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1 
Design of compact frequency synthesizer for selfcalibration in RF circuitsPark, Sanghoon 01 November 2005 (has links)
A compact frequency synthesizer based on a phase locked loop (PLL) is designed for the selfcalibration in RF circuits. The main advantage of the presented frequency synthesizer is that it can be built in a small silicon area using MOSFET interface trap charge pump (ITCP) current generators. The ITCP current generator makes it possible to use small currents at nanoampere levels so that small capacitances can be used in the loop filter. A large resistance, which is required to compensate for the reduced capacitances, is implemented using an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). An ITCP current generator is used as a tail current source for the OTA in order to realize a small transconductance. The presented frequency synthesizer has the output frequency range from 570 MHz to 600 MHz with a 100 KHz frequency step. Total silicon area is about 0.3 mm2 using AMIS 0.5 ??m CMOS technology, and the power
consumption is 26.7 mW with 3 V single power supply.

2 
Programmable DLLbased Frequency Multiplier and A ROMless Direct Digital Frequency SynthesizerShe, HsienChih 25 June 2002 (has links)
This thesis includes two topics. The first topic is a programmable DLLbased frequency multiplier, which can be a local oscillator in RF applications. The second one is a ROMless direct digital frequency synthesizer to serve as a good reference clock or to be used in digital modulation and demodulation.
A CMOS local oscillator using a programmable DLLbased frequency multiplier is presented. In this work, lowQ onchip inductors are not needed. The clock of the output frequency is digitally controllable, which is ranged from 7´ to 10´ of an input reference clock. The design is carried out by TSMC 1P5M 0.25 mm CMOS process at 2.5 V power supply. The output frequency range of the physical chips measurement is about 1.0 GHz ~ 1.5 GHz. Maximum power dissipation is 58.2 mW at 1.5 GHz output.
A ROMless direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) employing trigonometric quadruple angle formula is presented. In a systemlevel simulation, the spurious tones performance is suppressed to be lower than 130 dBc. The resolution is up to 13 bits. The maximum error is also analyzed mathematically to meet the simulation results.

3 
DIRECT DIGITAL FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER ARCHITECTURE FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION IN 90 NM CMOS TECHNOLOGYNguyen, Tri Trong 08 April 2011 (has links)
No description available.

4 
FieldProgrammable GateArray Design of FractionalNFrequency Synthesizer for Wireless CommunicationsPeng, KangChun 14 July 2000 (has links)
In this proposal, an advanced local oscillator with high resolution, low phase noise and fast switching
characteristics is designed for wireless communication applications. The circuit is based on fractionalN
frequency synthesis technique in which the use of deltasigma modulator can remove the fractional spurs
effectively. The mechanism in regard to fractional spurs and phase noise for a fractionalN frequency
synthesizer will be studied and simulated by developing proper mathematical models. In the
implementation of the local oscillator, the analog circuit includes a 10001033 MHz VCO, crystal
oscillator and loop filter. The digital circuit includes a phase frequency detector, dual modulus divider
and 3rd order deltasigma modulator. At first a FPGA will be used to prototype the digital circuit.
The final digital circuit will be implemented in a CMOS process and require 3V operation with low
current consumption. The design specifications include that under 1 KHz resolution the phase noise
levels are less than 90 dBc/Hz at frequency offets within a loop bandwidth more than 100 KHz.
Spurious components are less than 90 dBc/Hz and switching time is less than 1 ms over a 30 MHz
tuning range.

5 
An ISMBand Frequency Synthesizer with ClosedLoop GFSK ModulationChen, HsingHung 04 July 2001 (has links)
An ISMband frequency synthesizer is introduced in this thesis. The technique allows digital phase/frequency modulation to be achieved in a closed phase locked loop (PLL) without mixers and D/As. According to the simulation results using ADS, quantization noise will be filtered by the PLL bandwidth. But the data rate is also bounded by the PLL bandwidth. Two key components of this closedloop architecture, Gaussian filter and deltasigma modulator have been implemented by FPGA together with the Qualcomm Q3236 synthesizer IC.

6 
Wideband GFSKModulated Frequency Synthesizer Using TwoPoint DeltaSigma ModulationPeng, KangChun 03 May 2005 (has links)
This dissertation presents a 2.4 GHz wideband GFSKmodulated frequency synthesizer using twopoint deltasigma modulation (TPDSM). The two bottlenecks in this design have been rigorously investigated. One bottleneck is the nonlinear performance of the phaselocked loop (PLL). The other one is the inherent gain and delay mismatch between the two modulation points. Both nonlinear and mismatch factors dominate the modulation accuracy in the closed PLL. The proposed formulation can successfully predict the dependencies of the modulation accuracy on both factors. The comparison of the averaged frequency deviation and frequencyshift keying (FSK) error between theory and measurement shows excellent agreement. The modulated frequency synthesizer implemented in this study can achieve a 2.5 Mbps data rate as well as a 15 £gs PLL stable time with only 2.2 % FSK error under good design and operating conditions.

7 
Analogue to information system based on PLLbased frequency synthesizers with fast locking schemesLin, MingLang January 2010 (has links)
Data conversion is the crucial interface between the real world and digital processing systems. Analoguetodigital converters and digitaltoanalogue converters are two key conversion devices and used as the interface. Up to now, the conventional ADCs based on Nyquist sampling theorem are facing a critical challenge: the resolution and the sampling rate must be radically increased when some applications such as radar detection and ultrawideband communication emerge. The offset of comparators and the setup time of sampleandhold circuits, however, limit the resulution and clock rate of ADCs. Alternatively, in some applications such as speech, temperature sensor, etc. signals remain possibly unchanged for prolonged periods with brief bursts of significant activity. If trational ADCs are employed in such circumstances a higher bandwidth is required for transmitting the converted samples. On the other hand, sampling signals with an extremely high clock rate are also required for converting the signals with the feature of sparsity in time domain. The levelcrossing sampling scheme (LCSS) is one of the data conversions suitable for converting signals with the sparsity feature and brief bursts of signigicant activity. due to the traditional LCSS with a fixed clock rate being limited in applications a novel irregular data conversion scheme called analoguetoinformation system (AIS) is proposed in this thesis. The AIS is typically based upon LCSS, but an adjustable clock generator and a real time data compression scheme are applied to it. As the systemlevel simulations results of AIS show it can be seen that a data transmission saving rate nearly 30% is achieved for different signals. PLLs with fast pullin and locking schemes are very important when they are applied in TDMA systems and fequency hopping wireless systems. So a novel triple path nonlinear phase frequency detector (TPNPFD) is also proposed in this thesis. Compared to otherPFDs, the pllin and locking time in TPNPFD is much shorter. A proper transmission data format can make the recreation of the skipped samples and the reconstruction of the original signal more efficient, i.e. they can be achieved in a minimum number of the received data without increasing much more hardware complexity. So the preliminary data format used for transmitting the converted data from AIS is also given in the final chapter of this thesis for future works.

8 
Design and Implementation of a Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizer using Sum of Weighted Bit ProductsMajid, Abdul, Malik, Abdul Waheed January 2009 (has links)
<p>Direct Digital Frequency Synthesi<em>s </em>(DDFS) is a method of producing an analog waveform by</p><p>generating a timevarying signal in digital form, succeeded by digitaltoanalog reconstruction.</p><p>At behavioral level the bit products with specified weights are used to generate the sine wave. In representation of a sine wave both positive and negative weights are generated. Since negative weights are not desired in design, the negative weights are transformed to positive weights. To reduce the number of current sources and control signals, bit product signals of those current sources which cannot be switched on simultaneously and have equal weights are shared. After sharing weights, the control signals are reduced to from 59 to 43 and current sources from 207 to 145.</p><p>Different control words are used by the DDFS system in order to generate different frequencies. The control word is successively added to the previous value in a 20bit accumulator. Nine most significant bits out of these twenty bits are used for the DAC.</p><p>Since the Current Steering DAC architecture is suitable for high speed and high resolution purposes, so a 9bit nonlinear current steering DAC is used to convert the output of bit products to the analog sine wave. Seven bits are used to generate one quarter of the sine wave. Eighth and ninth bits are used to generate the full sine wave.</p><p>HCMOS 9 (130 nm) ST Microelectronics process is used by employing high speed NMOS and PMOS transistors. The bit products (control signals) are computed by using complementary static CMOS logic which then act as control signals for the current sources after passing through Dflip flops. Practical design issues of current sources and parts of digital logic were studied and implemented using the Cadence fullcustom design environment.</p>

9 
Design of frequency synthesizers for short range wireless transceiversValero Lopez, Ari Yakov 30 September 2004 (has links)
The rapid growth of the market for shortrange wireless devices, with standards such as Bluetooth and Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11) being the most important, has created a need for highly integrated transceivers that target drastic power and area reduction while providing a high level of integration. The radio section of the devices designed to establish communications using these standards is the limiting factor for the power reduction efforts. A key building block in a transceiver is the frequency synthesizer, since it operates at the highest frequency of the system and consumes a very large portion of the total power in the radio. This dissertation presents the basic theory and a design methodology of frequency synthesizers targeted for shortrange wireless applications. Three different examples of synthesizers are presented. First a frequency synthesizer integrated in a Bluetooth receiver fabricated in 0.35μm CMOS technology. The receiver uses a lowIF architecture to downconvert the incoming Bluetooth signal to 2MHz. The second synthesizer is integrated within a dualmode receiver capable of processing signals of the Bluetooth and Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11b) standards. It is implemented in BiCMOS technology and operates the voltage controlled oscillator at twice the required frequency to generate quadrature signals through a dividebytwo circuit. A phase switching prescaler is featured in the synthesizer. A large capacitance is integrated onchip using a capacitance multiplier circuit that provides a drastic area reduction while adding a negligible phase noise contribution. The third synthesizer is an extension of the second example. The operation range of the VCO is extended to cover a frequency band from 4.8GHz to 5.85GHz. By doing this, the synthesizer is capable of generating LO signals for Bluetooth and IEEE 802.11a, b and g standards. The quadrature output of the 5  6 GHz signal is generated through a first order RC  CR network with an automatic calibration loop. The loop uses a high frequency phase detector to measure the deviation from the 90° separation between the I and Q branches and implements an algorithm to minimize the phase errors between the I and Q branches and their differential counterparts.

10 
QuantizationNoise Cancellation Technique and PhaseLocked Loop IC Design in a Fractional¡VN Frequency SynthesizerLi, Shiangwei 16 August 2007 (has links)
For the fractionalN frequency synthesizers using deltasigma modulation (DSM) techniques, higher PLL bandwidth is highly desirable in order to achieve faster settling time. As the PLL bandwidth is increased, more quantization noises pass through the PLL so that the output phase noise performance is degraded. There is a tradeoff between phasenoise performance and PLL bandwidth. To improve the problem, the thesis studies the quantization noise cancellation technique. With this technique, the PLL bandwidth can be increased without the cost of degrading phasenoise performance. With the help of Agilent EEsof¡¦s ADS, the phasenoise performance of the studied fractionalN frequency synthesizers can be predicted. For demonstration, this research implements a 2.6 GHz fractionalN frequency synthesizer hybrid module, and compares the measured phase noises with and without the technique under considering various combinations of MASH DSM orders and PLL bandwidth. Another demonstration of this thesis is to design a PLL IC using TSMC 0.18 £gm CMOS process, and make a discussion on the testing performance of the PLL IC.

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