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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The attitude of the Imāmī-Shīʿīs to the Companions of the Prophet

Kohlberg, Etan January 1972 (has links)
It is a commonly held view among non-Shī'īs that the Imāmī-Shī'ī attitude towards the Companions of the Prophet is characterised by hatred and contempt. In fact f the picture is far more complex and diverse. There are certain basic beliefs which are common to all Imāmī-Shī'īs, such as the belief that 'Alī b. Abī Ṭālib was the only rightful successor to Muḥammad. But in their attitude to individual Companions, as well as to the Ṣaḥāba as a whole, there are considerable differences between scholars of various periods, schools and geographic centres, and also between official Imāmī theology and popular Shī'ism. The aim of the present study is to examine the Imāmī-Shī'ī attitude to the Companions from two complementary angles: first, the Imāmī view of the Companions as Muslims; secondly, the Imāmī view of the Companions as authorities. The first point is directly connected with the Imāmī interpretation of events in the early period of Islam; the second involves doctrinal considerations which spring out of the Imāmī belief in an Imam in whom all authority is vested. Imāmī statements on most subjects have to be placed in the context of polemics against the Sunna. This is especially true for the Imāmī attitude to the Companions, since this is a subject about which both Sunnīs and Shī'īs held strong, often contradictory, views. In the present study, therefore, the investigation of Imāmī views is preceded by a chapter which examines Sunnī attitudes to the Ṣaḥāba. This chapter is followed by a discussion of Mu'tazilī views on the Companions, so that these views may be compared and contrasted with the official Imāmī attitude. The third chapter examines the doctrinal questions involved in the Imāmī attitude toward the Ṣaḥāba; it is followed by two chapters dealing with the Imāmī view of the rejected and the accepted Companions, respectively. In the the sixth and last chapter it is attempted to show that although Imāmī-Shī'īs regard the Imam as the supreme authority after the Prophet, the Companions are not entirely devoid of authority. The first appendix deals with biographies of some of the better known among the accepted Companions ; in the second appendix the main views of the Zaydiyya on the subject of the Ṣaḥāba are summarised.
2

Serão as altas habilidades/superdotação invisíveis?

CRUZ, C. 30 June 2014 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-29T11:03:59Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 tese_7848_tesecarly2014.PDF: 9050327 bytes, checksum: af5852e0665c04d36076045f1a6d7d50 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2014-06-30 / A pesquisa objetivou analisar as concepções de altas habilidades/superdotação- AH/SD sob a ótica dos professores de educação especial que atuam na referida área por meio de suas narrativas, bem como, a imbricação dessas concepções na identificação de estudantes com indícios dessa condição. Para o desenvolvimento do trabalho, buscamos pela via da revisão bibliográfica contextualizar a temáticaAltas Habilidades/Superdotação. A pesquisa de cunho qualitativo foi conduzida sob a abordagem histórico-cultural, tendo o estudo de caso como proposta. Essas opções ancoram-se no nosso entendimento de que as AH/SD são condições construídas pela via da interação de fatores biológicos com as experiências mediadas com o/no mundo. Destacamos a utilização do grupo focal como técnica de coleta de dados para realização desta investigação. Os sujeitos envolvidos foram os dez professores de Educação Especial que atuavam no atendimento educacional especializado para AH/SD, nas salas de recursos, localizadas em municípios da Grande Vitória. A discussão do grupo focal foi analisada em dois momentos, quais sejam, as narrativas produzidas pelos professores que participaram da primeira reunião do grupo focal e depois incluindo os participantes da primeira e segunda reunião do grupo.Sendo assim, tivemos no primeiro encontro oito participantes e no segundo sete. A análise dos dados coletados em duas reuniões do grupo focal foi realizada à luz da perspectiva da Teoria da subjetividade de Gonzalez Rey (2005). A análise aponta a influência direta das percepções dos professores quanto às suas concepções de AH/SD em relação ao atendimento educacional especializado na área, bem como no processo de identificação que foi subjetivamente percebido nas discussões do grupo focal. Foi percebido que, pela não consistência teórica quanto à concepção das AH/SD, a identificação do aluno ou aluna com indícios dessa condição é confusa. A análise sugere a necessidade de um aprofundamento e consenso teórico acerca da área das Altas Habilidades/Superdotação AH/SD , como ponto principal para a visibilidade da temática.
3

Brothers or rivals? Iran and the Shi'a of Iraq

Hunter, Robert C. 06 1900 (has links)
This thesis examines the loyalty of the Shi'a of Iraq. While some Sunni Arab leaders have recently accused the Shi'a of Iraq of pledging loyalty to Iran, in fact the Iraqi Shi'a are loyal to their own nation. The Shi'a have developed different identities in Iran and Iraq due to different historical legacies and patterns of conversion. Modern religious-based political activists in the two nations have responded to their different circumstances with different policies. Ba'athist Party programs that secularized Iraqi society collapsed in the wake of events in the 1908s and 1990s. Old sources of authority reemerged among the Iraqi Shi'i community in their wake. These sources, primarily religious and tribal leaders, asserted themselves after the American invasion overthrew Saddam Hussein. Shi'i leaders such as Sadr and Sistani have sought not to work in the interests of Iran, but in what they perceive as the interest of their own constituents. They share many interests with Iran, but have been willing to work with Americans. The thesis urges American leaders to see that Shi'a of Iraq as they are, not as Sunnis Arab leaders portray them, in order to avoid alienating the Shi'a and thus pushing them further toward Iran. / US Marine Corps (USMC) author.
4

Atividade protetora da enzima PAF-acetilhidrolase (PAF-AH) na sepse: Efeitos sobre a eliminação bacteriana

Cunha, Mariana Gisely Amarante Teixeira da January 2010 (has links)
Submitted by Tatiana Silva (tsilva@icict.fiocruz.br) on 2013-01-24T18:30:13Z No. of bitstreams: 1 mariana_g_a_t_cunha_ioc_bcm_0027_2010.pdf: 1299175 bytes, checksum: da479ef7164acc425c4555fb66d2ee9d (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2013-01-24T18:30:13Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 mariana_g_a_t_cunha_ioc_bcm_0027_2010.pdf: 1299175 bytes, checksum: da479ef7164acc425c4555fb66d2ee9d (MD5) Previous issue date: 2010 / Fundação Oswaldo Cruz.Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Rio de janeiro, RJ, Brasil / A incidência de sepse nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva é alta e representa uma das maiores causas de mortalidade. Foi demonstrado pelo nosso laboratório que a atividade da enzima PAF-AH está reduzida no curso da sepse e que animais submetidos à sepse de origem polimicrobiana (CLP) e tratados com rPAF-AH apresentavam uma maior taxa de sobrevida quando comparados com animais não tratados e submetidos ao CLP. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar o efeito do tratamento com a rPAF-AH sobre a eliminação bacteriana e os mediadores envolvidos nesse processo. Analisamos a eliminação de bactérias na cavidade de animais submetidos ao CLP ou a injeção intraperitoneal da bactéria Salmonella enterica sorotipo Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), tratados com a rPAF-AH. Analisamos também o crescimento de bactérias em culturas de macrófagos peritoneais tratados com a rPAF-AH e estimulados com a bactéria Escherichia coli. Observamos que o tratamento com a rPAF-AH reduziu de forma significativa o crescimento bacteriano em animais submetidos ao CLP ou desafiados com a bactéria S. Typhimurium quando comparados aos animais sépticos. A rPAF-AH também favorece melhor eliminação de bactérias por macrófagos peritoneais estimulados com Escherichia coli. Nossos resultados sugerem que uma maior produção de MCP-1 e IFN-γ pode estar relacionada a um aumento na síntese de óxido nítrico, o qual poderia aumentar a eficiência da eliminação bacteriana. Portanto, arPAF-AH pode ser uma ferramenta terapêutica importante utilizada no tratamento de pacientes sépticos, pois é benéfica tanto durante infecções polimicrobianas (CLP), bem como em infecções causadas por apenas um microorganismo Gram negativo (como a Escherichia coliouS. Typhimurium). / The incidence of sepsis is high and represents the main cause of death in Intensive Care Units. Our laboratory has demonstrated that the rPAF-AH activity is reduced during sepsis and that animals subjected to polymicrobial sepsis (CLP) and treated with rPAF-AH showed a higher survival rate when compared with untreated animals. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of rPAF-AH treatment on bacterial clearance and to characterize the mediators involved on this process. We analyzed the bacterial clearance of mice submitted to CLP or intraperitoneally injected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium)after the treatment with rPAF-AH. We also analyzed the bacterial growth in peritoneal macrophage culture treated with rPAF-AH and stimulated with Escherichia coli. We observed that rPAF-AH administration significantly reduced the bacterial growth in animals subjected to CLP or challenged with the S. Typhimurium when compared to septic animals. The rPAF-AH promotes better bacterial clearance by peritoneal macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli. Our results suggest that anincreased production of MCP-1 and IFN- γis related to high synthesis of nitric oxidethat could lead to a more efficient bacterial clearance. Therefore rPAF-AH may be an important therapeutic tool used in treatment of septic patients, because it is beneficial either during polymicrobial infections (CLP) or in infections caused only by one Gram negative microorganism (such as Escherichia colior S. Typhimurium).
5

IPSec Overhead in Wireline and Wireless Networks for Web and Email Applications

Hadjichristofi, George Costa 11 January 2002 (has links)
This research focuses on developing a set of secure communication network testbeds and using them to measure the overhead of IP Security (IPSec) for email and web applications. The network testbeds are implemented using both wireline and wireless technologies. The testing involves a combination of authentication algorithms such as Hashed Message Authentication Code-Message Digest 5 (HMAC-MD5) and Hashed Message Authentication Code-Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (HMAC-SHA1), implemented through different authentication protocols such as ESP and AH, and used in conjunction with the Triple Digital Encryption Standard (3DES). The research examines the overhead using no encryption and no authentication, authentication and no encryption, and authentication and encryption. A variety of different sizes of compressed and uncompressed files, are considered when measuring the overhead. The testbed realizes security using IPSec to secure the connection between different nodes. The email protocol that is used is the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and the web protocol considered is the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The key metrics considered are the network load in bytes, the number of packets, and the transfer time. This research emphasizes the importance of using HTTP to access files than using SMTP. Use of HTTP requires fewer packets, lower network loads, and lower transfer times than SMTP. It is demonstrated that this difference, which occurs regardless of security, is magnified by the use of authentication and encryption. The results also indicate the value of using compressed files for file transfers. Compressed and uncompressed files require the same transfer time, network load and number of packets since FreeS/WAN IPSec does not carry any form of compression on the data before passing it to the data link layer. Both authentication algorithms, HMAC-MD5 and HMAC- SHA1, result in about the same network load and number of packets. However, HMAC-SHA1 results in a higher transfer time than HMAC-MD5 because of SHA1's higher computational requirements. ESP authentication and ESP encryption reduce the network load for small files only, compared to ESP encryption and AH authentication. ESP authentication could not be compared with AH authentication, since the FreeS/WAN IPSec implementation used in the study does not support ESP authentication without using encryption. In a wireless environment, using IPSec does not increase the network load and the number of transactions, when compared to a wireline environment. Also, the effect of security on transfer time is higher compared to a wireline environment, even though that increase is overshadowed by the high transfer time percentage increase due to the wireless medium. / Master of Science
6

Uma arquitetura para detec??o online de transientes em sinais de eletrocardiograma sobre o protocolo IEEE 802.3 com PM-AH / Uma arquitetura para detec??o online de transientes em sinais de eletrocardiograma sobre o protocolo IEEE 802.3 com PM-AH

Carvalho, Diego Rodrigues de 11 July 2011 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-12-17T14:55:54Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 DiegoRC_DISSERT.pdf: 1983615 bytes, checksum: 7f5b15ea84a6c8bb36201c679b18226f (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-07-11 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior / The occurrence of transients in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals indicates an electrical phenomenon outside the heart. Thus, the identification of transients has been the most-used methodology in medical analysis since the invention of the electrocardiograph (device responsible for benchmarking of electrocardiogram signals). There are few papers related to this subject, which compels the creation of an architecture to do the pre-processing of this signal in order to identify transients. This paper proposes a method based on the signal energy of the Hilbert transform of electrocardiogram, being an alternative to methods based on morphology of the signal. This information will determine the creation of frames of the MP-HA protocol responsible for transmitting the ECG signals through an IEEE 802.3 network to a computing device. That, in turn, may perform a process to automatically sort the signal, or to present it to a doctor so that he can do the sorting manually / A ocorr?ncia de transientes em sinais de eletrocardiograma (ECG) ? um indicativo de um fen?meno el?trico externo ao cora??o, sendo a identifica??o de transientes a metodologia mais utilizada na an?lise m?dica desde que o eletrocardi?grafo (dispositivo respons?vel pelo aferimento dos sinais de eletrocardiograma) foi inventado. Existem poucos trabalhos relacionados a esse assunto, o que motiva a cria??o de uma arquitetura para fazer o pr?-processamento desse sinal em busca da identifica??o de transientes. O presente trabalho prop?e um m?todo baseado na energia do sinal da transformada Hilbert de eletrocardiograma, sendo uma alternativa aos m?todos baseados em morfologia do sinal. Essa informa??o determinar? a forma??o de Quadros do protocolo PM-AH respons?vel por transmitir os sinais de ECG atrav?s de uma rede de computadores do tipo IEEE 802.3 at? um dispositivo computacional. Que por sua vez poder? realizar um processamento para fazer a classifica??o autom?tica do sinal ou apresent?-lo para um m?dico realizar essa classifica??o de forma manual
7

Serão as altas habilidades/superdotação invisíveis?

Cruz, Carly 30 June 2014 (has links)
Submitted by Elizabete Silva (elizabete.silva@ufes.br) on 2015-11-16T18:05:01Z No. of bitstreams: 2 license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) SERÃO AS ALTAS HABILIDADESSUPERDOTAÇÃO INVISÍVEIS.pdf: 9109968 bytes, checksum: 14f748cc49a970271a1be13bf228f0ca (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Morgana Andrade (morgana.andrade@ufes.br) on 2015-11-16T21:04:24Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 2 license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) SERÃO AS ALTAS HABILIDADESSUPERDOTAÇÃO INVISÍVEIS.pdf: 9109968 bytes, checksum: 14f748cc49a970271a1be13bf228f0ca (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2015-11-16T21:04:25Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 2 license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) SERÃO AS ALTAS HABILIDADESSUPERDOTAÇÃO INVISÍVEIS.pdf: 9109968 bytes, checksum: 14f748cc49a970271a1be13bf228f0ca (MD5) Previous issue date: 2014 / A pesquisa objetivou analisar as concepções de altas habilidades/superdotação- AH/SD sob a ótica dos professores de educação especial que atuam na referida área por meio de suas narrativas, bem como, a imbricação dessas concepções na identificação de estudantes com indícios dessa condição. Para o desenvolvimento do trabalho, buscamos pela via da revisão bibliográfica contextualizar a temáticaAltas Habilidades/Superdotação. A pesquisa de cunho qualitativo foi conduzida sob a abordagem histórico-cultural, tendo o estudo de caso como proposta. Essas opções ancoram-se no nosso entendimento de que as AH/SD são condições construídas pela via da interação de fatores biológicos com as experiências mediadas com o/no mundo. Destacamos a utilização do grupo focal como técnica de coleta de dados para realização desta investigação. Os sujeitos envolvidos foram os dez professores de Educação Especial que atuavam no atendimento educacional especializado para AH/SD, nas salas de recursos, localizadas em municípios da Grande Vitória. A discussão do grupo focal foi analisada em dois momentos, quais sejam, as narrativas produzidas pelos professores que participaram da primeira reunião do grupo focal e depois incluindo os participantes da primeira e segunda reunião do grupo.Sendo assim, tivemos no primeiro encontro oito participantes e no segundo sete. A análise dos dados coletados em duas reuniões do grupo focal foi realizada à luz da perspectiva da Teoria da subjetividade de Gonzalez Rey (2005). A análise aponta a influência direta das percepções dos professores quanto às suas concepções de AH/SD em relação ao atendimento educacional especializado na área, bem como no processo de identificação que foi subjetivamente percebido nas discussões do grupo focal. Foi percebido que, pela não consistência teórica quanto à concepção das AH/SD, a identificação do aluno ou aluna com indícios dessa condição é confusa. A análise sugere a necessidade de um aprofundamento e consenso teórico acerca da área das Altas Habilidades/Superdotação – AH/SD –, como ponto principal para a visibilidade da temática. / The research aimed to analyze the conceptions of high abilities/giftedness under the perspective of the special education teachers who work in the quoted area through their narratives, as well as, the imbrications of these conceptions in the identification of students with evidences of such condition. For the development of the work, we searched via bibliographical review contextualize the theme high abilities/giftedness . The research of qualitative nature was conducted under the contribution of the historical-cultural approach, having the case study as the proposal. These options anchor in our understanding that the high abilities/giftedness are conditions built up via interaction of biological factors with the experiences mediated with the/in the world. We have highlighted the usage of the focal group as a data collection technique to perform this investigation. The subjects involved were the ten Special Education teachers who worked in the specialized educational assistance for high abilities/giftedness , in the resource room, situated in municipalities of Grande Vitória. The discussion of the focal group was analyzed in two moments, namely the narratives produced by the teachers who participated of the first meeting of the focal group and later, with the inclusion of the participants of the first and second meeting of the group. Therefore, there were eight participants in the first meeting and seven in the second one. The analysis of the collected data in two meetings of the focal group was done according to the perspective of Gonzalez Rey‟s Subjectivity Theory (2005). The analysis points out the direct influence of the teachers‟ perceptions concerning their high abilities/giftedness conceptions regarding the specialized educational assistance in the area, as well as in the identification process that was subjectively perceived in the discussions of the focal group. It was perceived that, for the non theoretical consistence concerning the conception of the high abilities/giftedness , the identification of the student with evidences of this condition is confused. The analysis suggests the necessity of a deepening and theoretical consensus about the high abilities/giftedness area, especially, among the teachers of the area, as the main point for the visibility of the theme.
8

Avaliação de propriedades físico-químicas do cimento AH Plus® preparado com porções de pastas retiradas do início, metade e final das bisnasgas / A comparative study of physicochemical properties of AH Plus® root canal sealer correlated to the site (beginning, middle or end) of the tubes

Járcio Victório Baldi 31 August 2009 (has links)
Algumas propriedades físico-químicas do cimento AH Plus® como tempo de presa, escoamento e solubilidade foram analisadas in vitro, relacionando-as com o local (início, metade ou final) das bisnagas, de onde as pastas foram retiradas. Foram usados nove conjuntos com duas bisnagas (pasta A e pasta B) cada, do cimento AH Plus®, sendo três por propriedade. Para cada propriedade foram formados três grupos, de acordo com o local da retirada da pasta do interior das bisnagas: Grupo I correspondendo à retirada da pasta das porções iniciais das bisnagas, o Grupo M das porções intermediárias e o Grupo F correspondeu à retirada das últimas porções de pasta existentes nas bisnagas. Para o teste do tempo de presa, utilizaram-se anéis metálicos para a confecção dos corpos de prova e, com auxílio de agulha Gilmore de 113,5g e 456,3g de peso, foram determinados os tempos de presa inicial e final, respectivamente. Na avaliação do escoamento, o cimento foi proporcionado e espatulado e 0,5mL dele foi depositado sobre uma placa de vidro e, em seguida, outra placa com um peso totalizando 120 gramas foi sobreposta ao cimento e após 10 minutos mediram-se o maior e menor diâmetro do circulo formado pela quantidade de cimento e a média dos dois diâmetros obtidos foi considerada como valor do escoamento. Para o teste de solubilidade, após a presa do cimento e retirada dos anéis manteve-se os espécimes imersos em água destilada por um período de 24 horas. Foi considerada como solubilidade a porcentagem de material perdido durante a imersão dos corpos de prova. Os resultados mostraram que, exceto para a solubilidade, estatisticamente, o comportamento do cimento AH Plus®, considerando as porções de pasta retiradas do início das bisnagas, é diferente quando comparado às do meio e final das mesmas, propiciando valores bastante altos. / Some physicochemical properties of the sealer AH Plus®, including setting time, flow and solubility were analyzed in vitro and correlated to the site (beginning, middle or end) of the tubes from which the pastes were taken. Nine kits of the sealer AH Plus® were used, containing two tubes each (paste A and paste B), being three for each property. Three groups were constituted for each property, according to the site of the tubes from which the pastes were taken: Group B corresponded to the past taken from the beginning of the tubes, Group M corresponded to the middle portion, and Group E corresponded to the paste taken from the end of the tubes. The setting time was analyzed using metallic rings for fabrication of specimens; Gilmore needles weighing 113.5g and 456.3g were used to determine the initial and final setting times, respectively. For the evaluation of flow, the sealer was measured and mixed and 0.5mL of the sealer was placed on a glass slab; another glass slab weighing 120 grams was then placed on the sealer; after 10 minutes, the larger and smaller diameters of the circle formed by the sealer were measured, and the mean of the two diameters was calculated and considered as the flow value. For the solubility test, after setting of the sealer and removal of the rings, the specimens were immersed in distilled water for 24h. Solubility was calculated as the percentage of material lost during immersion of the specimens. The results revealed that, except for solubility, the performance of the sealer AH Plus® considering the portions of paste taken from the beginning of the tubes was statistically different compared to the middle and end of the tubes, displaying very high values.
9

Avaliação de propriedades físico-químicas do cimento AH Plus® preparado com porções de pastas retiradas do início, metade e final das bisnasgas / A comparative study of physicochemical properties of AH Plus® root canal sealer correlated to the site (beginning, middle or end) of the tubes

Baldi, Járcio Victório 31 August 2009 (has links)
Algumas propriedades físico-químicas do cimento AH Plus® como tempo de presa, escoamento e solubilidade foram analisadas in vitro, relacionando-as com o local (início, metade ou final) das bisnagas, de onde as pastas foram retiradas. Foram usados nove conjuntos com duas bisnagas (pasta A e pasta B) cada, do cimento AH Plus®, sendo três por propriedade. Para cada propriedade foram formados três grupos, de acordo com o local da retirada da pasta do interior das bisnagas: Grupo I correspondendo à retirada da pasta das porções iniciais das bisnagas, o Grupo M das porções intermediárias e o Grupo F correspondeu à retirada das últimas porções de pasta existentes nas bisnagas. Para o teste do tempo de presa, utilizaram-se anéis metálicos para a confecção dos corpos de prova e, com auxílio de agulha Gilmore de 113,5g e 456,3g de peso, foram determinados os tempos de presa inicial e final, respectivamente. Na avaliação do escoamento, o cimento foi proporcionado e espatulado e 0,5mL dele foi depositado sobre uma placa de vidro e, em seguida, outra placa com um peso totalizando 120 gramas foi sobreposta ao cimento e após 10 minutos mediram-se o maior e menor diâmetro do circulo formado pela quantidade de cimento e a média dos dois diâmetros obtidos foi considerada como valor do escoamento. Para o teste de solubilidade, após a presa do cimento e retirada dos anéis manteve-se os espécimes imersos em água destilada por um período de 24 horas. Foi considerada como solubilidade a porcentagem de material perdido durante a imersão dos corpos de prova. Os resultados mostraram que, exceto para a solubilidade, estatisticamente, o comportamento do cimento AH Plus®, considerando as porções de pasta retiradas do início das bisnagas, é diferente quando comparado às do meio e final das mesmas, propiciando valores bastante altos. / Some physicochemical properties of the sealer AH Plus®, including setting time, flow and solubility were analyzed in vitro and correlated to the site (beginning, middle or end) of the tubes from which the pastes were taken. Nine kits of the sealer AH Plus® were used, containing two tubes each (paste A and paste B), being three for each property. Three groups were constituted for each property, according to the site of the tubes from which the pastes were taken: Group B corresponded to the past taken from the beginning of the tubes, Group M corresponded to the middle portion, and Group E corresponded to the paste taken from the end of the tubes. The setting time was analyzed using metallic rings for fabrication of specimens; Gilmore needles weighing 113.5g and 456.3g were used to determine the initial and final setting times, respectively. For the evaluation of flow, the sealer was measured and mixed and 0.5mL of the sealer was placed on a glass slab; another glass slab weighing 120 grams was then placed on the sealer; after 10 minutes, the larger and smaller diameters of the circle formed by the sealer were measured, and the mean of the two diameters was calculated and considered as the flow value. For the solubility test, after setting of the sealer and removal of the rings, the specimens were immersed in distilled water for 24h. Solubility was calculated as the percentage of material lost during immersion of the specimens. The results revealed that, except for solubility, the performance of the sealer AH Plus® considering the portions of paste taken from the beginning of the tubes was statistically different compared to the middle and end of the tubes, displaying very high values.
10

Strategies for the justifications of Ḥudūd Allah and their punishments in the Islamic tradition

Alsoufi, Rana Hajaj Ahmaid January 2012 (has links)
The punishments of Islamic criminal law and in particular, the notoriously severe ḥadd punishments, were never systematically justified in classical Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh). However, the fiqh tradition is ripe with debates about ḥadd punishments, and theories of justification, while not fully spelt out, are often implied in the writings of Muslim jurists. In Part I of this thesis, three fiqh strategies for the justification of ḥadd punishments are described and critically evaluated: one that seeks to characterize the ḥadd punishments as divinely ordained, immutable “rights of God” (ch. 1), one that describes the purpose of ḥadd punishments as serving general as well as individual prevention (ch. 2), and one that stresses that to suffer ḥadd is an expiatory act that amends for sins and thus ensures salvation in the Hereafter (ch. 3). The Sunnī legal schools (madhāhib), salient representatives of which are studied in this dissertation, controversially discussed the meaning and purpose of ḥadd punishments in the context of each of these three fiqh discourses. Part II of this thesis proceeds to describe and discuss contemporary Muslim debates about the applicability and justifiability of ḥadd punishments today. While only few Islamic regimes currently implement ḥadd, the topic has a large symbolical importance because it exemplifies the struggle of Muslim thinkers to reconcile Islam with modernity. In a first step, this thesis aims to clarify to what extent contemporary positions echo, attack or simply sidestep classical fiqh positions: how, in other words, the present is connected to the traditional fiqh framework of the past (ch. 4). In a concluding chapter, a number of salient topics of debate in the contemporary ḥadd controversy are analysed within the cultural and political contexts in which they are located (ch. 5). While classical legal doctrines about ḥadd punishments, despite the controversies between the madhāhib, tend to be rigid, emphasizing the immutable character of the criminal law norms found in the Sharīʻah, the periodic calls among contemporary thinkers for the implementation of ḥadd are, it is suggested, largely driven by political agendas.

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