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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Automatic test generation for industrial control software

Enoiu, Eduard January 2016 (has links)
Since the early days of software testing, automatic test generation has been suggested as a way of allowing tests to be created at a lower cost. However, industrially useful and applicable tools for automatic test generation are still scarce. As a consequence, the evidence regarding the applicability or feasibility of automatic test generation in industrial practice is limited. This is especially problematic if we consider the use of automatic test generation for industrial safety-critical control systems, such as are found in power plants, airplanes, or trains. In this thesis, we improve the current state of automatic test generation by developing a technique based on model-checking that works with IEC 61131-3 industrial control software. We show how automatic test generation for IEC 61131-3 programs, containing both functional and timing information, can be solved as a model checking problem for both code and mutation coverage criteria.  The developed technique has been implemented in the CompleteTest tool. To evaluate the potential application of our technique, we present several studies where the tool is applied to industrial control software. Results show that CompleteTest is viable for use in industrial practice; it is efficient in terms of the time required to generate tests that satisfy both code and mutation coverage and scales well for most of the industrial programs considered. However, our results also show that there are still challenges associated with the use of automatic test generation. In particular, we found that while automatically generated tests, based on code coverage, can exercise the logic of the software as well as tests written manually, and can do so in a fraction of the time, they do not show better fault detection compared to manually created tests. Specifically, it seems that manually created tests are able to detect more faults of certain types (i.e, logical replacement, negation insertion and timer replacement) than automatically generated tests. To tackle this issue, we propose an approach for improving fault detection by using mutation coverage as a test criterion. We implemented this approach in the CompleteTest tool and used it to evaluate automatic test generation based on mutation testing. While the resulting tests were more effective than automatic tests generated based on code coverage, in terms of fault detection, they still were not better than manually created tests. In summary, our results highlight the need for improving the goals used by automatic test generation tools. Specifically, fault detection scores could be increased by considering some new mutation operators as well as higher-order mutations. Our thesis suggests that automatically generated test suites are significantly less costly in terms of testing time than manually created test suites. One conclusion, strongly supported by the results of this thesis, is that automatic test generation is efficient but currently not quite as effective as manual testing. This is a significant progress that needs to be further studied; we need to consider the implications and the extent to which automatic test generation can be used in the development of reliable safety-critical systems.
2

DASE: Document-Assisted Symbolic Execution for Improving Automated Test Generation

Zhang, Lei 17 June 2015 (has links)
Software testing is crucial for uncovering software defects and ensuring software reliability. Symbolic execution has been utilized for automatic test generation to improve testing effectiveness. However, existing test generation techniques based on symbolic execution fail to take full advantage of programs’ rich amount of documentation specifying their input constraints, which can further enhance the effectiveness of test generation. In this paper we present a general approach, Document-Assisted Symbolic Execution (DASE), to improve automated test generation and bug detection. DASE leverages natural language processing techniques and heuristics to analyze programs’ readily available documentation and extract input constraints. The input constraints are then used as pruning criteria; inputs far from being valid are trimmed off. In this way, DASE guides symbolic execution to focus on those inputs that are semantically more important. We evaluated DASE on 88 programs from 5 mature real-world software suites: GNU Coreutils, GNU findutils, GNU grep, GNU Binutils, and elftoolchain. Compared to symbolic execution without input constraints, DASE increases line coverage, branch coverage, and call coverage by 5.27–22.10%, 5.83–21.25% and 2.81–21.43% respectively. In addition, DASE detected 13 previously unknown bugs, 6 of which have already been confirmed by the developers.
3

Geração de testes de aceitação a partir de modelos U2TP para sistemas web / Acceptance tests generation from U2TP models for web applications

Feller, Nadjia Jandt January 2015 (has links)
A utilização desta abordagem no ciclo de desenvolvimento de uma aplicação web traz algumas vantagens, como ser necessário gerar manualmente apenas o modelo de comportamento de cada funcionalidade da aplicação, (pois os demais artefatos são gerados automaticamente), consumindo menos tempo e estando menos sujeitos a erros, além de prevenir diferentes interpretações dos requisitos pelos stakeholders, desenvolvedores e testadores. O tempo despendido na especificação dos modelos é compensado pelo tempo economizado com a geração dos cenários e do código de testes. / The testing activity throughout software development is fundamental to the pursuit of software quality and reliability, finding faults to be removed. However, despite its importance, software testing is often an underutilized phase in software development. Moreover, tests are proved to be expensive, difficult and problematic when not done in the appropriate way. A new paradigm for software testing is model-driven testing (MDT), which can be defined as software testing where test cases are derived from a model that describes some aspects of the system being tested, such as behavior, for example. This description, often using UML diagrams and/or its profiles, can be processed to produce a set of test cases. Software specifications based on usage scenarios expressed by appropriate UML diagrams are considered significant and effective, because they describe the system’s requirements from an intuitive and visual perspective. Thus, they can be used for the description of acceptance tests, which validate that the system meets user requirements. These specifications also facilitate the automation of this kind of test. Test automation can decrease time spent on testing, thereby reducing the cost of this activity. Thus, this work proposes an approach for automated generation of acceptance tests from U2TP (the UML 2.0 test profile) diagrams for web applications, based on behavior driven development (BDD) paradigm, obtaining acceptance scenarios and executable test code supported by an acceptance testing automation framework. This approach was applied on an actual development environment, by means of an experiment. Using this approach in an web application development cycle has some advantages, such as being required only to manually generate the model of behavior of each application functionality (because other artifacts are generated automatically), thus being less time consuming and less prone to errors, and preventing different interpretations of requirements by stakeholders, developers and testers. The time spent at the models’ specification is compensated by the time saved with the generation of scenarios and test code.
4

Geração de testes de aceitação a partir de modelos U2TP para sistemas web / Acceptance tests generation from U2TP models for web applications

Feller, Nadjia Jandt January 2015 (has links)
A utilização desta abordagem no ciclo de desenvolvimento de uma aplicação web traz algumas vantagens, como ser necessário gerar manualmente apenas o modelo de comportamento de cada funcionalidade da aplicação, (pois os demais artefatos são gerados automaticamente), consumindo menos tempo e estando menos sujeitos a erros, além de prevenir diferentes interpretações dos requisitos pelos stakeholders, desenvolvedores e testadores. O tempo despendido na especificação dos modelos é compensado pelo tempo economizado com a geração dos cenários e do código de testes. / The testing activity throughout software development is fundamental to the pursuit of software quality and reliability, finding faults to be removed. However, despite its importance, software testing is often an underutilized phase in software development. Moreover, tests are proved to be expensive, difficult and problematic when not done in the appropriate way. A new paradigm for software testing is model-driven testing (MDT), which can be defined as software testing where test cases are derived from a model that describes some aspects of the system being tested, such as behavior, for example. This description, often using UML diagrams and/or its profiles, can be processed to produce a set of test cases. Software specifications based on usage scenarios expressed by appropriate UML diagrams are considered significant and effective, because they describe the system’s requirements from an intuitive and visual perspective. Thus, they can be used for the description of acceptance tests, which validate that the system meets user requirements. These specifications also facilitate the automation of this kind of test. Test automation can decrease time spent on testing, thereby reducing the cost of this activity. Thus, this work proposes an approach for automated generation of acceptance tests from U2TP (the UML 2.0 test profile) diagrams for web applications, based on behavior driven development (BDD) paradigm, obtaining acceptance scenarios and executable test code supported by an acceptance testing automation framework. This approach was applied on an actual development environment, by means of an experiment. Using this approach in an web application development cycle has some advantages, such as being required only to manually generate the model of behavior of each application functionality (because other artifacts are generated automatically), thus being less time consuming and less prone to errors, and preventing different interpretations of requirements by stakeholders, developers and testers. The time spent at the models’ specification is compensated by the time saved with the generation of scenarios and test code.
5

Geração de testes de aceitação a partir de modelos U2TP para sistemas web / Acceptance tests generation from U2TP models for web applications

Feller, Nadjia Jandt January 2015 (has links)
A utilização desta abordagem no ciclo de desenvolvimento de uma aplicação web traz algumas vantagens, como ser necessário gerar manualmente apenas o modelo de comportamento de cada funcionalidade da aplicação, (pois os demais artefatos são gerados automaticamente), consumindo menos tempo e estando menos sujeitos a erros, além de prevenir diferentes interpretações dos requisitos pelos stakeholders, desenvolvedores e testadores. O tempo despendido na especificação dos modelos é compensado pelo tempo economizado com a geração dos cenários e do código de testes. / The testing activity throughout software development is fundamental to the pursuit of software quality and reliability, finding faults to be removed. However, despite its importance, software testing is often an underutilized phase in software development. Moreover, tests are proved to be expensive, difficult and problematic when not done in the appropriate way. A new paradigm for software testing is model-driven testing (MDT), which can be defined as software testing where test cases are derived from a model that describes some aspects of the system being tested, such as behavior, for example. This description, often using UML diagrams and/or its profiles, can be processed to produce a set of test cases. Software specifications based on usage scenarios expressed by appropriate UML diagrams are considered significant and effective, because they describe the system’s requirements from an intuitive and visual perspective. Thus, they can be used for the description of acceptance tests, which validate that the system meets user requirements. These specifications also facilitate the automation of this kind of test. Test automation can decrease time spent on testing, thereby reducing the cost of this activity. Thus, this work proposes an approach for automated generation of acceptance tests from U2TP (the UML 2.0 test profile) diagrams for web applications, based on behavior driven development (BDD) paradigm, obtaining acceptance scenarios and executable test code supported by an acceptance testing automation framework. This approach was applied on an actual development environment, by means of an experiment. Using this approach in an web application development cycle has some advantages, such as being required only to manually generate the model of behavior of each application functionality (because other artifacts are generated automatically), thus being less time consuming and less prone to errors, and preventing different interpretations of requirements by stakeholders, developers and testers. The time spent at the models’ specification is compensated by the time saved with the generation of scenarios and test code.
6

Vienetų testų generavimo metodo Android aplikacijoms testuoti realizavimas ir tyrimas / Implementation and research of unit tests generation method for testing Android applications

Babenskas, Egidijus 31 October 2013 (has links)
Tobulėjant išmaniesiems telefonams ir jų techninėms galimybėms bei didėjant jų pardavimams Lietuvoje ir pasaulyje, kuriamos aplikacijos tampa sudėtingesnės ir funkcionalesnės, tačiau kokybės problema vis dar išlieka skaudžia programinės įrangos kūrimo dalimi. Šiuo metu iš visų parduodamų išmaniųjų telefonų apie 50% parduodami su Android operacine sistema. Matant Android OS programų vis didėjantį poreikį rinkoje ir jų populiarumą bei panagrinėjus esamą rinką ir pamačius, jog testavimo įrankių, skirtų testuoti Android aplikacijas, beveik nėra, buvo nuspręsta, jog reikalingas vienetų testų generavimo sprendimas pritaikytas testuoti Android aplikacijas. Šio darbo pagrindinis tikslas ir yra pateikti vienetų testų generavimo sprendimą skirtą Android OS aplikacijos testuoti, jį realizuoti bei pagrįsti eksperimentiškai. Darbe siūlomas vienetų testų generavimo metodas, kuris remiasi atsitiktiniu generavimu, naudoja OCL apribojimus bei regresinio testavimo principus. Taip pat yra suderinamas su Google kompanijos teikiamu ADT įskiepiu ir Android SDK priemonėmis. Įrankis sukurtas kaip Eclipse programavimo aplinkos įskiepis. Pasiūlyto vienetų testų generavimo sprendimo efektyvumas įrodomas eksperimentiniu tyrimu. Šio eksperimento metu buvo testuojamos 4 aplikacijos. Naudojantis įrankiu vidutiniškai sugautų mutantų skaičius yra 75%. Mažiausia reikšmė yra 69%, o didžiausia – 88%. Vidutiniškai pasiekiamas 85% kodo eilučių padengimas. Mažiausia reikšmė yra 72%, o didžiausia padengimo... [toliau žr. visą tekstą] / With the development of smart phones and their technical capabilities and increase of their sales in Lithuania and the world applications become more complex and have more functionality, but the issue of quality remains a painful part of the development of software. Currently 50% out of all smart phones are sold with Android operating system. Having an increasing demand and popularity of Android OS applications in the market, as well as having researched the current market and seen that there is a lack of testing tools to test Android applications, it has been decided that a solution generating unit tests is needed to test Android applications. The main goal of this work is to provide unit test generation solution for the Android OS application testing, implementation and validate it experimentally. This work proposes a method generating unit tests based on random generation, using OCL constraints and regression testing principles. It is compatible with Google plug-in ADT and Android SDK tools. The tool is designed as a plugin in Eclipse development environment. Efficiency of the proposed decision of generating unit tests is proved by experimental study. During this study four applications were tested. Using the tool the average of catched mutants is 75%. The minimum value is 69%, while the highest - 88%. On average coverage of code lines is achieved by 85%. The minimum value is 72% and the maximum value of coverage - 97%.
7

Efficient state space exploration for parallel test generation

Ramasamy Kandasamy, Manimozhian 03 September 2009 (has links)
Automating the generation of test cases for software is an active area of research. Specification based test generation is an approach in which a formal representation of a method is analyzed to generate valid test cases. Constraint solving and state space exploration are important aspects of the specification based test generation. One problem with specification based testing is that the size of the state space explodes when we apply this approach to a code of practical size. Hence finding ways to reduce the number of candidates to explore within the state space is important to make this approach practical in industry. Korat is a tool which generates test cases for Java programs based on predicates that validate the inputs to the method. Various ongoing researches intend to increase the tools effectiveness in handling large state space. Parallelizing Korat and minimizing the exploration of invalid candidates are the active research directions. This report surveys the basic algorithms of Korat, PKorat, and Fast Korat. PKorat is a parallel version of Korat and aims to take advantage of multi-processor and multicore systems available. Fast Korat implements four optimizations which reduce the number of candidate explored to generate validate candidates and reduce the amount of time required to explore each candidate. This report also presents the execution time results for generating test candidates for binary tree, doubly linked list, and sorted singly linked list, from their respective predicates. / text
8

Symbolic string execution

Redelinghuys, Gideon 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2012. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Symbolic execution is a well-established technique for automated test generation and for nding errors in complex code. Most of the focus has however been on programs that manipulate integers, booleans, and even, references in object-oriented programs. Recently researchers have started looking at programs that do lots of string processing, motivated, in part, by the popularity of the web and the risk that errors in web servers may lead to security violations. Attempts to extend symbolic execution to the domain of strings are mainly divided into one of two camps: automata-based approaches and approaches based on bitvector analysis. Here we investigate these two approaches in a uni ed setting, namely the symbolic execution framework of Java PathFinder. We describe the implementations of both approaches and then do an evaluation to show under what circumstances each approach performs well (or not so well). We also illustrate the usefulness of the symbolic execution of strings by nding errors in real-world examples. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Simboliese uitvoering is 'n bekende tegniek vir automatiese genereering van toetse en om foute te vind in ingewikkelde bronkode. Die fokus sover was grotendeels op programme wat gebruik maak van heelgetalle, boolse waardes en selfs verwysings in objek geörienteerde programme. Navorsers het onlangs begin kyk na programme wat baie gebruik maak van string prosessering, deelteliks gemotiveerd deur die populariteit van die web en die gepaardgaande risiko's daarvan. Vorige implementasies van simboliese string uitvoering word binne twee kampe verdeel: die automata gebaseerde benadering en bitvektoor gebaseerde benadering. Binne hierdie tesis word die twee benaderings onder een dak gebring, naamliks Java PathFinder. Die implentasie van beide benaderings word bespreek en ge-evalueer om die omstandighede uit te wys waarbinne elk beter sou vaar. Die nut van simboliese string uitvoering word geïllustreer deur dit toe te pas in foutiewe regte wêreld voorbeelde.
9

Evaluation of Automated Test Generation for Simulink : A Case Study in the Context of Propulsion Control Software

Roslund, Anton January 2020 (has links)
Automated Test Generation (ATG) has been successfully applied in many domains. For the modeling and simulation language Simulink, there has been research on developing tools for ATG with promising results. However, most tools developed as part of academic research and are not publicly available, or severely limited in their ability to be integrated into an industrial workflow. There are commercial ATG tools for Simulink, with Simulink Design Verifier (SLDV) as the de-facto standard tool. For this thesis, we perform an empirical comparison of manual tests to those generated by SLDV. For the comparison, we used 180 components from the propulsion control software developed by our industry partner. All except two components are compatible for test generation to some extent. The majority of components are partially compatible, requiring block replacement or stubbing. Approximation of floating-point numbers is the primary reason for block replacement, which can be performed automatically by SLDV. Two components were incompatible, and 14 required full stubbing of blocks. Using a pre-processing step, the generated tests achieve similar coverage as the manual tests. We performed a Mann–Whitney U test with the hypothesis that the generated tests achieve higher coverage than the manual tests. There are no statistically significant differences for either decision coverage (0.0719), or condition coverage (0.8357). However, for Modified Condition/Decision Coverage, the generated tests achieve higher coverage, and the difference is significant (0.0027). The limitations of ATG were explored by looking at the cases where the generated tests achieved lower coverage than the manual test. We found that the use of floating-point arithmetic and temporal logic increases the time required for test generation, and causes the analysis to hit the time limit. The test generation does not support all custom S-functions and perform stubbing of these blocks. This made the tool unable to reason about persistent storage. Configuration constants have limited support, which was the reason for the coverage difference in three cases. We have concluded that while much effort is required for custom tooling and initial setup, ATG can prove useful for early fault detection in an industrial workflow. ATG would prove especially useful in an automated continuous integration workflow for integration-level conformance testing.

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