Hildingsson, Frida, Nyström, Lena
Transnational knowledge transfer projects (TKTP) has become a strategic way for organizations to transfer knowledge across national boundaries in order to maintain their competitive position. However, the complex and unique nature of TKTPs makes these difficult for project managers (PMs) to handle and the lack of a solid foundation among scholars thus required further insight into what affects these types of projects and how they can be managed. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of which critical factors appear and how PMs can facilitate the execution of TKTPs. The research purpose was addressed through an abductive approach, using a multiple case study of projects at a selected case company, able to provide great insights regarding TKTPs and the management of such projects. In total, three different projects were chosen, whereby a total of 18 interviews were performed with participants from each project. The results showed that certain critical factors must be taken in consideration and dealt with by PMs at a certain point in time, i.e. during the different phases of the TKTP. As such, PMs are able to facilitate the execution of TKTPs. The results are further presented in a framework, illustrating a process presenting each phase in detail with the corresponding critical factors and how PMs can deal with them. Prior literature regarding knowledge transfer projects (KTP) in general is not sufficient to receive a comprehensive understanding of the transnational perspective, i.e. the added complexity in transferring across national boundaries. The results provided in this research hence extend the previous literature by viewing in detail which critical factors appear and how managers can facilitate the execution of TKTP by presenting a framework illustrating the additional critical factors, and how managers can deal with them. The managerial implications entail that as TKTPs and organizations are so unique, the framework must be adapted to the specific situation at hand. In addition, the framework further helps PMs to overcome the complexity of TKTPs, as it guides PMs through the project phase by phase. The results provide PMs with directives to facilitate the execution of TKTPs and a foundation for new global business opportunities.
While the importance of knowledge creation and management has been widely recognised as vital to an organisation's ongoing competitiveness and success since the 1990s, there has been little systematic study of knowledge creation and transfer processes in organisations. Much of what has been reported in the literature is anecdotal in nature. Particularly lacking is research within an international context, exploring issues related to the transfer of knowledge across countries and culture. It is proposed that there is a need for theory building research in the area of knowledge transfer. Given the complex and social nature of knowledge, a qualitative approach to undertaking this research was adopted. The study is an inductive, theory-building case study in relation to a multinational company. In summary, this study evaluated the effectiveness of a best practice knowledge management program in achieving knowledge transfer in sales and marketing practices throughout the markets of Europe, Middle East, Africa and Latin America. It considered the methods by which knowledge was transferred and their relative effectiveness, and those factors which may have mediated or limited the knowledge transfer processes. The research was undertaken by the company's Knowledge Manager who had created the best-practice knowledge transfer program. The implications of this situation on the study's validity and reliability are discussed, and were taken into account in the design of the questionnaire and in the analysis of all findings. The case study site was a European-based, global travel technology company. The principal data-gathering method was a structured interview conducted by telephone with senior staff from within 28 European and Latin American markets. In total, 31 interviews were undertaken. This broad-ranging interview method gathered information and feedback on the processes used for identifying and distributing best practices in sales and marketing. The interview data were supplemented by feedback questionnaires from best practice forums, intranet usage statistics, observations from best practice forums and from interviews with staff in the central organisation. While there was evidence that knowledge transfer had occurred, the results of the study highlighted the difficulties in effectively measuring the knowledge transfer process. It is the researcher's view that clear and visible measures of knowledge transfer are not universal or even generic, but rather are to be discerned in a range of indicators across actions, behaviours, attitudes and outcomes in culture-specific settings. A time based knowledge measurement model was developed to assist in this regard. Other major outcomes from the research included: * The confirmation of the critical importance of face-to-face communication mechanisms for knowledge transfer to result in knowledge uptake. * The identification of the role of technology as an enabler of communication and distribution of knowledge, but not as a driver for action or knowledge uptake. * The recognition of the relationship between the broad factors impacting on knowledge transfer such as organisational factors, external environment and individual characteristics, in a complex and non-linear manner, suggesting that knowledge transfer is a multi-factorial process involving interacting variables to an extent greater than generally accepted hitherto. A tool for use within organisational settings has been developed in this regard. * The identification of the interplay between different individual specific characteristics or factors such as personal experience of change, experience of working in a different cultural context, ego/personality, and credibility of the person transmitting the practice which influence the decision to adopt or not adopt a practice from another market. * The identification of the need for cultural similarity and high levels of homogeneity, in terms of market maturity, market size and competitive position for practices to transfer more often between countries. * The recognition that many factors operate to influence and shape the knowledge or indeed to block the transfer of practices between countries, with resistance to other practices possibly relating to an individual's need for the application of creativity, personal ownership and control. Additionally, the researcher observed that much of the language within the existing literature describing those factors which block or limit knowledge transfer is negatively framed. The researcher believes that a change in attitude about the positive influence of an individual's filtering processes, together with a change in organisational language describing resistance to knowledge transfer, would yield a positive impact on individuals' attitudes and behaviour with regard to knowledge transfer. Several areas for further research as a result of the study were identified and include individual factors such as cultural characteristics, motivation, personality and adult learning styles. Additionally, a more detailed examination and understanding of the impact of organisational factors such as leadership and generational gaps on knowledge transfer would be of significant value to the body of knowledge.
Holzbaur, U., Jordaan, G., Kokt, D.
Published Article / The reasons, objects, means and methods for a transfer of scientific results to society are analysed in the article. Among this, knowledge transfer - especially technology transfer - and on projects, especially joint projects with the aim of creating or transferring knowledge are concentrated upon. Success factors for bringing science to support socioeconomic development also receive attention.
Management of skills shortages within Eskom : a case study of Medupi Power Station, Lephalale, South AfricaRavu, Yagambram 14 January 2015 (has links)
Submitted in fullfilment of part of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Technology: Management Sciences, Durban University of Technology, 2014. / The study explores issues around human resources and training within Eskom using the Medupi Power Station as a case study. This power station is currently being constructed in the Limpopo province approximately 350 kilometres north of Gauteng. The main aim of the study was to identify the skills shortages on the project and make recommendations on how to manage them in the long and short term. The research objectives included ascertaining the types of skills shortages being experienced and perceptions regarding the employment of expatriates and their contribution to knowledge transfer at Eskom. The mixed methods approach was utilised to conduct the research. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods using questionnaires and interviews provided detailed and relevant data for addressing the research questions. A sample of 48 highly skilled employees who are currently working on the Medupi Project participated in the study. They included senior management, engineering and other technical staff and human resources personnel. The results revealed the nature of the skills shortages on the Project, namely supervisory, civil engineering and contracts management skills. The findings regarding the employment of expatriates reveal that they are employed on a contract basis and can terminate their contract on a short notice. This has an adverse effect on continuity on the Project. In addition, the local employees believed that the expatriates are chiefly motivated by the financial incentives and are not fully capable of transferring skills as they do not have power station experience. The study proposes a new knowledge transfer model for the Medupi Project. According to this model, the line management’s ability to provide an enabling work environment and support for on-the-job training influences knowledge transfer. Furthermore, employee motivation to acquire and utilise a newly learnt skill on the job, the setting of goals that are achievable given the multitude of constraints experienced on the Project, and senior management support are key determinants of line managements’ success in providing an enabling knowledge transfer environment. / D
Bark, Jenny, Bergman, David
<p>Sending employees on global assignments are becoming a means for companies to gain new knowledge and consequently increase their competitive advantage. This has created a new focus on the repatriation of employees. Repatriation is although still a disregarded aspect in research and many returning repatriates experience difficulties to readjust and feel dissatisfied with the repatriation process. More analytical information is thus needed for managers to inform about what actions to take to generate more advantageous results for both the company and the repatriate. The aim of the thesis is therefore to further examine how a business can manage repatriates to transfer knowledge more effective. The study expires in a conceptual framework concerning management of repatriates for effective knowledge transfer. A case study of a company within the consulting industry was conducted and the methodology used for answering the aim was the implementation of a survey. The purpose was to generate as qualitative answers as possible and as a result a questionnaire with a majority of open-ended questions was outlined. The questions were grounded in the framework and the analysis of the empirical findings showed dispersed answers and signs of dissatisfaction among the repatriates. Conclusions drawn from the analysis are that the management of repatriates needs to be further implemented within the company. For example an articulated process consisting of the three different steps: before, during and after the assignment should be elaborated for the company to become more competitive through knowledge transfer.</p>
Mayiwar, Lewend, Nano, Gino, Donnestenn, Glenn
Tracking and capturing tacit knowledge of individuals in a way that can be leveraged by a company is one of the fastest growing challenges in knowledge management. In addition, the dynamism and changing role of today’s economy brings with it many challenges left with organizations to face. As employee turnover is caused by many uncontrollable factors, this paper aims at exploring how organizations can reduce its negative impact by creating and retaining critical knowledge, rather than suggesting ways in which employee turnover can be reduced.
Ekeke, Hamilton Ekemena
This study investigates how knowledge is transferred in the Nigerian public service, the features of its bureaucratic culture, as well as, the effects that this culture has on knowledge transfer. The motivation to undertake this study is borne out of the identified gap in the literature, which bothers on the dearth of studies in the area of knowledge transfer, as well as, the specific features inherent in that of the Nigerian public service bureaucratic culture. Qualitative and quantitative research methods (i.e. semi-structured interviews and survey) are combined in gathering data for this study. Both the interviews and survey sample frames undertaken with key players of the public service covering the three cadres, (senior, and junior and management/directorate staff), were representative of all the aspects of the public service covered. Seven ministries out of a total of seventeen in the Bayelsa state public service forms the sample frame used for this research The overall empirical results indicate that there is knowledge transfer in the Nigerian public service in view of the available mechanisms used for the transfer of knowledge. In addition, the Nigerian bureaucratic culture has more negative effects than positive on knowledge transfer. The application of Hofstede’s theory reveals a high level of inequality, masculinity and autocracy as features of the Nigerian public service bureaucratic culture. The study also reveals that there is the use of very high sounding military fashion language in the public service, due to the long period of military rule. This research finds that there is reasonable awareness amongst public servants about knowledge and its sources that is needed to run the public service, but that access to knowledge, particularly tacit knowledge by authorised staff is difficult. Public servants agree that certain kind of knowledge transfer activities persist, although the terminology is relatively new to Nigeria. They agree that under the current democratic environment in which the public service operates, government should make concerted efforts to establish a knowledge transfer culture so as to make knowledge readily available. It recommends the entrenchment of a leaning, training and collaborative culture, as well as, the de-emphasising of hierarchy and creation of a more flexible public service. The contribution of this study to knowledge is in the area of putting in place a framework for the effective implementation of knowledge management practice (transfer) in the Nigerian public service.
Vertical knowledge transfer from multinational enterprises (MNEs) to Chinese supplier firms : an explorative studyDuanmu, Jing-Lin January 2006 (has links)
No description available.
The Effects of Culture when Transferring Knowledge in Offshoring Projects : - A case study conducted between IBM Nordic and IBM IndiaEgerkrans, Helene, Weckner, Lina January 2007 (has links)
<p>Increasingly, MNC’s transfer parts of their operation to low wage countries in order to cut costs. The theory refers to this as to ‘offshoring’. The transfer of knowledge is a critical part of a successful offshoring project. In cross-boarder projects culture will influence the work. Thus, the aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of the effects of culture and to reveal unexplored areas in the existing theories, through that the paper contributes with implications for how cultural challenges can be dealt with in an operational context.</p><p>By connecting leading theories on knowledge transfer, offshoring and culture, a theoretical framework has been created. In order to expand the existing the theories a case study was conducted at IBM, studying two offshoring projects to India. The case study was conducted through eight qualitative interviews with six different respondents. All respondents were managers in IBM Nordic and IBM India. The interviews were conducted individually and as focus groups and carried out as discussions. The empirical data presented in the study also consists of information derived from strategy documents,provided to us by IBM.</p><p>We found a number of factors to be considered in offshoring projects, which were not part of the theoretical framework,e.g. responsibilities for governance of the project should be decided and that the HR department should be involved from the start. Furthermore we found some areas of the process, which were more influenced by culture than others, such as what creates motivation and trust.</p>
The Effects of Culture when Transferring Knowledge in Offshoring Projects : - A case study conducted between IBM Nordic and IBM IndiaEgerkrans, Helene, Weckner, Lina January 2007 (has links)
Increasingly, MNC’s transfer parts of their operation to low wage countries in order to cut costs. The theory refers to this as to ‘offshoring’. The transfer of knowledge is a critical part of a successful offshoring project. In cross-boarder projects culture will influence the work. Thus, the aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of the effects of culture and to reveal unexplored areas in the existing theories, through that the paper contributes with implications for how cultural challenges can be dealt with in an operational context. By connecting leading theories on knowledge transfer, offshoring and culture, a theoretical framework has been created. In order to expand the existing the theories a case study was conducted at IBM, studying two offshoring projects to India. The case study was conducted through eight qualitative interviews with six different respondents. All respondents were managers in IBM Nordic and IBM India. The interviews were conducted individually and as focus groups and carried out as discussions. The empirical data presented in the study also consists of information derived from strategy documents,provided to us by IBM. We found a number of factors to be considered in offshoring projects, which were not part of the theoretical framework,e.g. responsibilities for governance of the project should be decided and that the HR department should be involved from the start. Furthermore we found some areas of the process, which were more influenced by culture than others, such as what creates motivation and trust.
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