 2014 (has links)
On behalf of Inspectera HK AB in Norrköping a web-based drawing tool has been developed in Java, mainlywith the library Google Web Toolkit (GWT). The purpose of this tool is to facilitate both the staff's at Inspecteraand their client's work with different types of drawings such as blueprints for pest control, fire protection andespecially drawings of the company's e-service of self-checks. Besides developing the drawing tool usabilitytesting and a usability evaluation has been performed.
Howarth, Jonathan R.
18 May 2004
Increasing the usability of software by integrating usability engineering into the development cycle has become common practice. Although usability engineering is effective, it can be expensive, and organizations want to receive the best possible returns on their investments. Oftentimes, however, organizations spend large sums of money collecting usability problem data through activities such as usability testing, but do not receive acceptable returns on those investments during redesign. The primary reason is that there is an almost complete lack of methods and tools for usability problem data analysis to transform raw usability data into effective inputs for developers. In this thesis, we develop an infrastructure for usability problem data analysis to address the need for better returns on usability engineering investments. The infrastructure consists of four main components: a framework, a process, tools, and semantic analysis technology. Embedded within the infrastructure is the User Action Framework, a conceptual framework of usability concepts, which is used to organize usability data. The process addresses extraction of usability problems from raw usability data, diagnosis of problems according to usability concepts, and reporting of problems in a form that is usable by developers. The tools leverage the framework and guide practitioners through the process, while the semantic analysis technology supplements the capabilities of the tools to automate parts of the process. / Master of Science
Usability and Reliability of the User Action Framework: A Theoretical Foundation for Usability Engineering ActivitiesSridharan, Sriram 18 December 2001 (has links)
Various methods exist for performing usability evaluations, but there is no systematic framework for guiding and structuring assessment and reporting activities (Andre et al., 2000). Researchers at Virginia Tech have developed a theoretical foundation called the User Action Framework (UAF), which is an adaptation and extension of Norman's action model (1986). The main objective of developing the User Action Framework was to provide usability practitioners with a reliable and structured tool set for usability engineering support activities like classifying and reporting usability problems. In practice, the tool set has a web-based interface, with the User Action Framework serving as an underlying foundation. To be an effective classification and reporting tool, the UAF should be usable and reliable. This work addressed two important research activities to help determine the usability and reliability of the User Action Framework. First, we conducted a formative evaluation of the UAF Explorer, a component of the UAF, and its content. This led a re-design effort to fix these problems and to provide an interface that resulted in a more efficient and satisfying user experience. Another purpose of this research was to conduct a reliability study to determine if the User Action Framework showed significantly better than chance agreement when usability practitioners classified a given set of usability problem descriptions according to the structure of the UAF. The User Action Framework showed higher agreement scores compared to previous work using the tool. / Master of Science
Mahajan, Reenal R.
15 July 2003
Usability evaluation results in several usability problems and the non-UE developer is often not a part of the evaluation as it might deter the participant from reporting all the errors and also, conducting usability evaluation is a usability engineer's responsibility. Thus the evaluator needs to create unambiguous usability problem reports, which will help the developer fix the usability problems. This research involves the development and evaluation of the Usability Problem Diagnosis tool, which supports problem diagnosis through analysis and storage in a common database shared between the evaluation and the development team. This tool uses the User Action Framework as an underlying knowledge base to support problem diagnosis. / Master of Science
07 May 2010
In my thesis I discuss the cost effectiveness of usability testing of technical documents and how any size company with any size budget can implement usability testing. Usability is achieved when the people who use products or technical documents can do so quickly and easily to accomplish their own tasks. Usability testing is best defined as the process of studying users to determine a documentation projectÂ s effectiveness for its intended audience. Users are tired of dealing with confusing and unintuitive technical documentation that forces them to either call customer service for help on simple issues or throw out the product in favor of one that is more usable or provides better technical documentation. That is why all technical communicators should include usability testing as part of the technical documentation production cycle. To help technical communicators understand the importance of usability testing, I discuss the cost effectiveness of usability testing and share ways that companies with large budgets and companies with small budgets can begin incorporating usability testing. Then I provide information on all the steps that are necessary for technical communicators to implement usability testing of technical documentation at their company. Options are presented for everything from bare minimum usability testing with a shoe-string budget with pencils, note pads, and only a handful of users to full scale usability testing in large laboratories with the latest equipment and a wide variety of users. The research provides examples from real companies, advice from experienced technical communicators and usability experts, and research demonstrating how many resources are truly required to benefit from usability testing. By showing technical communicators that usability testing is cost effective and that there are many options for implementing usability testing no matter how large or small their budget is, I hope to empower technical communicators to start including usability testing as part of the documentation production cycle at their companies. / M.A. / Department of English / Arts and Humanities / English MA
Användbarhet för barn : En kvalitativ studie av SVT Play med fokus på användbarhet för barn i åldern 10-12 år / Usability for children : A qualitative study of SVT Play focusing on usability for children aged 10-12Kjellberg, Thomas, Lavrell, Mikael January 2010 (has links)
This thesis investigates in which way principles and theories of usability is revelant when evaluating interactive systems for children aged 10-12. It also investigates whether there are specific factors that you should keep in mind while developing interactive products for the targeted group.The results of the qualitative study shows that priciples and theories of usability is relevant when evaluating interactive systems for the targeted group. However there is one concept that is more significant than the others. Our study shows that our targeted group is sensitive to time-consuming activities such as loading times etc. which has to do with the efficiency of the system. In the analysis of our empirical data we distinguished four factors of importance when developing interactive products. The system should help the user in terms of navigation and information retrieval. The system should consider the users exploratory behaviour by avoiding too many focal points in informative systems. The system should, in a distictive manner, visualize loading times etc. as the targeted group may accuse the system for being disfuntional. The system should only let the user make sensible decisions. Otherwise annoyance and confusion may occur. / Denna C-uppsats undersöker på vilket sätt användbarhetsprinciper och teorier är relevanta vid utvärdering av interaktiva system med målgruppen barn 10-12 år. Den undersöker även om det finnsf aktorer som är viktiga att tänka på när man ska utveckla en interaktiv produkt för vår målgrupp. För att besvara dessa frågeställningar har vi genomfört en kvalitativ studie med hjälp av observation och användartest. Studien visar på att användbarhetsprinciper och teorier som finns idag även kan användas för utvärdering av system för vår målgrupp men det finns begrepp och attribut som har mer relevans än andra. Effektivitet som är ett begrepp taget ur ursprungsdefinitionen av användbarhet är enligt vår studie det viktigaste begreppet, detta för att vår målgrupp är uppenbart känsliga för tidskrävande aktiviteter som t.ex. laddningstider. I analysen av vår studie uppmärksammade vi fyra faktorer som är viktiga att tänka på vid utveckling av interaktiva system för vår målgrupp. Dessa fyra är att: Systemet bör hjälpa användaren i navigation och informationssökning för att på så sätt minimera antalet fel. Systemet bör ta hänsyn till användarnas explorativa beteende genom att undvika för mångafokuspunkter i informativa system. Systemet bör vara visuellt tydligt med att visa laddningstider och dylikt då målgruppen annars kan beskylla systemet för att ej fungera. Systemet bör överlåta alla val till användaren. Så fort användaren upplever att ett val inte är medvetet så skapas irritation och förvirring.
01 April 2008
The formative study investigated health information for seniors on the Internet with consideration of usability of the selected system, user's perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, system use, and performance, i.e. information retention. A theoretical model was developed by the researcher, i.e. JAM's Senior Health Information Technology Acceptance Model, as an enhanced version of the traditional Davis Technology Acceptance Model. The new model provided the critical relationship between the senior health information system and other technology acceptance components. Computer self-efficacy was added to the hypothetical model to better explain the seniors' technology usage and performance. The hypotheses and the research plan included: four professional experts, who assessed the site for usability, and 68 of 145 seniors who began the survey completed a three-part senior participant survey. Data was collected by a third party and the author. Implications for seniors, professionals, and society are presented. The senior population is the subject of the research. Professionals working with seniors, the Internet, health information, and technology acceptance are served by the formative study to further clarify the relationship of the issues. The topic is considered a societal issue as a large segment of the population is composed of seniors. Their welfare and interests impact society and other generations. The results suggested computer self-efficacy is irrelevant for perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness however self-efficacy contributed to information retention. Usability affects perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. There is a highly significant, though not very strong, relation between those variables. Perceived usefulness is a good indicator of a return visit to the site and senior recommendations of the site to others. These are two new variables that were not included in the model. There is no relationship between usability and computer self-efficacy. There was significance between usability and system use, but little relevance has pointed toward information retention (IR). The results of the analysis suggest that the hypothesized model information retention level did not predict senior IR based on human factor professionals' and senior users' usability ratings. Attrition according to qualitative feedback was the result of browser and equipment issues, ease of use and navigation. Future research endeavors should be devoted to usability and use of other systems for the senior population. / Ph.D. / Department of Educational Research, Technology and Leadership / Education / Education PhD
Al Fawwaz, Bader Methqal
In the Information and Communications Technology era, eGovernment projects present a great opportunity for governments to offer better and quicker services to their users from the public. However, the success and the failure of these projects to achieve the expected goals depend heavily on some important aspects, mainly websites usability. The research in this thesis focuses on the usability of eGovernment websites in Jordan as a case study, as it is one of the developing countries facing problems due to websites usability. Hence, the main aim of the research was to investigate the situation of the Jordanian eGovernment websites with a view to improving usability, as well as to propose a roadmap to reinforce websites usability in order to achieve better utilisation and a more successful eGovernment project in Jordan. This research work achievement and major contributions have been accomplished through three stages; the first stage investigated the level of usability of eGovernment in Jordan from a manager‟s perspective. The study for this stage involved a sample of 37 managers who are in charge of managing and maintaining eGovernment projects in Jordan. The research revealed that the main problems undermining Jordanian eGovernment usability are the lack of the general usability awareness amongst management, the lack of clear usability standards and guidelines, the insufficient level of end-user involvement in the process of design and maintenance of eGovernment services, limited budgets and the lack of expert web-designers. The second stage was to build a clear overview about the status of eGovernment websites usability in Jordan by investigating main aspects related to design that affect the success of eGovernment websites in Jordan from an end-user‟s perspective. The study for this stage involved 155 participants for testing five Jordanian eGovernment websites. It was revealed that the Jordanian eGovernment websites generally do not have a high level of usability, and that there is a lack of understanding of the needs and requirements of the end-users. In addition, the study discovered a lack of testing and monitoring of the websites, a lack of involvement of end-users, poor collaboration and coordination among government agencies, poor standardisation, and lack of trust/satisfaction. The outcome from the early mentioned studies was used in the third stage, which has been used to establish the model to improve the usability of eGovernment websites in Jordan through a clear roadmap. The model has four components: website manager and designer, end-users, usability committee (advisory, executive), design process (usability requirements, pre-implementation test, post-implementation and maintenance). The model which was established and evaluated can be very beneficial for promoting eGovernment websites usability, in Jordan particularly and in other countries with similar backgrounds and situations.
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