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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Automatic test generation for industrial control software

Enoiu, Eduard January 2016 (has links)
Since the early days of software testing, automatic test generation has been suggested as a way of allowing tests to be created at a lower cost. However, industrially useful and applicable tools for automatic test generation are still scarce. As a consequence, the evidence regarding the applicability or feasibility of automatic test generation in industrial practice is limited. This is especially problematic if we consider the use of automatic test generation for industrial safety-critical control systems, such as are found in power plants, airplanes, or trains. In this thesis, we improve the current state of automatic test generation by developing a technique based on model-checking that works with IEC 61131-3 industrial control software. We show how automatic test generation for IEC 61131-3 programs, containing both functional and timing information, can be solved as a model checking problem for both code and mutation coverage criteria.  The developed technique has been implemented in the CompleteTest tool. To evaluate the potential application of our technique, we present several studies where the tool is applied to industrial control software. Results show that CompleteTest is viable for use in industrial practice; it is efficient in terms of the time required to generate tests that satisfy both code and mutation coverage and scales well for most of the industrial programs considered. However, our results also show that there are still challenges associated with the use of automatic test generation. In particular, we found that while automatically generated tests, based on code coverage, can exercise the logic of the software as well as tests written manually, and can do so in a fraction of the time, they do not show better fault detection compared to manually created tests. Specifically, it seems that manually created tests are able to detect more faults of certain types (i.e, logical replacement, negation insertion and timer replacement) than automatically generated tests. To tackle this issue, we propose an approach for improving fault detection by using mutation coverage as a test criterion. We implemented this approach in the CompleteTest tool and used it to evaluate automatic test generation based on mutation testing. While the resulting tests were more effective than automatic tests generated based on code coverage, in terms of fault detection, they still were not better than manually created tests. In summary, our results highlight the need for improving the goals used by automatic test generation tools. Specifically, fault detection scores could be increased by considering some new mutation operators as well as higher-order mutations. Our thesis suggests that automatically generated test suites are significantly less costly in terms of testing time than manually created test suites. One conclusion, strongly supported by the results of this thesis, is that automatic test generation is efficient but currently not quite as effective as manual testing. This is a significant progress that needs to be further studied; we need to consider the implications and the extent to which automatic test generation can be used in the development of reliable safety-critical systems.
2

Model-Driven Testing in Umple

Almaghthawi, Sultan Eid A. 08 April 2020 (has links)
In this thesis we present a language and technique to facilitate model-based testing. The core of our approach is an xUnit-like language that allows tests to refer to model entities such as associations. This language can be used by developers to describe tests based on an existing UML model. The tests might even be written before creating a UML model, and be based on requirements. The testing language, including its parser and generators, is written entirely in Umple, an open-source textual modeling tool with semantics closely based on UML, and which generates Java, PHP and several other target languages. Tests in our language can be embedded in Umple or in standalone files. The test language compiler converts our abstract testing language into JUnit, PHPUnit and other domain-language testing environments. In addition to allowing developers to write tests manually, we have created generators that create abstract tests for any Umple model. These generators can be used to verify the Umple compiler and to give Umple users extra confidence in their models. User-defined tests can be standalone or embedded in methods; they can be generic, referring to metamodel elements. Tests can also be located in traits or mixsets to allow testing of separate concerns or product lines. To test our language and the tests written in it, we have created an extensive test suite. We have also implemented mutation testing, that enables varying of features of the models to ensure that runs of the pre-mutation tests then fail.
3

Passive interoperability testing for communication protocols

Chen, Nanxing 24 June 2013 (has links) (PDF)
In the field of networking, testing of communication protocols is an important activity to validate protocol applications before commercialisation. Generally, the services that must be provided by a protocol are described in its specification(s). A specification is generally a standard defined by standards bodies such as ISO (International Standards Organization), IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), ITU (International Telecommunication Union), etc. The purpose of testing is to verify that the protocol implementations work correctly and guarantee the quality of the services in order to meet customers expectations. To achieve this goal, a variety of testing methods have been developed. Among them, interoperability testing is to verify that several network components cooperate correctly and provide expected services. Conformance testing verifies that a product conforms to its specification. Robustness testing determines the degree to which a system operates correctly in the presence of exceptional inputs or stressful environmental conditions. In this thesis, we focus on interoperability testing. The general architecture of interoperability testing involves a system under test (SUT), which consists of at least two implementations under test (IUT). The objectives of interoperability testing are to ensure that interconnected protocol implementations are able to interact correctly and, during their interaction, provide the services predefined in their specifications. In general, the methods of interoperability testing can be classified into two approaches: active and passive testing. Among them, active test is the most conventionally used technique, which aims to test the implementations (IUT) by injecting a series of test messages (stimuli) and observing the corresponding outputs. However, the intrusive nature of active testing is that the tester has the ability to control IUTS. This implies that the tester interrupts inevitably the normal operations of the system under test. In this sense, active testing is not a suitable technique for interoperability testing, which is often carried out in operational networks. In such context, it is difficult to insert arbitrary testing messages without affecting the normal behavior and the services of the system. On the contrary, passive testing is a technique based only on observation. The tester does not need to interact with the SUT. This allows the test to be carried out without disturbing the normal operations of the system under test. Besides, passive testing also has other advantages such as: for embedded systems to which the tester does not have direct access, test can still be performed by collecting the execution traces of the system and then detect errors by comparing the trace with the behavior of the system described in its specification. In addition, passive testing makes it possible to moniter a system over a long period, and report abnomality at any time.
4

Automatic Test Generation and Mutation Analysis using UPPAAL SMC

Larsson, Jonatan January 2017 (has links)
Software testing is an important process for ensuring the quality of the software. As the complexity of the software increases, traditional means of manual testing becomes increasingly more complex and time consuming. In most embedded systems, designing software with as few errors as possible is often critical. Resource usage is also of concern for proper behavior because of the very nature of embedded systems.  To design reliable and energy-efficient systems, methods are needed to detect hot points of consumption and correct them prior to deployment. To reduce testing effort, Model-based testing can be used which is one testing method that allows for automatic testing of model based systems. Model-based testing has not been investigated extensively for revealing resource usage anomalies in embedded systems. UPPAAL SMC is a statistical model checking tool which can be used to model the system’s resource usage. Currently UPPAAL SMC lacks the support for performing automatic test generation and test selection. In this thesis we provide this support with a framework for automatic test generation and test selection using mutation analysis, a method for minimizing the generated test suite while maximizing the fault coverage and a tool implementing the framework on top of the UPPAAL SMC tool. The thesis also evaluates the framework on a Brake by Wire industrial system. Our results show that we could for a Brake-by-wire system, simulated on a consumer processor with five mutants, in best case find a test case that achieved 100% mutation score within one minute and confidently identify at least one test case that achieved full mutation score within five minutes. The evaluation shows that this framework is applicable and relatively efficient on an industrial system for reducing continues resource usage target testing effort.
5

Evaluation of Model-Based Testing on a Base Station Controller

Trimmel, Stefan January 2008 (has links)
This master thesis investigates how well suited the model-based testing process is for testing a new feature of a Base Station Controller. In model-based testing the tester designs a behavioral model of the system under test, or some part of the system. This model is then given to a test generation tool that will analyze the model and produce interesting test cases. These test cases can either be run on the system in an automatic or manual way depending on what type of setup there is. In this report it is suggested that the behavioral model should be produced in as early a stage as possible and that it should be a collaboration between the test team and the design team. The advantages with the model-based testing process are a better overview of the test cases, the test cases are always up to date, it helps in finding errors or contradictions in requirements and it performs closer collaboration between the test team and the design team. The disadvantages with model-based testing process are that it introduces more sources where an error can occur. The behavioral model can have errors, the layer between the model and the generated test cases can have errors and the layer between the test cases and the system under test can have errors. This report also indicates that the time needed for testing will be longer compared with manual testing. During the pilot, when a part of a new feature was tested, of this master thesis a test generation tool called Qtronic was used. This tool solves a very challenging task which is generating test cases from a general behavioral model and with a good result. This tool provides many good things but it also has its shortages. One of the biggest shortages is the debugging of the model for finding errors. This step is very time consuming because it requires that a test case generation is performed on the whole model. When there is a fault in the model then this test generation can take very long time, before the tool decides that it is impossible to cover the model. Under the circumstances that the Qtronic tool is improved on varies issues suggested in the thesis, one of the most important issues is to do something about the long debugging time needed, then the next step can be to use model-based testing in a larger evaluation project at BSC Design, Ericsson.
6

Search State Extensibility based Learning Framework for Model Checking and Test Generation

Chandrasekar, Maheshwar 20 September 2010 (has links)
The increasing design complexity and shrinking feature size of hardware designs have created resource intensive design verification and manufacturing test phases in the product life-cycle of a digital system. On the contrary, time-to-market constraints require faster verification and test phases; otherwise it may result in a buggy design or a defective product. This trend in the semiconductor industry has considerably increased the complexity and importance of Design Verification, Manufacturing Test and Silicon Diagnosis phases of a digital system production life-cycle. In this dissertation, we present a generalized learning framework, which can be customized to the common solving technique for problems in these three phases. During Design Verification, the conformance of the final design to its specifications is verified. Simulation-based and Formal verification are the two widely known techniques for design verification. Although the former technique can increase confidence in the design, only the latter can ensure the correctness of a design with respect to a given specification. Originally, Design Verification techniques were based on Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) but now such techniques are based on branch-and-bound procedures to avoid space explosion. However, branch-and-bound procedures may explode in time; thus efficient heuristics and intelligent learning techniques are essential. In this dissertation, we propose a novel extensibility relation between search states and a learning framework that aids in identifying non-trivial redundant search states during the branch-and-bound search procedure. Further, we also propose a probability based heuristic to guide our learning technique. First, we utilize this framework in a branch-and-bound based preimage computation engine. Next, we show that it can be used to perform an upper-approximation based state space traversal, which is essential to handle industrial-scale hardware designs. Finally, we propose a simple but elegant image extraction technique that utilizes our learning framework to compute over-approximate image space. This image computation is later leveraged to create an abstraction-refinement based model checking framework. During Manufacturing Test, test patterns are applied to the fabricated system, in a test environment, to check for the existence of fabrication defects. Such patterns are usually generated by Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) techniques, which assume certain fault types to model arbitrary defects. The size of fault list and test set has a major impact on the economics of manufacturing test. Towards this end, we propose a fault col lapsing approach to compact the size of target fault list for ATPG techniques. Further, from the very beginning, ATPG techniques were based on branch-and-bound procedures that model the problem in a Boolean domain. However, ATPG is a problem in the multi-valued domain; thus we propose a multi-valued ATPG framework to utilize this underlying nature. We also employ our learning technique for branch-and-bound procedures in this multi-valued framework. To improve the yield for high-volume manufacturing, silicon diagnosis identifies a set of candidate defect locations in a faulty chip. Subsequently physical failure analysis - an extremely time consuming step - utilizes these candidates as an aid to locate the defects. To reduce the number of candidates returned to the physical failure analysis step, efficient diagnostic patterns are essential. Towards this objective, we propose an incremental framework that utilizes our learning technique for a branch-and-bound procedure. Further, it learns from the ATPG phase where detection-patterns are generated and utilizes this information during diagnostic-pattern generation. Finally, we present a probability based heuristic for X-filling of detection-patterns with the objective of enhancing the diagnostic resolution of such patterns. We unify these techniques into a framework for test pattern generation with good detection and diagnostic ability. Overall, we propose a learning framework that can speed up design verification, test and diagnosis steps in the life cycle of a hardware system. / Ph. D.
7

Evaluation of Model-Based Testing on a Base Station Controller

Trimmel, Stefan January 2008 (has links)
<p>This master thesis investigates how well suited the model-based testing process is for testing a new feature of a Base Station Controller. In model-based testing the tester designs a behavioral model of the system under test, or some part of the system. This model is then given to a test generation tool that will analyze the model and produce interesting test cases. These test cases can either be run on the system in an automatic or manual way depending on what type of setup there is.</p><p>In this report it is suggested that the behavioral model should be produced in as early a stage as possible and that it should be a collaboration between the test team and the design team.</p><p>The advantages with the model-based testing process are a better overview of the test cases, the test cases are always up to date, it helps in finding errors or contradictions in requirements and it performs closer collaboration between the test team and the design team. The disadvantages with model-based testing process are that it introduces more sources where an error can occur. The behavioral model can have errors, the layer between the model and the generated test cases can have errors and the layer between the test cases and the system under test can have errors. This report also indicates that the time needed for testing will be longer compared with manual testing.</p><p>During the pilot, when a part of a new feature was tested, of this master thesis a test generation tool called Qtronic was used. This tool solves a very challenging task which is generating test cases from a general behavioral model and with a good result. This tool provides many good things but it also has its shortages. One of the biggest shortages is the debugging of the model for finding errors. This step is very time consuming because it requires that a test case generation is performed on the whole model. When there is a fault in the model then this test generation can take very long time, before the tool decides that it is impossible to cover the model.</p><p>Under the circumstances that the Qtronic tool is improved on varies issues suggested in the thesis, one of the most important issues is to do something about the long debugging time needed, then the next step can be to use model-based testing in a larger evaluation project at BSC Design, Ericsson.</p>
8

Passive interoperability testing for communication protocols / Le test d'interopérabilité passif pour les protocoles de communication

Chen, Nanxing 24 June 2013 (has links)
Dans le domaine des réseaux, le test de protocoles de communication est une activité importante afin de valider les protocoles applications avant de les mettre en service. Généralement, les services qu'un protocole doit fournir sont décrits dans sa spécification. Cette spécification est une norme ou un standard défini par des organismes de normalisation tels que l'ISO (International Standards Organisation), l'IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), l'ITU (International Telecommunication Union), etc. Le but du test est de vérifier que les implémentations du protocole fonctionnent correctement et rendent bien les services prévus. Pour atteindre cet objectif, différentes méthodes de tests peuvent être utilisées. Parmi eux, le test de conformité vérifie qu'un produit est conforme à sa spécification. Le test de robustesse vérifie les comportements de l'implémentation de protocole face à des événements imprévus. Dans cette thèse, nous nous intéressons plus particulièrement au test d'interopérabilité, qui vise à vérifier que plusieurs composants réseaux interagissent correctement et fournissent les services prévus. L'architecture générale de test d'interopérabilité fait intervenir un système sous test (SUT) composé de plusieurs implémentations sous test (IUT). Les objectifs du test d'interopérabilité sont à la fois de vérifier que plusieurs implémentations (basées sur des protocoles conçus pour fonctionner ensemble) sont capables d'interagir et que, lors de leur interaction, elles rendent les services prévus dans leurs spécifications respectives. En général, les méthodes de test d'interopérabilité peuvent être classées en deux grandes approches: le test actif et le test passif. Le test actif est une technique de validation très populaire, dont l'objectif est essentiellement de tester les implémentations (IUT), en pratiquant une suite de contrôles et d'observations sur celles-ci. Cependant, une caractéristique fondamentale du test actif est que le testeur possède la capacité de contrôler les IUTs. Cela implique que le testeur perturbe le fonctionnement normal du système testé. De ce fait, le test actif n'est pas une technique appropriée pour le test d'interopérabilité, qui est souvent effectué dans les réseaux opérationnels, où il est difficile d'insérer des entrées arbitraires sans affecter les services ou les fonctionnements normaux des réseaux. A l'inverse, le test passif est une technique se basant uniquement sur les observations. Le testeur n'a pas besoin d'agir sur le SUT notamment en lui envoyant des stimuli. Cela permet au test d'être effectué sans perturber l'environnement normal du système sous test. Le test passif possède également d'autres avantages comme par exemple, pour les systèmes embarqués où le testeur n'a pas d'accès direct, de pourvoir effectuer le test en collectant des traces d'exécution du système, puis de détecter les éventuelles erreurs ou déviations de ces traces vis-à-vis du comportement du système. / In the field of networking, testing of communication protocols is an important activity to validate protocol applications before commercialisation. Generally, the services that must be provided by a protocol are described in its specification(s). A specification is generally a standard defined by standards bodies such as ISO (International Standards Organization), IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), ITU (International Telecommunication Union), etc. The purpose of testing is to verify that the protocol implementations work correctly and guarantee the quality of the services in order to meet customers expectations. To achieve this goal, a variety of testing methods have been developed. Among them, interoperability testing is to verify that several network components cooperate correctly and provide expected services. Conformance testing verifies that a product conforms to its specification. Robustness testing determines the degree to which a system operates correctly in the presence of exceptional inputs or stressful environmental conditions. In this thesis, we focus on interoperability testing. The general architecture of interoperability testing involves a system under test (SUT), which consists of at least two implementations under test (IUT). The objectives of interoperability testing are to ensure that interconnected protocol implementations are able to interact correctly and, during their interaction, provide the services predefined in their specifications. In general, the methods of interoperability testing can be classified into two approaches: active and passive testing. Among them, active test is the most conventionally used technique, which aims to test the implementations (IUT) by injecting a series of test messages (stimuli) and observing the corresponding outputs. However, the intrusive nature of active testing is that the tester has the ability to control IUTS. This implies that the tester interrupts inevitably the normal operations of the system under test. In this sense, active testing is not a suitable technique for interoperability testing, which is often carried out in operational networks. In such context, it is difficult to insert arbitrary testing messages without affecting the normal behavior and the services of the system. On the contrary, passive testing is a technique based only on observation. The tester does not need to interact with the SUT. This allows the test to be carried out without disturbing the normal operations of the system under test. Besides, passive testing also has other advantages such as: for embedded systems to which the tester does not have direct access, test can still be performed by collecting the execution traces of the system and then detect errors by comparing the trace with the behavior of the system described in its specification. In addition, passive testing makes it possible to moniter a system over a long period, and report abnomality at any time.
9

Techniques to facilitate symbolic execution of real-world programs

Anand, Saswat 11 May 2012 (has links)
The overall goal of this research is to reduce the cost of software development and improve the quality of software. Symbolic execution is a program-analysis technique that is used to address several problems that arise in developing high-quality software. Despite the fact that the symbolic execution technique is well understood, and performing symbolic execution on simple programs is straightforward, it is still not possible to apply the technique to the general class of large, real-world software. A symbolic-execution system can be effectively applied to large, real-world software if it has at least the two features: efficiency and automation. However, efficient and automatic symbolic execution of real-world programs is a lofty goal because of both theoretical and practical reasons. Theoretically, achieving this goal requires solving an intractable problem (i.e., solving constraints). Practically, achieving this goal requires overwhelming effort to implement a symbolic-execution system that can precisely and automatically symbolically execute real-world programs. This research makes three major contributions. 1. Three new techniques that address three important problems of symbolic execution. Compared to existing techniques, the new techniques * reduce the manual effort that may be required to symbolically execute those programs that either generate complex constraints or parts of which cannot be symbolically executed due to limitations of a symbolic-execution system. * improve the usefulness of symbolic execution (e.g., expose more bugs in a program) by enabling discovery of more feasible paths within a given time budget. 2. A novel approach that uses symbolic execution to generate test inputs for Apps that run on modern mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. 3. Implementations of the above techniques and empirical results obtained from applying those techniques to real-world programs that demonstrate their effectiveness.
10

Automatic Test Generation Based on Formal Specifications / Practical Procedures for Efficient State Space Exploration and Improved Representation of Test Cases / Automatische Testgenerierung basierend auf formalen Spezifikationen / Praxisorientierte Verfahren für die effiziente Zustandsraumexploration und die verbesserte Repräsentation von Testfällen

Schmitt, Michael 03 April 2003 (has links)
No description available.

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