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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Scrum som möjliggörare för kunskapsöverföring? : - en studie om kunskapsöverföring mellan utvecklare på ett mjukvaruföretag

Larsdotter Nilsson, Emma January 2014 (has links)
Kunskap är som mest användbar när den har inflytande och delas med andra varför medarbetarna inom en organisation bör ha möjlighet att lära av varandra. Då en individ delar eller sprider sin kunskap och erfarenhet till någon annan benämns det som kunskapsöverföring. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om och hur kunskapsöverföring mellan utvecklare möjliggörs när en organisation inom mjukvaruindustrin använder Scrum som arbetsmetod. Studien avser även undersöka huruvida metoden på något sätt hindrar kunskapsöverföring. För att besvara syftet ställs följande huvudfråga: Hur möjliggör Scrum kunskapsöverföring mellan utvecklare? vilken består av tre delfrågor: (i) Var sker kunskapsöverföring i Scrum? (ii) Vilken typ av kunskap sprids i Scrum? (iii) Vad kan hindra kunskapsöverföringen då Scrum används som arbetsmetod? Med utgångspunkt i teorier om kunskap, kunskapsöverföring och kontexten för kunskapsöverföring samt den teoretiska beskrivningen av Scrum utformades en analysmodell som visar Scrums förväntade stöd för kunskapsöverföring. Den insamlade empirin består av observationer och intervjuer vilka genomfördes under en tio veckor lång praktik på ett mjukvaruföretag som nyligen tillämpat Scrum som arbetsmetod. På fallföretaget har Scrum anpassats till verksamhetens behov med hjälp av tre scrumteam, till skillnad från teorin som beskriver Scrum utifrån endast ett scrumteam. Av resultatet framgår att två av Scrums ceremonier samt co-location utgör ett direkt stöd för kunskapsöverföring och tre av ceremonierna utgör ett indirekt stöd. En av ceremonierna utgör både ett direkt och indirekt stöd. Vidare visar studien att flera scrumteam kan hindra kunskapsöverföring mellan utvecklare i olika scrumteam. Sammanfattningsvis indikerar studien att Scrum till viss del bidrar med en kontext som möjliggör för viss typ av kunskapsöverföring. / Knowledge is most useful when it has influence and is shared with others. Therefore, employees of an organization should have the opportunity to learn from each other. When an individual share his or her knowledge to another, this is termed knowledge transfer. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether and how knowledge transfer between software developers is made possible when an organization in the software industry is using Scrum as a working method. The study also intends to examine whether the method in any way prevents knowledge transfer. In order to answer the purpose the following main questions were addressed: How does Scrum enable knowledge transfer between developers? This question further consists of three parts: (i) Where does knowledge transfer take place? (ii) What type of knowledge is transferred in Scrum? (iii) What can prevent the knowledge transfer when Scrum is used as a working method? Based on theories of knowledge, knowledge transfer, the context for knowledge transfer, and the theoretical description of Scrum, a specific framework was designed. The framework shows the expected support for knowledge transfer by Scrum. The collected empirical data consists of observations and interviews, which were conducted during a ten-week case study at a software company that recently implemented Scrum as a working method. The company has adapted Scrum to business needs with the help of three scrum teams, as opposed to the theory that describes Scrum based on only one scrum team. The results show that two of Scrum ceremonies and co-location constitutes direct support for knowledge transfer, and three ceremonies constitute an indirect support. One ceremony constitutes both direct and indirect support. The study also shows that several scrum teams can prevent knowledge transfer between developers in different scrum teams. In conclusion, the study indicates that Scrum partly contributes a context that allows for certain types of knowledge transfer.

Policy space abstraction for a lifelong learning agent

Hawasly, Majd January 2014 (has links)
This thesis is concerned with policy space abstractions that concisely encode alternative ways of making decisions; dealing with discovery, learning, adaptation and use of these abstractions. This work is motivated by the problem faced by autonomous agents that operate within a domain for long periods of time, hence having to learn to solve many different task instances that share some structural attributes. An example of such a domain is an autonomous robot in a dynamic domestic environment. Such environments raise the need for transfer of knowledge, so as to eliminate the need for long learning trials after deployment. Typically, these tasks would be modelled as sequential decision making problems, including path optimisation for navigation tasks, or Markov Decision Process models for more general tasks. Learning within such models often takes the form of online learning or reinforcement learning. However, handling issues such as knowledge transfer and multiple task instances requires notions of structure and hierarchy, and that raises several questions that form the topic of this thesis – (a) can an agent acquire such hierarchies in policies in an online, incremental manner, (b) can we devise mathematically rigorous ways to abstract policies based on qualitative attributes, (c) when it is inconvenient to employ prolonged trial and error learning, can we devise alternate algorithmic methods for decision making in a lifelong setting? The first contribution of this thesis is an algorithmic method for incrementally acquiring hierarchical policies. Working with the framework of options - temporally extended actions - in reinforcement learning, we present a method for discovering persistent subtasks that define useful options for a particular domain. Our algorithm builds on a probabilistic mixture model in state space to define a generalised and persistent form of ‘bottlenecks’, and suggests suitable policy fragments to make options. In order to continuously update this hierarchy, we devise an incremental process which runs in the background and takes care of proposing and forgetting options. We evaluate this framework in simulated worlds, including the RoboCup 2D simulation league domain. The second contribution of this thesis is in defining abstractions in terms of equivalence classes of trajectories. Utilising recently developed techniques from computational topology, in particular the concept of persistent homology, we show that a library of feasible trajectories could be retracted to representative paths that may be sufficient for reasoning about plans at the abstract level. We present a complete framework, starting from a novel construction of a simplicial complex that describes higher-order connectivity properties of a spatial domain, to methods for computing the homology of this complex at varying resolutions. The resulting abstractions are motion primitives that may be used as topological options, contributing a novel criterion for option discovery. This is validated by experiments in simulated 2D robot navigation, and in manipulation using a physical robot platform. Finally, we develop techniques for solving a family of related, but different, problem instances through policy reuse of a finite policy library acquired over the agent’s lifetime. This represents an alternative approach when traditional methods such as hierarchical reinforcement learning are not computationally feasible. We abstract the policy space using a non-parametric model of performance of policies in multiple task instances, so that decision making is posed as a Bayesian choice regarding what to reuse. This is one approach to transfer learning that is motivated by the needs of practical long-lived systems. We show the merits of such Bayesian policy reuse in simulated real-time interactive systems, including online personalisation and surveillance.

Knowledge transfer from expatriates : A study of MNCs’ exploitation of expatriates’ knowledge

Hermansson, Frida, Kilnes, Ulrika January 2008 (has links)
<p>This paper investigates how expatriates experience that their knowledge gained from international assignments is transferred and exploited by the MNC. The results from 93 expatriates from eleven Large Cap companies suggest that knowledge is not exploited trough formal mechanisms. Instead informal mechanisms of knowledge transfer such as networks and own initiatives seem to be a more common way of transferring and exploiting knowledge in the investigated MNCs. The findings indicate that the knowledge that the expatriates that failed their mission abroad gained is not exploited to the same extent as the expatriates that successfully completed their assignments.</p>

Translating sustainable design : exploring sustainable design integration in Mexican SMEs

Victoria-Uribe, Ricardo January 2009 (has links)
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are widely recognized as an important part of the economy, particularly important in countries like Mexico, where SMEs make up almost 90% of the industry. However these SMEs do not consider their impact on the environment and surrounding communities to be a priority, and lack the proper information with regards to how to reduce it. The research presented in this thesis sets out to explore the implementation of Sustainable Design in Mexican SMEs, through the use of a guidebook in the form of a web based tool. This tool, tailored to the specific needs of the Mexican SMEs' aims to deliver·· clear and concise information, raise awareness and improve their environmental and social performance. Through a series of studies it was possible to identify that the socio-cultural and political context of the Mexican SMEs have an impact on the implementation of Sustainable Design. As well, these studies analyze if the proposed prototype tool is capable of working without external support. The findings from the studies were used to develop a theoretical framework for the future development of Sustainable Design information tools aimed at Mexican SMEs.

Wie Barrieren im Wissenstransfer überwunden werden können – Ergebnisse einer Studie zur Grundhaltung des Misstrauens oder Vertrauens

Schmid, Hedwig, Krcmar, Helmut Unknown Date (has links) (PDF)
„Wissensmanagement ist eine Herausforderung für alle Unternehmen, welche in der Wissensgesellschaft überleben und ihre Wettbewerbsposition ausbauen wollen“ ([Pro12] 1). Vor diesem Hintergrund scheint insbesondere der Austausch und Transfer von Wissen ein hohes Wettbewerbspotenzial aufzuweisen und gestaltungsbezogen eine hohe Relevanz zu haben (vgl. [Leh14] 5 f., 13 ff.; [Krc95] 24 ff.), während klassische Kostensenkungsmaßnahmen weitgehend ausgereizt scheinen (vgl. [Nor11] 1 f.). Die Weitergabe von wertgenerierendem Wissen in Unternehmen ist jedoch mit Barrieren verbunden, die stark auf Egoismen und Hemmnissen beruhen, und die es zu überwinden gilt. Der nachfolgende Beitrag zeigt reinterpretiert die wichtigsten Ergebnisse einer im Rahmen einer Dissertation erfolgten empirischen Untersuchung zur Überwindung von Barrieren im Wissenstransfer auf und leitet daraus Handlungsempfehlungen für die Praxis ab [Sch13].

Transferência de conhecimento na cadeia de suprimentos: um estudo em cadeias no Brasil e no Peru. / Knowledge transfer into a supply chain: a study within supply chains from Brazil and Peru.

Villanueva Llapa, Ana Daneida 01 December 2009 (has links)
O estudo da transferência de conhecimento no âmbito interorganizacional, dentro de uma cadeia de suprimentos, centra seu interesse nos fluxos de informação nos ganhos de eficiência. Embora a eficiente transferência de conhecimento seja vista como central para o sucesso da empresa, a maioria dos autores até o momento não especifica, ou testa os processos e mecanismos fundamentais através dos quais a transferência de conhecimento acontece entre as organizações de uma cadeia. Por esse motivo, para entender a transferência de conhecimento dentro da cadeia, definiu-se o seguinte objetivo: identificar as formas de transferência de conhecimento entre empresas participantes em uma cadeia de suprimentos e os fatores que influenciam o processo. Para tanto, foram estudadas empresas pertencentes a uma cadeia de suprimentos do setor têxtil: uma no Peru, a cadeia têxtil da fibra de alpaca e outra no Brasil, uma cadeia de fibras mistas (algodão e sintético). No embasamento teórico os principais temas abordados foram: a) as formas de transferência de conhecimento baseados no agrupamento de Argote et. al. (2000): movimentação de pessoal, treinamento, comunicação, observação, transferência de tecnologia, engenharia reversa, replicação das rotinas e das melhores práticas, interações nas relações interorganizacionais; b) Os fatores que influenciam na transferência baseados na agrupação de Szulanski (1996): características do conhecimento, da fonte, do receptor e do contexto. Depois da análise da literatura se realizou o trabalho de campo empregando a metodologia de entrevistas em profundidade, utilizando questionários semi-estruturados nas empresas dos diferentes elos da cadeia. Chegando aos seguintes resultados. No caso peruano da cadeia têxtil de fibra de alpaca, se verificou que é uma cadeia que oferece um produto exclusivo e escasso, bem estruturada, com relações de fornecimento bem estabelecidas. A maioria das empresas da cadeia pertence ao mesmo grupo econômico e se identificou que a governança da cadeia está na empresa de fiação, que por sua vez coordena os principais fluxos de conhecimento. A principal forma de transferência de conhecimento que ocorre na cadeia é a transferência de melhores práticas, devido ao fato da indústria ter seus principais clientes no exterior, exigindo que as empresas locais possam aprimorar todos seus processos para satisfazê-los. Também se verificou que a disposição para compartilhar o conhecimento é positiva e que o principal limitante em alguns casos foram diferenças culturais entre alguns agentes. No caso brasileiro, da cadeia têxtil de fibras mistas, observou-se que esta cadeia é mais dinâmica, não existe exclusividade no fornecimento, e é fortemente influenciada pela moda. Seus produtos são commodities, na qual todas as empresas dispõem do conhecimento e materiais para a fabricação das roupas. Não se identificou nenhuma empresa que possua a governança na cadeia. O ambiente de negócios é mais competitivo do que Peru e as principais formas de transferência constatadas foram: a engenharia reversa, transferência de pessoal, a observação e comunicação dentro das relações interorganizacionais. Sendo os relacionamentos mais dinâmicos e influenciados pela moda, o principal fator limitante é a ausência de uma estrutura interorganizacional que favoreça a transferência de conhecimento e que afetam por sua vez o desenvolvimento da confiança. / The study of knowledge transfer in the inter-organizational relationships within a supply chain put its focus on information flows over the efficiency gains. Although the efficient transfer of knowledge is seen like core for the success of the firm, most authors dont specify or test processes and mechanisms through which knowledge transfer takes place between organizations from a supply chain. Therefore, to understand the knowledge transfer within the chain, was defined the follow objective: to identify forms of knowledge transfer between participating companies from a supply chain and the factors that influence this process. By this way, were studied firms within a supply chain from the textile sector, one in Peru, the alpaca fiber textile chain and another in Brazil, a chain of mixed fibers (cotton and synthetic). On the theoretical basis, the main topics discussed are: a) forms of knowledge transfer on the basis of Argote et. al. (2000) grouping: movement of personnel, training, communication, observation, technology transfer, reverse engineering, routines and replication of best practices, interactions in inter-organizational networks b) Factors influencing transfer, based on Szulanskis (1996) grouping: features of knowledge, source, recipient and context. After literature review; a field work was enhanced using the methodology of in-depth interviews and using semi-structured questionnaires in firms from different links of the supply chain. Obtain the following results. In the case of the Peruvian textile chain of alpaca fiber, was verified that this chain is offering a unique and sparse good. It is well-structured, with supplier relationships as well established. Most companies in the chain belongs to the same group and was founded that the governance of the supply chain is in the spinning company, which in turn coordinates the main knowledge flows. The main form of knowledge transfer that occurs in the chain is the transfer of best practices; due to the fact the industry has its main customers abroad. By this way local businesses needs to improve all its processes to satisfy them. Also founded that, willingness to share knowledge is positive and that the main limiting in some cases were cultural differences among some agents. In Brazil, the textile supply chain, mixed fibers, was observed that this supply chain is more dynamic, there is no exclusivity in the provision, and is strongly influenced by fashion. Its products are commodities, in which all firms have the knowledge and materials in order to clothing manufacture. It was not identified any firm that maintains the governance over the supply chain. The business environment is more competitive than Peru and the main forms of transfer observed were: reverse engineering, transfer of personal observation and communication within inter-organizational relationships. Social relations are the most dynamic and influenced by fashion, the main limiting factor is the absence of a cross-organizational structure that fosters the transfer of knowledge and that in turn affect the development of trust.

How to improve an organization's desorptive capacity to facilitate knowledge transfer : A single case study at a multinational organization operating in transfer projects

Persson, Erik, Waldenborg, Emil January 2018 (has links)
Purpose - The purpose of this study is to describe how to improve an organization’s desorptive capacity to facilitate knowledge transfer in transfer projects. Method - This research was conducted as a single case study, with an abductive approach, were the unit of analysis has been transfer projects. The empirical data collection has been qualitative and was conducted through 20 semi-structured interviews. The interviews were held at the case company with project managers, sub-project managers and project members to widen the experience of everyone involved in transfer projects. A thematic analysis was utilized to possess the empirical data. Result - We found that it is essential to evaluate critical factors in the identification of a transfer project and utilize managerial tools to facilitate the application of the knowledge transferred to the recipient. We have created a framework that show the correlations between the evaluation of the critical factors and the utilization of the managerial tools, categorized in organizational practices. Depending on the evaluation of the critical factors, resources need to be allocated to specific organizational practices. This will result in an improvement of an organization’s desorptive capacity. Theoretical contribution - This report contributes to the literature by filling the gap regarding how to improve organizations’ desorptive capacity to facilitate knowledge transfer in transfer projects. We have identified the critical aspects of desorptive capacity andcontributed with a framework that can be adapted by organizationsto improve their desorptive capacity. Managerial implications - The findings in this study have potential to increase the awareness among organizations about the initial phase of transfer projects and contribute to an increased understanding of how an organization can improve their desorptive capacity. It is recommended to utilize the presented framework in this report to take advantages of the correlations found between the critical factors and the organizational practices.

Assessment of the capacity for evidence-based policy and practice in Australian population health

Adily, Armita, Public Health & Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW January 2009 (has links)
Evidence-based policy and practice (EBPP) in population health in Australia has been promoted largely without sound research. In response, this thesis presents a series of studies undertaken to assess and inform enhancement of capacity for EBPP in Australia. It comprises linked studies designed to examine different yet complementary aspects of capacity for EBPP. Research was conducted at various levels of Australian health care system, from local to national, in order to better understand EBPP and to make a series of recommendations about effective and synergistic response.

The process of knowledge transfer

Thomas, Teresa, Prétat, Cédric January 2009 (has links)
<p>There is a common agreement in literature that a company can create a sustainable competitive advantage by mastering knowledge and knowledge transfer. This requires to forward knowledge to other units at the correct time and in the right way.</p><p>The purpose of this research study is to explain in the first step general theoretical considerations related to the concept of knowledge, knowledge management as well as knowledge transfer. In a second step these concepts are illustrated with the help of four points of impact.</p><p>Some important aspects are discussed. First, the individual in the process of knowledge transfer is regarded: its behaviors, its interactions with its professional environment. Second, key tools are extended and finally the factors which influenced the process are presented.</p><p>Out of this a model is developed in an approach divided into three parts: the individual, social/collective and company perspective. This model also includes a process of knowledge transfer, the knowledge sharing achievement through a description of the main tools and actions which create a dynamic between the actors. In the last part we focus on a technical solution which can help companies to implement a knowledge transfer dynamic.</p>

Critical factors for communication and knowledge transfer : A study of Volvo Cars Corporation's Market Intelligence Department and their communication and Interaction with their various Internal Clients

Larsson, Marcus, Östberg, Erik January 2009 (has links)
<p>How information can be transferred efficiently within a large organization has been researched for a long time but has probably never been as important as it is in today´s global corporate world, where knowledge is an important key to success. To be able to successfully gather, analyze and transfer information throughout an organization is one of a Market Intelligence department´s main purposes. Decision makers throughout an organization are highly dependent on the quality of the Market Intelligence department´s findings and its communication and interaction activities.</p><p>The purpose of this thesis is therefore to investigate which critical factors that needs to be taken into consideration when a Market Intelligence department communicates its findings in order to facilitate knowledge transfer for their internal clients.</p><p>A theoretical background regarding communication and knowledge transfer is provided in order to understand the context of the thesis. The theoretical framework for this study is mainly based on Szulanski´s four critical dimensions of knowledge transfer; <em>characteristics of the knowledge transferred</em>, <em>of the source</em>, <em>of the recipient</em> and <em>of the context</em> in which the transfer takes place. In order to gather relevant empirical data for this study, Volvo Cars Corporation and its Market Intelligence department was contacted. The authors collected the primary data on site at Volvo Cars Corporation´s headquarter in Gothenburg, Sweden, during November 2009.</p><p>The study showed that there are several critical factors, some more important than others, that needs to be taken into consideration in order for a Market Intelligence department to communicate its findings in order to facilitate knowledge transfer for their internal clients.</p><p>An MI department needs to<em>:</em></p><ul><li><em>Consider the type of information and knowledge they intend to communicate and adjust its</em><em> communication approach accordingly</em>.</li><li><em>Be involved in their internal clients’ projects.</em></li><li><em>Be aware that today’s performance affects tomorrow’s credibility</em>.</li><li><em>Understand its internal clients’ absorptive skills.</em></li><li><em>Schedule enough time for interaction and an oral presentation in the </em><em>cases where it is needed.</em></li><li><em>Focus on building a relationship with its internal clients. </em></li></ul>

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