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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

L’histone désacétylase HDAC1 influence la réponse à des stress métaboliques dans les cellules épithéliales intestinales

Gonneaud, Alexis January 2014 (has links)
Introduction : Les histones désacétylases (HDAC) catalysent le retrait d’un groupement acétyl de résidus lysine. Leurs substrats comprennent les histones et des facteurs de transcription comme NF-κB p65 ou des kinases comme AMPK. Les HDACs contrôlent la prolifération, la mort et la différenciation cellulaires. Des propriétés anti-inflammatoires et anti-tumorales ont été attribuées à des inhibiteurs contre les HDAC, notamment dans les cellules épithéliales intestinales (CEI). Nous avons montré que la perte de HDAC1 entraîne une diminution de la croissance et cela, sans augmentation significative des inhibiteurs du cycle cellulaire comme p21 ou p27 (Moore-Gagné, 2012). J’ai alors hypothétisé que l’absence de HDAC1 pouvait mener à des défauts dans les voies de synthèse ou de production d’énergie. Je me suis donc intéressé à l’étude des voies métaboliques qui participent notamment à la production d’acétyl-CoA, le principal donneur de groupement acétyl, groupement nécessaire pour l’acétylation des histones. Des études récentes ont démontré que les voies métaboliques, en modulant les niveaux d’acétyl-CoA, altèrent les patrons d’acétylation. J’ai donc voulu déterminer le rôle de HDAC1 dans la transmission de stress métaboliques dans les CEI. Méthodes : L’expression de HDAC1 a été réduite dans les cellules de cryptes intestinales de rat (IEC-6) par infection lentivirale de shARN contre HDAC1. Les cellules ont été cultivées avec ou sans glucose et sérum, avec plusieurs métabolites du cycle de Krebs, dont l’acétate, le citrate, le fumarate ou avec le peroxyde d’hydrogène pour induire un stress oxydant. L’acétylation des histones H3 et H4 ont été déterminées par immunobuvardage avec des anticorps contre des histones acétylées. La viabilité cellulaire a été mesurée par essai MTT, et les radicaux libres par oxydation du DCFDA. Les protéines différemment exprimées ont été identifiées par incorporation d’isotopes plus lourds d’acides aminés, suivi de spectrométrie de masse (SILAC) et analysé informatiquement (logiciel MaxQuant). Les cibles repérées ont été analysées par RT-PCR semi-quantitatif et par immunobuvardage. Les niveaux de régulateurs métaboliques tels que l’AMPK ou l’acétyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) ont été déterminés par immunobuvardage. Le nombre de mitochondries a été observé par fluorescence. Résultats : La perte de HDAC1 augmente globalement l’acétylation des histones. L’absence de glucose et de sérum diminue les niveaux d’acétylation des histones. L’absence de HDAC1 augmente la viabilité cellulaire en présence de fumarate et citrate, et en absence de glucose et sérum. Les cellules shHDAC1 montrent une viabilité accrue après un traitement au peroxyde d’hydrogène. Ceci corrèle avec des niveaux de base diminués de radicaux libres et une surexpression de Sod2, une protéine anti-oxydante. Les résultats ont montré que la perte de HDAC1 comme l’addition de certains métabolites modifient le patron d’acétylation cellulaire, suggérant des perturbations dans les niveaux d’acétyl-CoA. L’analyse SILAC a mis en évidence une altération des voies de signalisation liées à différents processus métaboliques, comme la phosphorylation oxydative et la synthèse des protéines. L’activation constante de l’AMPK suggère que les cellules shHDAC1 sont en restriction calorique permanente, ce qui les rend moins sensibles au stress oxydant et métabolique par rapport aux cellules shCtrl. Les cellules shHDAC1 présentent une augmentation de la quantité de mitochondries, suggérant un défaut de génération d’ATP. Un shunt d’acétyl-CoA vers le noyau serait envisageable. Conclusion : En modifiant les voies métaboliques liées à la production d’acétyl-CoA, la perte de HDAC1 protège les CEI des réactions de stress. HDAC1 contrôle la réponse des CEI à des stress métaboliques.
2

HDAC1 et HDAC2, des rôles redondants et distincts dans la régulation de l'homéostasie intestinale

Gonneaud Alexis January 2017 (has links)
Les histones désacétylases HDAC1 et HDAC2 catalysent le retrait d’un groupement acétyle de résidus lysine, dans des protéines histones et non-histones. Les HDAC contrôlent la prolifération, la mort et la différenciation cellulaire. Des propriétés anti-inflammatoires et anti-tumorales ont été attribuées à des inhibiteurs contre les HDAC (HDACi), notamment dans les cellules épithéliales intestinales (CEI). Nous supposons que différents niveaux de HDAC1 ou HDAC2 dans les CEI induisent différentes réponses dans le maintien de l’homéostasie intestinale. Nous avons donc généré des souris hétérozygotes avec un seul allèle de Hdac1 ou Hdac2 dans le contexte de la délétion de l’autre. Les résultats indiquent que les souris Hdac1-/-;Hdac2+/- Villine-Cre présentent un phénotype similaire à celui d’un double mutant, à savoir des défauts d'architecture dans le jéjunum et le côlon, de la dysplasie et hyperplasie, une réduction du nombre de cellules à mucus, mais sans modification du nombre de cellules de Paneth et de la perméabilité épithéliale. Un allèle de Hdac2 n'est donc pas suffisant pour maintenir une homéostasie normale en l'absence de Hdac1. Nous avons aussi vérifié l’effet de la délétion de Hdac1 et Hdac2 à l’âge adulte dans le modèle inductible AhCre. Dans ce contexte, la perte de Hdac1 et Hdac2 entraîne une mortalité accrue après 8 jours, avec un arrêt de prolifération et l’induction de dommages à l’ADN. Nous avons alors exploré l’impact moléculaire de la perte des deux Hdac dans les CEI par une approche protéomique et transcriptomique. Nous avons observé des changements notables dans plusieurs voies de signalisation, associées à la prolifération, à des mécanismes de stress, au métabolisme, surtout lipidique. Ces changements sont en partie régulés post-traductionnellement. Bien que très instructifs, les modèles in vivo ne permettent pas de déterminer si les modifications de l’expression des gènes observées sans Hdac1 et/ou Hdac2 sont intrinsèques aux CEI ou si ces changements dépendent de signaux extrinsèques de la muqueuse ou de la lumière intestinale. Nous avons donc établi des cultures d’entéroïdes à partir de la crypte intestinale, ce qui permet la croissance, l'expansion et la différenciation des CEI progénitrices, sans l’influence de l’environnement. Nous avons entrepris des analyses protéomiques de type SILAC, suite à une inhibition pharmacologique des HDAC de type I, le CI994, ou suite à une délétion génétique de Hdac1 ou Hdac2. L’inhibition pharmacologique entraine un arrêt de prolifération associé à une différenciation altérée en faveur des cellules absorbantes, rappelant le modèle murin sans Hdac1 et Hdac2. Les voies liées à la réplication de l’ADN et au cycle cellulaire sont diminuées. Même si la perte de Hdac1 ou Hdac2 n’affecte pas notablement la croissance et la différenciation des entéroïdes, des voies associées au métabolisme et aux réponses à l’environnement sont augmentées. Au contraire, des entéroïdes sans Hdac1 et Hdac2 ne croissent pas en culture et dégénèrent en moins de 3 jours. Ceci suggère que l’environnement mucosal pourrait soutenir les CEI Hdac1-/-;Hdac2-/- de la niche épithéliale in vivo. Nos données suggèrent que des variations intrinsèques ou extrinsèques de l'activité de HDAC1 et HDAC2 modifient la réponse des CEI à l’environnement et entraînent des perturbations de l'homéostasie intestinale.
3

Overexpression of HDAC1 Induces Functional β-cell Mass

Draney, Carrie 01 November 2016 (has links)
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that results in β-cell dysfunction and ultimate destruction, and leads to impaired glucose homeostasis. High rates of proliferation and differentiation of pancreatic β-cells occurs mostly during neonatal development. However, research shows these mechanisms remain intact as β-cell proliferation has been observed during pregnancy and obesity. We have shown that overexpression of the β-cell transcription factor Nkx6.1 is sufficient to induce β-cell proliferation. Exploration of the transcriptional targets of Nkx6.1 has identified histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) as a down-stream target of Nkx6.1. Here we demonstrate that HDAC1 overexpression is sufficient to induce β-cell proliferation, enhance β-cell survival upon exposure to apoptotic stimuli and maintains glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Our data suggests overexpression of HDAC1 leads to p15/INK4b suppression, a cell cycle inhibitor, potentially explaining the mechanism behind these observed effects. These data demonstrate that HDAC1 overexpression is sufficient to induce β-cell proliferation and enhance cell survival while maintaining glucose stimulated insulin secretion.
4

Tyrosine Phosphorylation of p68 RNA Helicase Promotes Metastasis in Colon Cancer Progression

Liu, Chia Yi 18 June 2012 (has links)
The initiation of cancer metastasis usually requires Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), by which tumor cells lose cell-cell interactions and gain the ability of migration and invasion. Previous study demonstrated that p68 RNA helicase, a prototypical member of the DEAD-box RNA helicases, functions as a mediator to promote platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced EMT through facilitating nuclear translocation of β-catenin in colon cancer cells. In this context, p68 RNA helicase was found to be phosphorylated at the tyrosine 593 residue (referred as phosphor-p68) by c-Abl kinase, and this phosphorylation is required for the activation of β-catenin signaling and the consequent EMT. The phosphor-p68 RNA helicase-mediated EMT was characterized by the repression of an epithelial marker, E-cadherin, and the upregulation of a mesenchymal marker, Vimentin. E-cadherin, a major cell-cell adhesion molecule that is involved in the formation of adherens junctions, has been shown to sequester β-catenin at the cell membrane and thus inhibit its transcriptional activity. The functional loss of E-cadherin is the fundamental event of EMT. Despite the role of phosphor-p68 RNA helicase in regulating nuclear translocation of β-catenin, whether phosphor-p68 is involved in the regulation of E-cadherin remains unknown. Here, our data indicated that phosphor-p68 RNA helicase initiated EMT by transcriptional upregulation of Snail1, a master transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin. The data suggest that phosphor-p68 RNA helicase displaced HDAC1 from the chromatin remodeling MBD3:Mi-2/NuRD complex at the Snail1 promoter, thereby activating the transcription of Snail1. In the xenograft tumor model, abolishing the phosphorylation of p68 RNA helicase by the expression of Y593F mutant resulted in a significant reduction of metastatic potential in human colon cancer cells. Analyses in the colon cancer tissues also revealed that the tyrosine 593 phosphorylation level of p68 RNA helicase is substantially enhanced in the tumor tissues comparing to that in the corresponding normal counterparts, suggesting a correlation of phosphor-p68 and tumor progression. In conclusion, we showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of p68 RNA helicase positively correlated to the malignant status of colon cancer progression. The molecular basis behind this correlation could be partly through the transcriptional regulation of Snail1.
5

FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IDENTIFIED DEAF1 VARIANTS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF HDAC1 INTERACTIONS ON DEAF1-MEDIATED TRANSCRIPTIONAL REPRESSION

Adhikari, Sandeep 01 June 2021 (has links)
Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor 1 (DEAF1) encodes a transcription factor essential in early embryonic and neuronal development. In humans, mutations in the DNA binding domain of DEAF1 cause intellectual disability together with clinical characteristics collectively termed DEAF1-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (DAND). The objective of this study is to 1) assess the pathogenicity of newly identified variants using established functional assays, and 2) confirm and map the interaction domain of DEAF1 with HDAC1 and evaluate the importance of DEAF1-HDAC1 interaction on DEAF1-mediated transcriptional repression. Exome sequencing analysis identified six de novo DEAF1 mutations (p.D200Y, p.S201R, p.K250E, p.D251N, p.K253E, and p.F297S). Promoter activity experiments indicate DEAF1 transcriptional repression activity was altered by p.K250E, p.K253E, and p.F297S. Transcriptional activation activity was altered by p.K250E, p.K253E, p.F297S, and p.D251N. Combined with clinical phenotype of the patients, this work establishes the pathogenicity of new DEAF1 variants. Previous studies identified a potential protein interaction between DEAF1 and several proteins of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylating (NuRD) complex including Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 4 (RBBP4), Methyl CpG Binding Domain Protein 3 (MBD3). GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays confirmed and mapped the interaction with HDAC1 between amino acids 113 – 176 of DEAF1. To determine whether DEAF1-mediated repression requires HDAC1 activity, HEK293t wild type or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated DEAF1 knockout cells were treated with the HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA). Interestingly, this study demonstrates that the requirement of HDAC1 activity on DEAF1-mediated transcriptional repression activity is target gene specific and expands our understanding of DEAF1 mediated transcriptional repression.
6

REGULATION OF NEURAL CREST DEVELOPMENT REQUIRES FUNCTIONAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HDAC1, TFAP2A AND FOXD3

Unal Eroglu, Arife 20 May 2013 (has links)
No description available.
7

Understanding C/EBPbeta LAP/LIP Transcriptional and Adipogenic Potential Through Regulation by HDAC1 and GCN5

Salem Abdou, Houssein 17 May 2011 (has links)
The CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta (C/EBPβ) is part of the leucine zipper family of transcription factors and is involved in a myriad of processes including cellular proliferation and differentiation. C/EBPβ is expressed as three isoforms (LAP*, LAP, LIP), translated from a single mRNA by a leaky ribosomal scanning mechanism. While LAP* and LAP have activating functions, LIP is recognized as being a repressor of transcription due to its lack of activation domains. Numerous studies have shown that C/EBPβ acetylation state modulates its activity in a promoter-specific manner. For instance, the acetyltransferases GCN5/PCAF and the deacetylase complex mSin3A/HDAC1 regulate C/EBPβ activity on the C/EBPa promoter. GCN5/PCAF-mediated acetylation of C/EBPβ was shown to positively affect its transcriptional activity in a steroid-dependent mechanism via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GR relieves HDAC1 association from C/EBPβ by targeting the deacetylase for proteasomal degradation, hence favouring GCN5-mediated acetylation of C/EBPβ and allowing maximum activation capacity to be reached. In order to further elucidate C/EBPβ activation, I sought to characterize the interplay between GCN5 and HDAC1 in regulating C/EBPβ LAP/LIP activity during murine adipogenesis by identifying their binding domain in C/EBPβ. I identified a minimal domain located within regulatory domain 1 (RD1) of C/EBPβ that is required for both GCN5 and HDAC1 binding. Furthermore, the loss of the identified domain in C/EBPβ appears to partially mimic the GR effect, thus giving C/EBPβ a higher basal transcriptional activity that accelerates NIH 3T3 and 3T3 L1 adipogenesis. Moreover, I also showed that the LIP isoform inhibitory mode of action is partially mediated through the mSin3A/HDAC1 repressor complex, which gives LIP an active repressor function. In addition to LIP inhibitory function, I also showed that a cysteine residue located in LAP* negatively regulates its transactivating function during murine adipogenesis. Although RD1 of C/EBPβ has been suggested to act as a negative regulatory domain, I showed that only five residues are responsible for most of its inhibitory effect. Hence, in an attempt to further define sub-domains within RD1, I characterized a new positive regulatory domain at its N-terminal region, which seems to be required for C/EBPβ activity in a promoter-specific manner. In conclusion, this study not only supports previously hypothesized mechanisms by which C/EBPβ is regulated, but it also redefines the contribution of LAP*, LAP and LIP in regulating transcription. Most importantly, the results emphasize the countless possibilities by which C/EBPβ transactivation potential could be modulated during cellular differentiation.
8

Functional Role of Dead-Box P68 RNA Helicase in Gene Expression

Lin, Chunru 31 July 2006 (has links)
How tumor cells migrate and metastasize from primary sites requires four major steps: invasion, intravasation, extravasation and proliferation from micrometastases to malignant tumor. The initiation of tumor cell invasion requires Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), by which tumor cells lose cell-cell interactions and gain the ability of migration. The gene expression profile during the EMT process has been extensively investigated to study the initiation of EMT. In our studies, we indicated that tyrosine phosphorylation of human p68 RNA helicase positively associated with the malignant status of tumor tissue or cells. Studying of this relationship revealed that p68 RNA helicase played a critical role in EMT progression by repression of E-cadherin as an epithelial marker and upregulation of Vimentin as a mesenchymal marker. Insight into the mechanism of how p68 RNA helicase represses E-cadherin expression indicated that p68 RNA helicase initiated EMT by transcriptional upregulation of Snail. Human p68 RNA helicase has been documented as an RNA-dependent ATPase. The protein is an essential factor in the pre-mRNA splicing procedure. Some examples show that p68 RNA helicase functions as a transcriptional coactivator in ATPase dependent or independent manner. Here we indicated that p68 RNA helicase unwound protein complexes to modulate protein-protein interactions by using protein-dependent ATPase activity. The phosphorylated p68 RNA helicase displaced HDAC1 from the chromatin remodeling MBD3:Mi2/NuRD complex at the Snail promoter. Thus, our data demonstrated an example of protein-dependent ATPase which modulates protein-protein interactions within the chromatin remodeling machine.
9

Understanding C/EBPbeta LAP/LIP Transcriptional and Adipogenic Potential Through Regulation by HDAC1 and GCN5

Salem Abdou, Houssein 17 May 2011 (has links)
The CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta (C/EBPβ) is part of the leucine zipper family of transcription factors and is involved in a myriad of processes including cellular proliferation and differentiation. C/EBPβ is expressed as three isoforms (LAP*, LAP, LIP), translated from a single mRNA by a leaky ribosomal scanning mechanism. While LAP* and LAP have activating functions, LIP is recognized as being a repressor of transcription due to its lack of activation domains. Numerous studies have shown that C/EBPβ acetylation state modulates its activity in a promoter-specific manner. For instance, the acetyltransferases GCN5/PCAF and the deacetylase complex mSin3A/HDAC1 regulate C/EBPβ activity on the C/EBPa promoter. GCN5/PCAF-mediated acetylation of C/EBPβ was shown to positively affect its transcriptional activity in a steroid-dependent mechanism via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GR relieves HDAC1 association from C/EBPβ by targeting the deacetylase for proteasomal degradation, hence favouring GCN5-mediated acetylation of C/EBPβ and allowing maximum activation capacity to be reached. In order to further elucidate C/EBPβ activation, I sought to characterize the interplay between GCN5 and HDAC1 in regulating C/EBPβ LAP/LIP activity during murine adipogenesis by identifying their binding domain in C/EBPβ. I identified a minimal domain located within regulatory domain 1 (RD1) of C/EBPβ that is required for both GCN5 and HDAC1 binding. Furthermore, the loss of the identified domain in C/EBPβ appears to partially mimic the GR effect, thus giving C/EBPβ a higher basal transcriptional activity that accelerates NIH 3T3 and 3T3 L1 adipogenesis. Moreover, I also showed that the LIP isoform inhibitory mode of action is partially mediated through the mSin3A/HDAC1 repressor complex, which gives LIP an active repressor function. In addition to LIP inhibitory function, I also showed that a cysteine residue located in LAP* negatively regulates its transactivating function during murine adipogenesis. Although RD1 of C/EBPβ has been suggested to act as a negative regulatory domain, I showed that only five residues are responsible for most of its inhibitory effect. Hence, in an attempt to further define sub-domains within RD1, I characterized a new positive regulatory domain at its N-terminal region, which seems to be required for C/EBPβ activity in a promoter-specific manner. In conclusion, this study not only supports previously hypothesized mechanisms by which C/EBPβ is regulated, but it also redefines the contribution of LAP*, LAP and LIP in regulating transcription. Most importantly, the results emphasize the countless possibilities by which C/EBPβ transactivation potential could be modulated during cellular differentiation.
10

Transcriptional regulation of the pro-apoptotic gene Bnip3 by P65 NF-κB, Histone Deacetylase 1, and E2F-1 in postnatal ventricular myocytes

Shaw, James Alexander 20 August 2009 (has links)
Apoptotic cell death of cardiac myocytes plays an important pathological role after a myocardial infarction and during heart failure. Apoptotic myocytes are not regenerated because of the restricted ability of terminally differentiated cardiac myocytes to undergo cell division. Because ventricular function is directly related to the number of active muscle cells, the inappropriate loss or premature death of cardiac myocytes results in reduced cardiac performance. Bnip3 was previously identified by Dr. Lorrie Kirshenbaum’s laboratory as a critical mediator of hypoxia-induced apoptosis in the heart. Importantly, his lab established that the cytoprotective actions of NF-κB during hypoxia included the transcriptional repression of Bnip3. However, the mechanism by which NF-κB acted as a transcriptional repressor was undefined. The present work strongly supports the hypothesis that NF-κB-mediated inhibition of Bnip3 transcription is dependent on the recruitment of the corepressor protein HDAC1. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that HDAC1 and p65 NF-κB formed protein-protein interactions. ChIP assays demonstrated that HDAC1 and p65 NF-κB associated with the Bnip3 promoter. HDAC1-mediated repression of Bnip3 was lost in cells deficient for p65 NF-κB, and restored upon repletion of p65. A second avenue of investigation described in this work demonstrated that the cell cycle factor E2F-1 directly activated Bnip3 transcription. Earlier work by Dr. Kirshenbaum found that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of E2F-1 in ventricular myocytes induced apoptosis. Herein, it is shown that E2F-1-mediated cell death is largely Bnip3-dependent because functional loss of Bnip3 inhibited E2F-1-induced cell death. Concerning hypoxia, Bnip3 expression is dependent upon the loss of p65/HDAC1-mediated repression, and on the presence of transcriptionally active E2F-1. During hypoxia, overexpression of p65, HDAC1, or Rb, an endogenous inhibitor of E2F-1-dependent transcription, attenuated hypoxia-induced Bnip3 transcription. Based on these findings, future therapies may be designed to repress Bnip3 gene expression after a myocardial infarction, thereby averting cardiac cell death and preserving cardiac function post-infarction.

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