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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Waste minimization in Hong Kong households and offices how individuals can create less waste in their every day lives and how different organizations can provide implementation support /

Lai, Wan-kay, Irene. January 2005 (has links)
Thesis (M. Sc.)--University of Hong Kong, 2005. / Title proper from title frame. Also available in printed format.

Transforming rubbish into nourishment in a no man's land : food wastage and recycling in Hong Kong /

Wong, Man-yee, January 2001 (has links)
Thesis (M. Journ.)--University of Hong Kong, 2001. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 35-36).

Transforming rubbish into nourishment in a no man's land food wastage and recycling in Hong Kong /

Wong, Man-yee, January 2001 (has links)
Thesis (M.Journ.)--University of Hong Kong, 2001. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 35-36). Also available in print.

Effective litter reduction

Levin, Elizabeth Morris January 2006 (has links)
Thesis (M.A. )--Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, 2006. / Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 45-06, page: 2924. Typescript. Abstract precedes thesis as 2 leaves (iii-iv). Includes bibliographical references (leaves 99-102).

Waste minimization in Hong Kong households and offices: how individuals can create less waste in their every daylives and how different organizations can provide implementationsupport

Lai, Wan-kay, Irene., 黎蘊琪. January 2005 (has links)
published_or_final_version / abstract / Architecture / Master / Master of Science in Interdisciplinary Design and Management

From awareness to action in sustainable waste management : a case study on waste reduction education to foreign domestic helpers in Hong Kong

So, Yin-fong, Yvonne, 蘇燕芳 January 2013 (has links)
Solving the waste problem is one of the most challenging environmental missions for Hong Kong. Currently, the amount of waste generated has reached an unsustainable level. Hong Kong’s domestic waste disposal rate is significantly higher than other international cities like Tokyo, Taipei City and Seoul. With present trends, this mounting waste has been filled up the three landfill sites at a rate much faster than anticipated. Hong Kong SAR Government is hoping to expand the landfill site and build incinerator(s). However, these plans have not been well-received by the public. Waste reduction at source would be a significant alternative for Hong Kong instead. Environmental education (EE) is a vital component of achieving sustainable waste management. This is the best strategy to help reduce waste at source. Among all the targeted trainees, it is found that little local and international research has been done on the potential role of Foreign Domestic Helpers (FDHs) in waste management. FDHs make up a significant proportion of the Hong Kong population. They are one of the best candidates to learn and implement sustainable waste management in the households. Thus, this study looks into the current EE to FDHs and analyses how to send green message among FDHs in an effective way. A framework of indicators for an effective waste reduction education program to FDHs is constructed as to help evaluate the performance of EE providers for FDHs. Information regarding current EE to FDHs is obtained from reviewing publicly available information and by conducting in-depth interviews with related personnel and stakeholders. To reconfirm the need and importance of providing EE to FDHs, a questionnaire survey to FDHs is developed and a pilot EE program to FDHs is designed and implemented. This study found that the current EE to FDHs is inadequate and ineffective. The knowledge of FDHs in waste reduction is not comprehensive and few of them have had green housekeeping habits. Through providing appropriate training incorporating the indicators identified, FDHs are enabled to proceed from having the right awareness to taking action in the households. The success of the pilot EE program to FDHs also gave us an insight into the importance of adequate and quality EE to the community. It is hoped that the suggestions being put forward in this study can guide Hong Kong in achieving the target of zero waste. / published_or_final_version / Environmental Management / Master / Master of Science in Environmental Management

Enhancing waste reduction in Hong Kong : a review on waste separation

Tang, Yan-yi, 鄧欣宜 January 2014 (has links)
Waste management is always a headache to the policy makers to tackle with nowadays as we are generating more waste than the past generations. Landfill is the only disposal method in Hong Kong since the early of the 1990s and the three strategic landfills are going to be filled. Therefore, the quantity-based waste charging is going to be implemented in the near future in order to reduce waste generation. A complementary recycling system is a must to complete the newly proposed waste management policy to reduce waste volume. There are some obvious problems existing in the current recycling efforts, which hinder the success of waste separation for recycling so as to reduce waste generation. As a result, it is important to review the current Programme on Source Separation of Domestic Waste. Moreover, a successful waste separation programme for waste reduction requires fulfilling the criteria in the aspects of Recycling Facilities/Services, Public Education & Promotion and Statutory Requirement & Complementary Policy. Based on the survey results, 40% of the current recycling facilities are inconvenient or inconvenient at all and most of the respondents think that there are insufficient recycling facilities in the territory. Nearly 70% of them agree or fully agree to implement mandatory waste separation and more than a half of them prefer to fine each non-compliance below $500. Moreover, the majority of the respondents suggest that the incentives for them to recycle are not enough or not enough at all, which take up 55% of the total. And 60% of them agree or fully agree to reward people who recycle. From the site visit, it is obvious that the public abuses the roadside 3-coloured bins especially in the Hong Kong Island and the New Territories. Meanwhile, the misuse of the recycling bins leads to the cleanness problem. The tendered contractors are not doing well in terms of emptying and locking the 3-coloured bins. There are fewer problems arising from the recycling facilities or bins collecting other recyclables as these recycling bins are designed for collecting specific types of recyclables and they are not adjacent to the rubbish bins. Also, the centers for collecting bulky recyclables have management staff to collect the recyclables. According to the reply from the Environmental Protection Department, there are many monitoring works to ensure the services quality provided by the service contractors. However, it is questionable that it can maintain the performance of the contractors. Since there are increasing complaints on the unsatisfactory performance of the service contractors. As a result, the Government should review the current Programme on Source Separation of Domestic Waste in accordance with recommendations proposed in the scopes of Physical Enhancement to Recycling Facilities/Services, Education and Promotion and Policy Recommendations, including increasing the convenience and availability of the recycling facilities and the range of separation; implementing compulsory environmental education and improving the promotion on waste separation; implementing complementary policy and regulations for waste separation, monitoring the performance of waste separation and providing incentives to encourage recycling. / published_or_final_version / Environmental Management / Master / Master of Science in Environmental Management

Optimization of a manufacturing process for atrazine with a focus on waste minimization

Mtyopo, Mteteleli Bethwell January 2004 (has links)
Chemical synthesis is not complete without waste treatment. There is no chemical process that does not produce waste. The untreated effluent discharged by chemical industries poses a major environmental concern. This dissertation describes the results of an investigation carried out on the formation of by-products (impurities) during the synthesis of atrazine by neutralization of the reaction mixture during the actual synthesis procedure, and prior to disposal using carbon dioxide or hydrochloric acid. The main objectives for the said investigation were: {u100083} To optimise the reaction parameters to obtain a higher yield and purity of atrazine. {u100083} To evaluate the use of carbon dioxide and hydrochloric acid to neutralise the reaction mixture. {u100083} To study the solids present in the effluent. Synthetic reactions were carried out in the presence of an organic solvent, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The synthesis of atrazine was optimised in terms of addition sequence and rates of amine reagents and base (proton acceptor) additions by means of bench scale reactions. It was found that addition of a neutralising step (hydrochloric acid or carbon dioxide) to neutralise the basic reaction mixture prior to and after addition of the secondary amine and the base minimizes the formation of by-products. Of particular importance in ensuring high yields and selectivity to the atrazine product was temperature control, pH control, reagent ratios, addition rates and mixing. The latter was important in view of the rapid reaction of amine/NaOH with cyanuric chloride, as well as the possible reaction of mono-i, the reaction intermediate, with IPA in cases of excesses of reagent. Under optimum conditions, an atrazine composition of >97% was achieved where the resultant product was well within stipulated product specifications.

Legislative support for waste reduction initiatives /

Liu, Wai-leung. January 1997 (has links)
Thesis (M. Sc.)--University of Hong Kong, 1997. / Includes bibliographical references (leaf 60-67).

Waste minimisation at an air-conditioning company.

January 2003 (has links)
Waste minimisation involves reducing waste (emissions, effluent, solid waste) in companies, at source. v 7, 8 Its benefits include cost savings, environmental improvement, increased throughput and risk and liability reduction. 7, 8, 13 Through implementation of a structured waste minimisation programme, companies can identify waste minimisation opportunities: broad focus areas that will benefit from a more detailed waste minimisation assessment. More specific waste minimisation solutions can then be identified. In this study, the waste minimisation opportunity was identified by the company, Ben Booysen, a priori. Ben Booysen is a local air-conditioning and refrigeration company in Pietermaritzburg, which services air-conditioner units. They identified the waste minimisation opportunity of optimising the process conditions for cleaning the airconditioner units. At the time at Ben Booysen, Alukleen, an acid cleaner (RT Chemicals®, RTCM 64) , was applied manually (by a paintbrush) at an effective dilution of 1:3 to clean the aluminium air-conditioner coils. Handy Andy and green soap were used to clean the plastic covers of the units. Concerns about the effluent, cost and safety of handling Alukleen led to their identification of this waste minimisation opportunity. The initial objectives of this project were thus the qualification and quantification of the species present in Alukleen; the quantification of the species present in the Ben Booysen effluent and the subsequent comparison of these values to limits for disposal to stormwater and Darvill. A further objective was the optimisation of the cleaning system with regard to Alukleen concentration and contact (soaking) time. Wet chemical analysis was employed as a qualitative tool for identification of the components present in Alukleen. This analysis indicated that fluoride, sulfate, sulfide, arsenite and chloride ions are present in Alukleen. Further quantitative analysis using the Ion chromatograph, the ICP-OES and a fluoride ion selective electrode indicated that only sulfate (152600 ppm) and fluoride (25400 ppm) are present in significant quantities. Studies were conducted on aluminium coil pieces in which both the contact (soaking) times and Alukleen concentrations were varied. These tests indicated that the effect of soaking time on the cleanliness achieved was negligible. Although a greater amount of dirt was removed when using more concentrated Alukleen solutions, etching of the metal occurred at higher concentrations, resulting in a loss of sheen and malleability of the metal. Etching of the aluminium air-conditioner coils by Alukleen, as indicated by both digital photography and electron microscopy, resulted in extending the objectives of this project to include the investigation of alternative aluminium cleaners. Hence, the cleaning action of three degreasers was investigated: Powerkleen (RT Chemicals®, RTCMI23), Technicians' Choice (Auto Brite (PTY) Ltd.) and Klengine (Auto Brite (PTY) Ltd.) . Powerkleen was found to be the most effective degreaser and did not compromise the metal's sheen or malleability. Further studies were then conducted to characterise the major components ofPowerkleen and to optimise its use with regard to concentration and contact (soaking) time. The suitability oftwo methods of application was also tested. The main component of Powerkleen, determined through the use of ICP-OES, was found to be potassium hydroxide, present at a concentration of 0.711 M. The optimum Powerkleen concentration range for cleaning the aluminium coils was found to be between a 1:20 and 1:40 dilution. Contact (soaking) time of Powerkleen with the aluminium coils was found to have a negligible effect on the mass of dirt removed by the degreaser. Application of the Powerkleen to the aluminium coils by an air gun at a pressure of 4 bars (for units serviced at Ben Booysen) and by a pump bottle (for units serviced in industry) were both found to achieve an acceptable degree of cleanliness of the aluminium. A feasibility analysis (technical , economical and environmental) indicated that a 1:40 dilution of Powerkleen is a feasible, cost-effective and environmentally compliant alternative to Alukleen. Implementation of the Powerkleen cleaning system would result in a R5030 annual saving with a payback period of 5.9 months and an internal rate of return of 214.9%. It would further eliminate the fluoride effluent problems associated with Alukleen and reduce the quantity of chemical raw materials required for the process from 2100 Llannum to 260 Llannum. In industry, an effective dilution of 1:39 would be used for the sake of eas y dilution. A 1:79 dilution of Powerkleen was also found to be a feasible replacement for Handy Andy and green soap in the cleaning of the plastic covers of the units. / Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2003.

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