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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Technical and economic analysis of US offshore wind power

McDaniel Wyman, Constance Annette 11 June 2014 (has links)
Wind power is the fastest growing sector of electricity generation in the world and the development of offshore wind resources is an increasingly important component of this growth. While more than 1.5GW have been installed in Europe and China, no turbines have been installed in United States waters even though several have been planned. Offshore wind power development in the United States must contend with significant challenges. There are numerous technical considerations including geological issues and undefined environmental conditions that affect the determination of appropriate design loads. Technological advancements are needed, and logistical questions must be addressed. The regulatory structure can be confusing and most permitting frameworks are not well established. Offshore wind projects are capital intensive and concerns exist that the industry will not be able to achieve a suitable economy of scale. Additionally, concerns about offshore wind impacts cross many areas such as the environment, visual and cultural concerns, navigational issues, and competing uses. This research project examines the technical issues of American offshore wind power and models basic project costs to provide an estimate of the total net present value for hypothetical utility-scale offshore wind projects in the United States. Costs have been examined by building a cost model and employing traditional cash flow analysis, regression, design of experiments, and random sampling techniques. / text
2

Transmission alternatives for grid connection of large offshore wind farms at large distance / Transmissionslösningar för nätanslutning av stora havsbaserade vindkraftsparker

Moberg, Désirée January 2013 (has links)
With the great possibility of offshore wind power that can be installed in the world seas, offshore wind power is starting to get and important source of energy. The growing sizes of wind turbines and a growing distance to land, makes the choice of transmission alternative to a more important factor. The profitability of the transmission solution is affected by many parameters, like investment cost and power losses, but also by parameters like operation & maintenance and lead time of the system. The study is based on a planned wind farm with a rated power of 1 200 MW and at a distance of 125 km to the connection point. Four models have been made for the transmission network with the technology of HVAC, HVDC and a hybrid of both. The simulation program used is EeFarm II, which has an interface in Matlab and Simulink. The four solutions have been compared technically, with difficulties and advantages pointed out and also economically, with the help of LCOE, NPV and IRR. Costs, power losses and availability of the wind turbines and intra array network are not included in the study. The result of the simulations implies that the HVAC solution is the most profitable with the lowest Levelized Cost of Energy and highest Net Price Value and Internal Rate of Return. The values are 25.11 €/MWh, 387.60 M€ and 15.32 % respectively. A HVDC model with just one offshore converter station, has a LCOE close to the HVAC solution, but with a more noticeable difference in NPV and IRR (25.71 €/MWh, 300.76 M€ and 14.84 % respectively). A sensitivity analysis has been done, where seven different parameters have been changed for analysing their impact on the economic result. The largest impact made was by a change in investment cost and lead times. The results imply that with a structure of the transmission network as for the models, and with similar input data, the break point where a HVDC solution is more profitable than a HVAC solution is not yet passed at a distance of 125 km from the connection point. With an evolving technology in the field of HVDC, a shorter lead time and lower investment cost could mean that a HVDC solution would be more profitable at this distance. Difficulties for a HVAC solution with more cable required, like bigger land usage and cable manufacturing as a bottle neck, could make an important factor tough while making a decision. / Med den stora potentialen hos världens hav, börjar havsbaserad vindkraft bli en betydande energikälla. Den ökande storleken på vindkraftsturbinerna tillsammans med de ökade avstånden mellan vindkraftsparkerna och land, gör att transmissionslösningen blir en mer betydelsefull komponent. Flera olika parametrar kan vara avgörande för transmissionslösningens lönsamhet, som investeringskostnad och effektförluster, men också saker som drift & underhåll och projektets ledtid. Studien är baserad på en planerad vindkraftspark med en märkeffekt på 1 200 MW och på ett avstånd på 125 km till anslutningspunkten. Fyra modeller av transmissionssnätet har gjorts, där tekniken har bestått av HVAC, HVDC samt en blandning av dessa. Simuleringarna har gjort i EeFarm II, ett program baserat på Matlab och Simulink. De fyra modellerna har jämförts tekniskt, med för- och nackdelar poängterade, och även ekonomiskt med hjälp av LCOE, NPV och IRR. Kostnader, effektförluster och tillgängligheten för vindkraftsturbinerna och internnätet i vindkraftsparken är inte inkluderade i studien. Resultaten av simuleringarna visar på att HVAC-lösningen är den mest lönsamma, med lägst Levelized Cost of Energy och högst Net Price Value och Internal Rate of Return. Värdena för dessa är 25,11 €/MWh, 387,60 M€ respektive 15,32 %. En HVDC-lösning med enbart en DC-plattform och likriktarstation för hela märkeffekten, har en LCOE inte långt ifrån HVAC-lösningen, men med en lite större skillnad i NPV och IRR (25,71 €/MWh, 300,76 M€ respektive 14,84 %). För att analysera påverkan av olika parametrar på de ekonomiska mätvärdena, har en osäkerhetsanalys gjort. Den största påverkan på resultatet syntes av förändringar av investeringskostnader och ledtider. Ovanstående resultat tyder på, med transmissionslösningar enligt modellerna i detta arbete, att brytpunkten där en HVDC-lösning är mer lönsam än en HVAC-lösning inte än är passerad vid ett avstånd på 125 km till anslutningspunkten. Med en fortfarande väldigt ung teknik för HVDC, kan den ständigt utvecklande tekniken i framtiden betyda kortare ledtider och en lägre investeringskostnad för en HVDC-lösning och möjligheten att vara en mer lönsam lösning. Komplikationer med en HVAC-lösning pga den extra landkabeln, som större landanvändning och med kabeltillverkningen som en flaskhals, kan ändå göra en HVDC-lösning mer praktisk.
3

Development of a model for an offshore wind turbine supported by a moored semi-submersible platform

Sahasakkul, Watsamon 12 September 2014 (has links)
Wind energy is one of the fastest growing sources of renewable energy in the world. There has been a lot of research, development, and investment in wind energy in recent years. Offshore sites offer stronger winds and low turbulence, along with fewer noise and visual impacts. Establishing large turbines at deepwater sites offers promising opportunities for generating high power output while utilizing the favorable environmental conditions. Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have developed a very large wind turbine model with a 13.2 MW rating that has 100-meter long blades; this turbine is designated as the SNL100 13.2 MW wind turbine. With a hub height of 146 meters and a rotor diameter of 205 meters, such a large turbine is best suited for offshore sites. Developing a wind turbine model for an offshore site requires that a platform model be developed first. Of the various kinds of floating platforms, a moored semi-submersible platform supporting the wind turbine, which offers stability by virtue of the intercepted water-plane area, is an appropriate choice. The goal of this study is to develop a semi-submersible platform model to support the 13.2 MW wind turbine, while keeping loads and deflections within safe limits. The platform is developed based on work completed as part of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) Phase II project, which involved a 5 MW wind turbine supported by a semi-submersible platform. The present study focuses on three important topics: (i) development of the combined offshore wind turbine system model with the 13.2 MW wind turbine, a floating semi-submersible platform, and a mooring system; (ii) the entire procedure involved in modeling and analyzing first-order hydrodynamics using two codes, MultiSurf and WAMIT; and (iii) assembling of the integrated aero-hydro-servo-elastic model considering hydrodynamics in order to verify the steady-state and stochastic response of the integrated wind turbine system. / text
4

Secure optimal operation and control of integrated AC/MTDC meshed grids

Akhter, Faheem January 2015 (has links)
Offshore wind energy is seen as the most promising source of electricity generation for achieving the European renewable energy targets. A number of wind farms are planned and under installation to collect the huge potential of wind energy at farther distances in the North Sea. The number of HVDC links in the North Sea is expected to increase with the development of offshore installations in Round 3 of the UK offshore windfarm programme. The increasing number of HVDC links and high power transfer control requirements leads to the formation of Multi-Terminal HVDC (MTDC) grid systems, which have become possible due to the technical advancements of VSC based HVDC systems. Additionally, a meshed MTDC grid structure can also provide interconnections for power trade across the Europe, which can help in better utilisation of power from offshore installations and can also support the AC network in tackling wind power variation issues. However, the integration of the meshed MTDC grid with the existing AC grid has more challenges to overcome alongside the added advantages. One of the major challenge is to ensure the secure and optimal operation of the combined AC/MTDC grid considering stability requirements of the AC and DC grids in different operating conditions. The behaviour of the DC grid is governed by the fast acting controllers due to the high number of power electronic equipment unlike AC grid. In combined operation the response to a disturbance of two integrated grids can be different. The power balancing, co-ordination and dispatch requirements need to be identified, to implement appropriate controls and formulate a control structure for combined operation of two grids with different characteristics under normal and disturbance conditions. In this thesis, the basic principles of well-established three-layered AC grid control is employed to identify the power balancing, coordination and dispatch requirements of the DC grid. Appropriate control methods are proposed for primary, secondary and tertiary control layers in order to accomplish the identified requirements for the secure and optimal operation of combined AC/MTDC grids. Firstly, a comparison study is performed on different power balancing controls to find the most suitable control method for the primary control of the meshed DC grid. Secondly, the combined AC/DC grid power flow method is proposed to provide updated references of the VSC station in order to maintain coordinated power flow control under secondary control layers. Finally, security constraint optimization method for combined AC/DC grid is proposed for economic dispatch under the tertiary control layer of the three-layered hierarchal control. A number of case studies are performed to implement the proposed control methods on a combined AC/DC test case network. The performance of the proposed control methods is validated in a hierarchical control structure for secure and optimal operation integrated AC/MTDC grids.
5

Cyclic behaviour of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines in clay

Lau, Ben Hong January 2015 (has links)
Investment into offshore wind farms has been growing to address the growing threat of climate change. The majority of offshore wind turbines (both current and planned) are founded on monopiles, large circular steel pipe piles ranging from 4.0 m – 7.5 m in diameter. Based on available borehole records, most planned wind turbines in the UK will be founded in overconsolidated clay deposits. Monopile design is done via usage of the well established p-y curves. However, there are issues with the usage of the p-y curves. Firstly, the curves may be unsuitable to model the monopile’s behaviour as it is expected to behave similarly to a rigid pile rather than flexibly. Secondly, the curves may not accurately estimate the initial pile-soil stiffness. Thirdly, the curves are not comprehensive enough to account for the accumulated strain and stiffness changes resulting from cyclic loading. Considering these issues, research was carried out to improve the current design of monopiles in clay by carrying out displacement controlled monotonic and load controlled cyclic load tests in a centrifuge. Results from monotonic tests suggest that the DNV (2014) design methodology to construct p-y curves in clay based on Matlock’s (1970) soft clay criterion significantly underestimate stiffness. Findings suggested that the experimental p-y curves could be characterised through modification of the criterion. Modification of the criterion produced estimates that matched the 3.83 m monopile experimental curves. Pile toe shear force was observed to contribute little to ultimate lateral resistance and stiffness. Despite the marginal contribution, an effort was made to characterise the pile toe shear force. Estimates of the modified criterion on the 7.62 m monopile did not match the observations, indicating that further research should be carried out to improve the modified criterion. The cyclic tests displayed two distinct regimes; the stiffening regime and the softening regime. Results suggests that cyclic loads of different characteristics influence the locked in stress conditions of the soil which in turn influence the excess pore pressure behaviour, hence dictating whether the stiffening or softening regime takes place. Suggestions were made regarding the conditions that dictated whether the stiffening or softening regime would take place. In the stiffening regime, the stiffening rate decreased with increasing strain while as the accumulated rotation rate increased with vertical load for the same cyclic load magnitude. The softening regime was determined to be extremely detrimental as the high rates of softening and accumulated rotations could cause failure of the system in the short-term. Recommendations were made to estimate the cyclic stiffness and accumulated rotations resulting from both stiffening and softening regime.
6

Modeling a Semi-Submersible Floating Offshore Wind Turbine With Tuned Inerter Dampers Within the Platform

Okuda, Ryan Rikio 17 July 2023 (has links)
With growing awareness of climate change and an increased interest in renewable energy, resources like offshore wind are projected to grow in the near future. One key issue within offshore wind is how to stabilize the floating system when it experiences large wind and wave forces that impact its performance and shorten its operating life. Researchers have been exploring structural control methods and creating modeling tools to evaluate the performance of the control methods. One such tool is OpenFAST, the industry standard for modeling wind turbine dynamics, and the goal of this paper is to build upon the existing capabilities of OpenFAST. Inerter-based structural control methods offer arguably better performance than traditional vibration absorbers, and the configuration proposed in this paper also offers the ability to use a generator as an element in the structural controller. This allows extra energy to be generated along with the improvement in vibration absorption. Through this study, this inerter-based control method is explored through the lens of an established modeling tool to provide the validation for the model to explore which load cases the inerter performs best in and what design considerations must be made. In addition, the energy harvesting potential of the inerter system is evaluated and shown to increase the system's capabilities especially under stormy ocean conditions. / Master of Science / With growing awareness of climate change and an increased interest in renewable energy, resources like offshore wind are projected to grow in the near future. One key issue within offshore wind is how to stabilize the floating system when it experiences large wind and wave forces which impact its performance and shorten its lifespan. Researchers have been exploring several methods and creating modeling tools to evaluate the performance of control methods. One such tool is OpenFAST, the industry standard for modeling wind turbine dynamics, and the goal of this paper is to build upon the existing capabilities of OpenFAST. Structural control methods based on an element called an inerter offer arguably better performance than traditional vibration absorbers. The design in this paper also offers the ability to use an electrical generator as an element in the structural controller. This allows extra energy to be generated along with the reduced vibrations. Through this study, this inerter-based control method is explored through the lens of an established modeling tool to provide validation for the model. Another goal is to explore which scenarios the inerter performs best and what design considerations must be made for future development. In addition, the energy harvesting potential of the inerter system is evaluated and shown to increase the system's capabilities.
7

Mulity-functional offshore windfarm impact local fishery economical using system dynamics approach‐the case study of Chang Hua Coastal Industrial Park

Syue, Yun-long 12 August 2009 (has links)
The construction of traditional large-scale central power plants and the extension of power lines in Taiwan have tremendous difficulties in terms of land acquisition and environmental protection for a long time. In addition, one potential risk of energy supply is that over 95% of energy source is imported overseas. Therefore, the most important goal of Taiwan energy policy is to cut down the amount of energy import. To achieve the goal, it is important to explore innovatively local energy source by developing renewable and clean energy. Around the available renewable energy technologies, wind power technique is the most mature one in addition to hydraulic power generation. However due to limited land resources and restrictive regulations, it is expected that wind farm development in Taiwan can only be located offshore, instead of inland. Besides, a multi-functional wind farm site, which involves ocean farm ranch, is desirable to bring mutual benefits for both developers and local stake holders. The current study has used System Dynamics(SD) to analyze the influence of Multi-functional offshore wind farm on economic. We discuss the change of fish catch with building offshore wind farm¡Aand the change of economic output in open ocean with offshore wind farm combine marine ranching. It is therefore easy for the decision makers to comprehend the economical benefit difference if an offshore multi-functional wind farm were to develop in the future. The result of this study is building offshore wind farm will reduced the fishing revenue in a short time¡Abut the total fishing revenue will increased in a long time. The Multi-functional offshore wind farm has better economic output than offshore wind farm.
8

Application of the New IEC International Design Standard for Offshore Wind Turbines to a Reference Site in the Massachusetts Offshore Wind Energy Area

Roach, Samuel C 21 March 2022 (has links)
This thesis summarizes the simulation and analysis performed for the MassCEC project described herein. The intent was to perform a “dry run” of the new IEC offshore wind turbine design standard, IEC 61400-3-1 and to illustrate the use of that standard in the Massachusetts Offshore Wind Energy Area. IEC 61400-3-1 is a design standard used to ensure wind turbine structural performance over the design life of the machine. Each installed wind turbine must be certified by a Certified Verification Agent using this standard before installation. The certification process typically uses a structural dynamics model to predict a turbine’s structural response in the presence of a range of operational conditions and meteorological oceanographic conditions, which are codified into Design Load Cases. The area in question is located approximately 24 km of south of Martha’s Vineyard with an assumed water depth of 40 m. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s FAST software (V8.12) was used to perform simulations of a large subset of the DLCs. Wind data files were generated using NREL’s TurbSim and IECWind. This thesis discusses the instructions of the standard, preparation for simulation of Design Load Cases, and analysis of results. Results from simulations show the application of the standard in detail as applied to a reference turbine. Limitations and ambiguities of the standard in the simulation of control failure cases are analyzed. The application of the standard to hurricane loading is also analyzed alongside an example case for a Category 5 hurricane. The standard is found to be fundamentally reasonable in application to a reference turbine in the Massachusetts Offshore Wind Energy Area.
9

Design Considerations for Monopile Founded Offshore Wind Turbines Subject to Breaking Waves

Owens, Garrett Reese 1987- 14 March 2013 (has links)
The majority of offshore wind farms utilize monopile substructures. As these wind farms are typically located in water depths less than 30 meters, the effect of breaking waves on these structures is of great concern to design engineers. This research investigation examines many of the practical considerations and alternative ways of estimating breaking wave forces. A survey of existing European wind farms is used to establish a realistic range of basic design parameters. Based upon this information a parametric study was pursued and a series of realistic design scenarios were evaluated. Comparisons include the sensitivity to the wave force model as well as to analytical and numerical wave theories used to evaluate the wave kinematics. In addition, the effect of different kinematics stretching techniques for linear waves is addressed. Establishing whether the bathymetry will induce spilling or plunging wave breaking is critical. Spilling wave breaking can be addressed using existing wave and wave force theories; however for plunging wave breaking an additional impact force must be introduced. Dimensionless design curves are used to display pertinent trends across the full range of design cases considered. This research study provides insight into the evaluation of the maximum breaking wave forces and overturning moment for both spilling and plunging breaking waves as a function of bottom slope.
10

Modelling Waves and Currents in Northeastern Lake Ontario to Assess the Impacts of a Proposed Offshore Wind Farm

McCombs, Matthew 02 October 2013 (has links)
A spectral wave model (SWAN) coupled with a depth averaged hydrodynamic model (Delft3D) was used to understand the wave and flow dynamics of the Kingston Basin of Lake Ontario during large winter storm events. This model was then used to assess the impact of an offshore wind farm in the Kingston Basin. Results over different model domains with various forcing methods were compared to achieve the highest correlation with wave, current and water level observations from several locations. Storm events were modelled over the complex bathymetry of the basin and results were verified using wave and current profiler data collected during the winters of 2009-10 and 2011-12. Waves were composed of both locally generated wind sea and swell from the main basin of Lake Ontario, while flows throughout the Kingston Basin showed a complex circulation pattern. This circulation is composed of several wind-driven gyres, which are magnified during storm events. The impact of waves on the circulation patterns within the basin is highest in shallow areas where wave breaking drives circulation. To simulate a wind farm, a transmission coefficient was used in the wave model to represent the effects on waves, and an energy loss term was added to the hydrodynamic momentum equations to represent the added drag of the piles on the circulation. The results indicate that the coastal areas in eastern Lake Ontario will be minimally affected. The headlands of Big Sandy Bay, Wolfe Island, could see the largest coastal effects with changes in significant wave height predicted to be < 2%. The majority of impacts to circulation occur in the near-field, with changes in current magnitude of < 0.08 m s-1 (up to 50%). Areas near Wolfe Island exhibit changes of ~ 0.05 m s-1 (30 %), although overall circulation patterns throughout the basin are not affected. The majority of changes to surface waves and wind-driven currents are due to wind farm position with respect to wind direction and the re-direction of flows and waves as they pass through the wind farm. / Thesis (Master, Civil Engineering) -- Queen's University, 2013-09-30 09:30:01.042

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