Evaluating surface energy components of asphalt binders using Wilhelmy Plate and Sessile Drop TechniquesBahramian, Anohe January 2012 (has links)
In this Study, the surface energy was investigated for six penetration grade 70/100 bitumen binders. Wilhelmy Plate and the Sessile Drop were used to determine the contact angles. The purpose of this study was to compare the Wilhelmy Plate method with the Sessile Drop method, and to compare the significance of Owens-Wendt model with the significance of Acid Base model by correlating surface energy components. Better R2 –values were found for surface energy components by using the Owens-Wendt model than by using the Acid Base model. It was concluded here that Owens-Wendt model is a better model for determining surface energy components of bituminous binders than the Acid Base model since bituminous binders have low energy surfaces. For both instruments: When using Diiodomethane as a probe liquid the biggest variations among the binders were observed. When using water as a probe liquid the least variations among the binders were observed. The advancing contact angles for water determined for these six bitumen binders using the Wilhelmy plate method do not exceed the 90 degree by much, suggesting that bitumen is not extremely hydrophobic. The Sessile Drop method offers a faster and more convenient way to measure the surface energy components of bitumen binders than the Wilhelmy Plate method.
09 December 2013
Atlantic Canadian highways are vulnerable to impacts of climate change, including more frequent cycles of both wetting and drying, and freezing and thawing. These climate impacts coupled with continued increases in truck traffic can cause more severe and premature permanent deformation at high service temperature, fatigue and thermal cracking at low service temperatures, surface wear resistance, and ageing of the pavement. Such negative impacts can be mitigated with changes to the binder. However, replacing a local binder with a different imported binder can increase construction costs and cause supply problems. Alternatively, modifying agents can be used to adjust binder properties as required, but can also cause an increase in construction costs mainly due to their high cost and the need for highly specialized production techniques. The objective of this research project was to investigate the feasibility of utilizing underutilized household and packaging recycled plastics, that are generated in Atlantic Canada, as more cost effective alternatives or as co-modifiers to displace the amount of virgin modifiers used in hot mix asphalt application. The research study entailed analyzing physical characteristics of an array of modified binders and hot mix asphalt mixtures containing recycled low-density polyethylene, recycled polystyrene and the typical engineered virgin modifier (styrene-butadiene-styrene). The analysis included tests used commonly in pavement engineering to evaluate binders and asphalt mixtures. Results of this study suggests that these recycled plastics can be successfully utilized in asphalt binder as modifiers to enhance the functional properties of the mixture and reduce construction costs, thus creating an engineered value-added application of these underutilized resources as opposed to a disposal mechanism.
Measurement of material properties related to self-healing based on continuum and micromechanics approachPalvadi, Naga Sundeep 30 September 2011 (has links)
The ability of an asphalt mix to heal is an important property that influences the overall fatigue performance of the mix in the field. Micro damage healing in an asphalt mix is a function of several factors such as the physical and chemical properties of the binder, properties of the mixture, level of damage prior to the rest period during which healing occurs, duration of the rest period, temperature, and pressure. This thesis presents details from a two-part study that addresses the following aspects. In the first part of this study, a DSR based test method was developed to measure inherent healing in asphalt binder and a modified form of the Avrami equation was used to model it. In the second part of this study, an experimental and analytical method based on viscoelastic continuum damage theory was developed to characterize the healing in an asphalt composite (fine aggregate matrix) as a function of the level of damage prior to the rest period and the duration of the rest period. The intrinsic healing of three different asphalt binders was measured at three different temperatures and two aging conditions and it was further demonstrated to be the sum of two components: instantaneous strength gain immediately upon wetting and time dependent strength gain. The intrinsic healing results obtained from the DSR tests were demonstrated to be in agreement with the hypothesis that time dependent intrinsic healing increases with an increase in temperature and decreases with aging of the asphalt binder. The overall healing was measured in four different fine aggregate matrix (FAM) asphalt mixes and various tests were performed to quantify overall healing at isothermal and short term aged test conditions. Additionally two different verification tests were also conducted to demonstrate that the percentage healing measured using the proposed method are independent of the sequence of loading or rest periods. Finally, the overall healing results were demonstrated to support the hypothesis that the healing characteristics determined using the proposed test method can be treated as a characteristic material property. / text
abstract: ABSTRACT Pre-treated crumb rubber technologies are emerging as a new method to produce asphalt rubber mixtures in the field. A new crumb rubber modifier industrially known as "RuBind" is one such technology. RuBindTM is a "Reacted and Activated Rubber" (RAR) that acts like an elastomeric asphalt extender to improve the engineering properties of the binder and mixtures. It is intended to be used in a dry mixing process with the purpose of simplifying mixing at the asphalt plant. The objectives of this research study were to evaluate the rheological and aging properties of binders modified with RuBindTM and its compatibility with warm mix technology. Two binders were used for this study: Performance Grade (PG) 70-10 and PG 64-22, both modified with 25% by weight of asphalt binder. Laboratory test included: penetration, softening point, viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR). Tests were conducted under original, short and long -term aging conditions. Observations from the test results indicated that there is a better improvement when RuBindTM is added to a softer binder, in this case a PG 64-22. For short-term aging, the modified binder showed a similar aging index compared to the control. However, long term aging was favorable for the modified binders. The DSR results showed that the PG 64-22 binder high temperature would increase to 82 °C, and PG 70-10 would be increased to 76 °C, both favorable results. The intermediate temperatures also showed an improvement in fatigue resistance (as measured by the Superpave PG grading parameter |G*|sinä). Test results at low temperatures did not show a substantial improvement, but the results were favorable showing reduced stiffness with the addition of RuBindTM. The evaluation of warm mix additive using EvothermTM confirmed the manufacturer information that the product should have no negative effects on the binder properties; that is the modified binder can be used in a warm mix process. These results were encouraging and the recommendation was to continue with a follow up study with mixture tests using the RuBindTM modified binders. / Dissertation/Thesis / M.S. Civil and Environmental Engineering 2014
29 April 2014
The mechanical performance evaluation of asphalt binder has always been a challenging issue for pavement engineers. Recently, the Phase Field Method (PFM) has emerged as a powerful computational tool to simulate the microstructure evolution of asphalt binder. PFM analyzes the structure from the free energy aspect and can provide a view of the whole microstructure evolution process. In this dissertation, asphalt binder performance is analyzed by PFM in three aspects: first, the relationship between asphalt chemistry and performance is investigated. The components of asphalt are simplified to three: asphaltene, resin and oil. Simulation results show that phase separation will occur under certain thermal conditions and result in an uneven distribution of residual thermal stress. Second, asphalt cracking is analyzed by PFM. The traditional approach to analyze crack propagation is Classic Fracture Mechanics first proposed by Griffith, which needs to clearly depict the crack front conditions and may cause complex cracking topologies. PFM describes the microstructure using a phase-field variable which assumes positive one in the intact solid and negative one in the crack void. The fracture toughness is modeled as the surface energy stored in the diffuse interface between the intact solid and crack void. To account for the growth of cracks, a non-conserved Allen-Cahn equation is adopted to evolve the phase-field variable. The energy based formulation of the phase-field method handles the competition between the growth of surface energy and release of elastic energy in a natural way: the crack propagation is a result of the energy minimization in the direction of the steepest descent. Both the linear elasticity and phase-field equation are solved in a unified finite element frame work, which is implemented in the commercial software COMSOL. Different crack mode simulations are performed for validation. It was discovered that the onset of crack propagation agrees very well with the Griffith criterion and experimental results. Third, asphalt self-healing phenomenon is studied based on the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technology. The self-healing mechanism is simulated in two ways: thermodynamic approach and mechanical approach. Cahn-Hilliard dynamics and Allen-Cahn dynamics are adopted, respectively. / Ph. D.
Tensile strength of asphalt binder and influence of chemical composition on binder rheology and strengthSultana, Sharmin 15 September 2015 (has links)
Asphalt mixtures or asphalt concrete are used to pave about 93% of about 2.6 million miles paved roads and highways in the US. Asphalt concrete is a composite of aggregates and asphalt binder; asphalt binder works as a glue to bind the aggregate particles. The mechanical response of the asphalt binder is dependent on the time/rate of loading, temperature and age. An asphalt concrete mixture inherits most of these characteristics from the asphalt binder. Also the asphalt binder plays a critical role in providing the asphalt concrete the ability to resist tensile stresses and relaxing thermally induced stresses that can lead to fatigue and low temperature cracking, respectively. Hence, it is very important (but not sufficient) to ensure that asphalt binders used in the production of asphalt concrete are inherently resistant to cracking, rutting and other distresses that a pavement may undergo. Current binder specification (AASHTO M-320) to evaluate its fatigue cracking is based on the stiffness of the binder and not on its tensile strength. Also, measurements following current specifications are made on test specimens subjected to a uniaxial mode of loading that does not produce the same stress state in the binder as in the case of asphalt concrete. Another challenge in being able to produce binders with inherently superior performing characteristics is the fact that the asphalt binders produced in a refinery do not have a consistent chemical composition. The chemical composition of asphalt binder depends on the source and refining process of crude oil. There is a need to better quantify the tensile strength of asphalt binder and understand the relationship between the chemical composition of asphalt binders and its mechanical properties. The knowledge from this study can be used to engineer asphalt binders that have superior performance characteristics. The objective of this research was to quantify the tensile strength of asphalt binder, develop a metric for the tensile strength and identify the relationship between chemical composition and mechanical properties of asphalt binder. Laboratory tests were performed on binders of different grades using a poker chip geometry to simulate confined state by varying the film thickness, rate of loading and modes of loading. The chemical properties of asphalt binder were studied based on SARA fractionation. The findings from this research showed that the modified correspondence principles can unify and explain the rate and mode dependency of asphalt binder. This study also quantified the relationship between chemical composition, and rheological and mechanical properties of asphalt binder. Finally, a composite model was developed based on the individual properties of chemical fractions which could predict the dynamic modulus of the asphaltenes doped and resins doped binder. / text
01 January 2013
The KENTRACK program is a finite element based railway trackbed structural design program that can be utilized to analyze trackbeds having various combinations of all-granular and asphalt-bound layered support. It is applicable for calculating compressive stresses at the top of subgrade, indicative of potential long-term trackbed settlement failure. Furthermore, for trackbeds containing asphalt layer, it is applicable for calculating tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt layer, indicative of potential fatigue cracking. The program was recently expanded to include both English and international units. A procedure has been incorporated to provide a path to save results in a text formation in post-Windows XP operating systems. More importantly, properties of performance graded (PG) asphalt binders and the Witczak E* predictive model have been incorporated in the 4.0 Version of the program. Component layers of typical trackbed support systems are analyzed while predicting the significance of layer thicknesses and material properties on design and performance. The effect of various material parameters and loading magnitudes on trackbed design and evaluation, as determined and predicted by the computer program, are presented. Variances in subgrade modulus and axle loads and the incorporation of a layer of asphalt within the track structure have significant effects on subgrade vertical compressive stresses and predicted trackbed service lives. The parameter assessments are presented and evaluated using sensitivity analysis. Recommendations for future research are suggested.
Butt, Ali Azhar
Roads are assets to the society and an integral component in the development of a nation’s infrastructure. To build and maintain roads; considerable amounts of materials are required which consume quite an amount of electrical and thermal energy for production, processing and laying. The resources (materials and the sources of energy) should be utilized efficiently to avoid wastes and higher costs in terms of the currency and the environment. In order to enable quantification of the potential environmental impacts due to the construction, maintenance and disposal of roads, an open life cycle assessment (LCA) framework for asphalt pavements was developed. Emphasis was given on the calculation and allocation of energy used for the binder and the additives. Asphalt mixtures properties can be enhanced against rutting and cracking by modifying the binder with additives. Even though the immediate benefits of using additives such as polymers and waxes to modify the binder properties are rather well documented, the effects of such modification over the lifetime of a road are seldom considered. A method for calculating energy allocation in additives was suggested. The different choices regarding both the framework design and the case specific system boundaries were done in cooperation with the asphalt industry and the construction companies in order to increase the relevance and the quality of the assessment. Case-studies were performed to demonstrate the use of the LCA framework. The suggested LCA framework was demonstrated in a limited case study (A) of a typical Swedish asphalt pavement. Sensitivity analyses were also done to show the effect and the importance of the transport distances and the use of efficiently produced electricity mix. It was concluded that the asphalt production and materials transportation were the two most energy consuming processes that also emit the most GreenHouse Gases (GHG’s). The GHG’s, however, are largely depending on the fuel type and the electricity mix. It was also concluded that when progressing from LCA to its corresponding life cycle cost (LCC) the feedstock energy of the binder becomes highly relevant as the cost of the binder will be reflected in its alternative value as fuel. LCA studies can help to develop the long term perspective, linking performance to minimizing the overall energy consumption, use of resources and emissions. To demonstrate this, the newly developed open LCA framework was used for an unmodified and polymer modified asphalt pavement (Case study B). It was shown how polymer modification for improved performance affects the energy consumption and emissions during the life cycle of a road. From the case study (C) it was concluded that using bitumen with self-healing capacity can lead to a significant reduction in the GHG emissions and the energy usage. Furthermore, it was concluded that better understanding of the binder would lead to better optimized pavement design and thereby to reduced energy consumption and emissions. Production energy limits for the wax and polymer were determined which can assist the additives manufacturers to modify their production procedures and help road authorities in setting ‘green’ limits to get a real benefit from the additives over the lifetime of a road. / <p>QC 20120926</p>
2009 December 1900
Asphalt binder oxidation in pavements has been proven to be an ongoing process throughout a pavement's service life. Understanding the nature of the oxidation process is a critical step toward better pavement design to achieve greater pavement durability. The main component in asphalt binder oxidation in pavements is binder oxidative hardening. As the aromatic compounds in asphalt binders are oxidized, more polar carbonyl compounds are created, which results in stronger associations between asphalt components and eventually leads to an increase in asphalt elastic modulus and viscosity. Consequently, the performance of pavements is affected directly by asphalt binder hardening. Also, low levels of accessible air voids in pavements potentially relate to binder oxidation according to a recent research study. When the pavements have sufficiently high accessible air voids (4 percent or greater), the oxidation rate is largely determined by the temperature in the pavement. On the other hand, when the percentage of accessible air voids in the pavement is considerably lower (2 percent or less), the hardening rate of binders in pavements is reduced significantly. Field evidence is mounting that asphalt binder oxidization in pavements produces a binder that is more susceptible to thermal and fatigue cracking. While the fundamentals of this oxidation process are fairly well known, predicting quantitatively the rate of oxidation as a function of depth in the pavement, is not straightforward. A thermal and oxygen transport model, coupled with binder reaction kinetics, provides the basis for such calculations. A one-dimensional thermal transport model, coupled with site-specific model parameters and recent improvements in the availability of required input climate data, enables calculation of pavement temperatures throughout the year, which then is used in an asphalt binder oxidation and transport model to calculate binder properties in the pavement over time. Calculated binder property changes with depth and time are compared to measurements of binder oxidation in the field. The work in this study is aimed at understanding the oxidation kinetics of asphalt binders in pavements, determining the impact of accessible air void levels on asphalt hardening, and ultimately developing an improved model of asphalt binder oxidation in pavements.
Relationship Between Surface Free Energy and Total Work of Fracture of Asphalt Binder and Asphalt Binder-Aggregate InterfacesHowson, Jonathan Embrey 2011 August 1900 (has links)
Performance of asphalt mixtures depends on the properties of its constituent materials, mixture volumetrics, and external factors such as load and environment. An important material property that influences the performance of an asphalt mixture is the surface free energy of the asphalt binder and the aggregate. Surface free energy, which is a thermodynamic material property, is directly related to the adhesive bond energy between the asphalt binder and the aggregate as well as the cohesive bond energy of the asphalt binder. This thermodynamic material property has been successfully used to select asphalt binders and aggregates that have the necessary compatibility to form strong bonds and resist fracture. Surface free energy, being based on thermodynamics, assumes the asphalt binder is a brittle elastic material. In reality, the asphalt binder is not brittle and dissipates energy during loading and unloading. The total work of fracture is the culmination of all energy inputted into the sample to create two new surfaces of unit area and is dependent on the test geometry and testing conditions (e.g., temperature, loading rate, specimen size, etc.). The magnitude of the bond energy (either adhesive or cohesive) can be much smaller in magnitude when compared to the total work of fracture measured using mechanical tests (i.e., peel test, pull-off test, etc.). Despite the large difference in magnitude, there exists evidence in the literature supporting the use of the bond energy to characterize the resistance of composite systems to cohesive and/or adhesive failures. If the bond energy is to be recognized as a useful screening tool by the paving industry, the relationship between the bond energy and total work of fracture needs to be understood and verified. The effect of different types of modifications (addition of polymers, addition of anti-strip agents, and aging) on the surface free energy components of various asphalt binders was explored in order to understand how changes in the surface free energy components are related to the performance of the asphalt mixtures. After the asphalt binder-aggregate combination was explored, the next step was to study how the surface free energy of water was affected by contact with the asphalt binder-aggregate interface. Aggregates, which have a pH of greater than seven, will cause the pH of water that contacts them to increase. A change in the pH of the contacting water could indicate a change in its overall surface free energy, which might subsequently increase or decrease the water's moisture damage potential. With surface free energy fully explored, the total work of fracture was measured using pull-off tests for asphalt binder-aggregate combinations with known surface free energy components. In order to fully explore the relationship between bond energy and total work of fracture, temperature, loading rate, specimen geometry, and moisture content were varied in the experiments. The results of this work found that modifications made to the asphalt binder can have significant positive or negative effects on its surface free energy components and bond energy. Moreover, the results from the pull-off tests demonstrated that a relationship exists between bond energy (from surface free energy) and total work of fracture (from pull-off tests), and that surface free energy can be used to estimate the performance of asphalt binder-aggregate combinations.
Page generated in 0.0446 seconds