Single-phase forced convection in a microchannel with carbon nanotubes for electronic cooling applicationsDietz, Carter Reynolds 10 July 2007 (has links)
A comparative study was conducted to determine whether it would be advantageous to grow carbon nanotubes on the bottom surface of anisotropically-etched silicon microchannels to facilitate greater heat removal in electronic cooling applications. The effect of the samples was evaluated based on the fluid temperature rise through the channels, the silicon surface temperature increase above ambient, and the pressure drop. The height and deposition pattern of the nanotubes were the parameters investigated in this study. The working fluid, water, was passed through the microchannels at two different volumetric flow rates (16 mL/min and 28 mL/min). Additionally, two different heat fluxes were applied to the backside of the microchannel (10 W/cm2 and 30 W/cm2). Extensive validation of the baseline channels was carried out using a numerical model, a resistor network model, and repeatability tests. Finally, the maximum enhancement when using carbon nanotubes under single-phase, laminar, internal, forced convection was investigated using basic principles in regard to the additional surface area created by the carbon nanotubes, as well as their high thermal conductivity. For the devices tested, the samples with carbon nanotubes not only had a higher pressure drop, but also had a higher surface temperature. Therefore, the baseline samples had the best performance. Furthermore, based on a basic principles investigation, the increase to thermal performance gained by increasing the surface area with CNTs is overshadowed by the decrease in mass flow rate for a fixed pressure drop. The analysis suggests that the limiting factor for heat transfer in single-phase, laminar pressure driven flows is not convection heat transfer resistance, but the bulk resistance of the fluid.
Determination of the Thermal Conductance of Thermal Interface Materials as a Function of Pressure LoadingSponagle, Benjamin 15 August 2012 (has links)
This thesis presents an experimental apparatus and methodology for measuring the interface conductance of thermal interface materials (TIMs) as a function of clamping pressure. The experimental apparatus is a steady state characterization device based on the basic premise presented in ASTM D5470 – 06. The setup is designed to develop an approximately one dimensional heat transfer through a TIM sample which is held between two meter bars. The temperature is measured along the meter bars using resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) and the temperature drop across the interface is extrapolated from these measurements and then used to calculate the conductance of the interface. This setup and methodology was used to characterize six commercial TIMs at pressures ranging from 0.17-2.76 MPa (25-400 psi). These TIMs included: Tgrease 880, Tflex 720, Tmate 2905c, Tpcm HP105, Cho-Therm 1671, and Cho-Therm T500. The measured conductance values for the various tests ranged from 0.19 to 5.7 W/cm2K. A three dimensional FEA model of the experimental setup was created in COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2a. This model was compared to the experimental data for a single data point and showed good correlation with the measured temperatures and conductance value.
Integrated Thermal Design and Optimization Study for Active Integrated Power Electronic Modules (IPEMs)Pang, Ying-Feng 11 September 2002 (has links)
Thermal management is one of many critical tasks in the design of power electronic systems. It has become increasingly important as a result of the introduction of high power density and integrated modules. It has also been realized that higher temperatures do affect reliability due to a variety of physical failure mechanisms that involve thermal stresses and material degradation. Therefore, it is important to consider temperature as design parameter in developing power electronic modules. The NSF Center for Power Electronics System (CPES) at Virginia Tech previously developed a first generation (Gen-I) active Integrated Power Electronics Module (IPEM). This module represents CPES's approach to design a standard power electronic module with low labor and material costs and improved reliability compared to industrial Intelligent Power Modules (IPM). A preliminary Generation II (Gen-II.A) active IPEM was built using embedded power technology, which removes the wire bonds from the Gen-I IPEM. In this module, the three primary heat-generating devices are placed on a direct bonded copper substrate in a multi-chip module format. The overall goal of this research effort was to optimize the thermal performance of this Gen-II.A IPEM. To achieve this goal, a detailed three-dimensional active IPEM was modeled using the thermal-fluid analysis program ESC in I-DEAS to study the thermal performance of the Gen-II.A IPEM. Several design variables including the ceramic material, the ceramic thickness, and the thickness of the heat spreader were modeled to optimize IPEM geometric design and to improve the thermal performance while reducing the footprint. Input variables such as power loss and interface material thicknesses were studied in a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Other design constraints such as electrical design and packaging technology were also considered in the thermal optimization of the design. A new active IPEM design named Gen-II.C was achieved with reduced-size and improved thermal and electrical performance. The success of the new design will enable the replacement of discrete components in a front-end DC/DC converter by this standard module with the best thermal and electrical performance. Future improvements can be achieved by replacing the current silicon chip with a higher thermal-conductivity material, such as silicon carbide, as the power density increases, and by, exploring other possible cooling techniques. / Master of Science
22 May 2014
AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been widely used for high power and high frequency RF communications due to their fast switching and large current handling capabilities. The reliability of such devices is strongly affected by the junction temperature where the highest magnitude occurs in a local region on the drain side edge of the gate called the hotspot. Thus, thermal management of these devices remains a major concern in the design and reliability of systems employing AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Due to the large power densities induced in these devices locally near the drain side edge of the gate, it is clear that moving thermal management solutions closer to the heat generation region is critical in order to reduce the overall junction temperature of the device. In this work, we explore the use of embedded microchannel cooling in the substrate of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs made on Si and SiC substrates and compare them to passive cooling techniques using Si, SiC, and diamond substrates. In addition, the impact of cooling fluids and harsh environmental conditions were considered. The study was performed using a combination of CFD and finite volume analysis on packaged AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Active cooling using embedded microchannels were shown to have a significant impact on the heat dissipation over the passive cooling methods, approaching or exceeding that of diamond cooled devices. For vertical power devices (IGBT), embedded microchannels in the power electronics substrates were explored. In both the power devices and lateral AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, the use of embedded microchannels with nonlinear channel geometries was shown to be the most effective in terms of reducing the device junction temperature while minimizing the pumping power required.
Coggins, Charles Lee
09 May 2007
The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predicts that microprocessor power consumption will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. It is also well known that microprocessor performance can be improved by lowering the junction temperature: recent analytical studies show that for a power limited chip, there is a non-linear scaling effect that offers a 4.3x performance enhancement at -100 °C, compared to 85 °C operation. Vapor Compression Refrigeration (VCR) is a sufficiently compact, low cost, and power efficient technology for reducing the junction temperature of microprocessors below ambient, while removing very high heat fluxes via phase change. The current study includes a scaling analysis of single- and multiple-stage VCR systems for electronics cooling and an experimental investigation of small-scale, two-stage cascaded VCR systems. In the scaling analysis, a method for estimating the size of single- and multiple-stage VCR systems is described, and the resulting trends are presented. The compressor and air-cooled condenser are shown to be by far the largest components of the system, dwarfing the evaporator, expansion device, and inter-stage heat exchanger. For systems utilizing off-the-shelf components and removing up to 200 W at evaporator temperatures as low as 173 K, compressor size dominates the system and scales with the compressor s motor. The air-cooled condenser is the second largest component, and its size is constrained by the air-side heat transfer coefficient. In the experimental work, a two-stage cascaded VCR system with a total volume of 60000 cm3 is demonstrated that can remove 40 W at -61 °C.
21 July 2004
In recent years, the electronic chip is continuously developing in turning high performance. This trend urges the heat sink of electronic chip to become gradually important, and then that will develop many type of heat sink, which is water-cooling system. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is designing a high efficiency water-cooling element (WCE). The present study mainly aims at three points to bring up: (1) The different type chamber make use of the CFD package software FLUENT to study the pressure drop, velocity field and turbulent intensity deposition. (2) The different plank thickness, thermal conductivity and convection heat transfer coefficient use finite difference method to solve heat diffusion equation, and to confer thermal resistance value. (3) Then, machined this designed WCE and then measured its thermal resistance value. The results show: (1) The pressure drop main effect parameter is inlet velocity. (2) The thermal resistance value main effect parameter is convection heat transfer coefficient. (3) The plank thickness is inverse proportion relation with thermal resistance value. (4) The surface temperature range and mean surface temperature should become reference index in heat sink developmental process. (5) The cooling performance of Type D WCE is optimum in this paper. (6) The design is cross groove on convection surface, which should reduce thermal resistance value.
Orhan, Omer Emre
01 January 2007
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In this study, cooling of small form factor computer is numerically investigated. The numerical model is analyzed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software Icepak&trade / . The effects of grid selection, discretization schemes and turbulence models are discussed and presented. In addition, physical phenomena like recirculation and relaminarization are addressed briefly. For a comparison with the computational fluid dynamics results, an experiment is conducted and some temperature measurements are obtained from critical locations inside the chassis.The computational results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones.
01 December 2007
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Heat pipe is a passive two phase device capable of transferring large rates of heat with a minimal temperature drop. It is a sealed tube with a wick structure lined in it and with a working fluid inside the tube. It consists of three parts: an evaporator, a condenser and an adiabatic section. The heat pipes are widely used in electronics cooling and spacecraft applications. Although they can transfer large rate of heat in a short range, they have operating limits, namely: the capillary limit, the viscous limit, the entrainment limit, the sonic limit and the boiling limit. These limits determine the heat transfer capacity of the heat pipe. The properties of the working fluid, the structure of the wick, the orientation of the pipe, the length and the diameter of the tube etc. are the parameters that affect the limits. In this study, an analytical 1-D heat pipe model is formed and a computer code is prepared in order to analyze the effects of the parameters on the heat transfer capacity of a heat pipe. Water, Ammonia and Mercury are investigated as working fluids for different operating temperature ranges. The software is tested for a typical application for each working fluid.
Experimental Investigation And Numerical Analysis Of Microchannel Heatsinks For Phased Array Radar Cooling ApplicationsAlpsan, Emrah 01 June 2008 (has links) (PDF)
Experimental measurements and numerical simulations have been performed on copper and aluminum microchannel heatsinks of 300, 420, 500, and 900 & / #956 / m channel widths. The heatsinks have been designed specifically for use with T/R (transmit/receive) module cooling applications of military phased array radars. An analytical calculation was also performed to aid in the design methodology. Distilled water was used as the coolant with flow rates ranging from 0.50 lpm (liters per minute) to 1.00 lpm. Local heat fluxes as high as 100 W/cm2 were tested. Upon completion of the experiments, the thermally best performing specimen, the 300 & / #956 / m copper specimen, yielded a maximum temperature rise of 26.1 ° / C between the heat load and coolant inlet, at a coolant flow rate of 1.00 lpm and local heat flux of 100 W/cm2, leading to a thermal resistance of 0.63 ° / C/W. The pressure drop measured across the heatsink under these conditions was 0.030 bar. Numerical simulations were carried out using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT® / . Effects of thermal interface layers and heat spreading due to the localized heat load were investigated. Simulation results for temperature were seen to agree fairly well with experimental data as long as thermal interface layers were accounted for. The study showed that the T/R modules of military phased array radars, dissipating as high as 100 W/cm2 locally, could be cooled within the limits of the harsh environmental conditions required of military applications with moderate pressure drops.
01 August 2010
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This study has two main objectives: The performance evaluation of existing microchannel heat sinks using a CFD model, and the dimensional optimization of various heat sinks by minimizing the total thermal resistance. For the analyses, the geometric modeling is performed using the software GAMBIT while the thermal analysis is performed with FLUENT. The developed model compares very well with those available in the literature. Eight different metal-polymer microchannel heat sinks are analyzed using the model to find out how much heat could be provided to the systems while keeping the substrate temperatures below 85° / C under a constant pumping power requirement. Taking the objective function as the total thermal resistance, the optimum geometries have been obtained for the mentioned metal-polymer heat sinks as well as more conventional silicon ones. The results of the optimization code agreed very well with available ones in the literature. In the optimization study, the Intel Core i7-900 Desktop Processor Extreme Edition Series is considered as a reference processor which is reported to dissipate 130 W of heat and to have chip core dimensions of 1.891 cm × / 1.44 cm. A dimensional optimization study has been performed for various copper and silicon microchannel heat sinks to cool down this processor. To the best of the author&rsquo / s knowledge, this study contributes to the literature in that, as opposed to the available analytical microchannel optimization studies considering constant thermophysical properties at the fluid inlet temperature, the properties are evaluated at the area weighted average of the fluid inlet and iteratively calculated outlet temperatures. Moreover, the effects of the thermal and hydrodynamic entrance regions on heat transfer and flow are also investigated.
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