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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Spin Hall Effect of Light in Semiconductors

Ménard, Jean-Michel 31 August 2011 (has links)
The lateral spatial separation between the circular polarization components of a linearly polarized light beam impinging at off-normal incidence on an air-semiconductor interface is investigated experimentally and theoretically. This fundamental optical phenomenon is referred to as the Spin Hall effect of light (SHEL). An optical pump-probe technique is demonstrated to resolve in situ the nanometer size SHEL displacement of a beam transmitted inside an absorptive material. Three different types of optical interactions in silicon and GaAs demonstrate the technique’s general applicability. First, resonant ∼150 fs pump and probe pulses at λ = 820 nm resolve the SHEL displacement via free-carrier absorption in a 10 μm thick silicon sample. The measured SHEL displacements for a p-polarized probe beam are obtained between −10 to 150 nm as a function of the angle of incidence on the sample. Different angles of incidence are achieved by keeping a fixed angular separation between the pump and the probe beams while rotating the sample about the axis perpendicular to the plane of incidence. In another experiment, an optically thin (500 nm thick) GaAs sample allows one to use Pauli-blocking as an optical interaction to investigate the polarization and angular dependence of the SHEL in the probe beam. For such a polarization-dependent imaging technique, the SHEL displacement in the pump beam also contributes to the measured signal and is evaluated experimentally. A probe beam at normal incidence is used to measure a SHEL displacement of ∼180 nm in a transmitted p-polarized pump beam impinging on the sample with an angle of incidence of 55 degrees. Finally, two-photon absorption is used to resolve the SHEL in a (001) oriented 500 μm thick GaAs wafer using an optical source generating sub-bandgap radiation (λ = 1550 nm) with a pulse duration of 120 fs. Linearly p- and s- co-polarized pump and probe beams are also used to investigate the polarization dependence of the SHEL. All the experimental results obtained using these different optical interactions agree with the theory within the experimental error. Finally, analytical expressions of the shifts experienced by the circular components of a beam impinging at an interface between two optical media are also derived for an incident beam with an arbitrary spatial distribution.
2

Spin Hall Effect of Light in Semiconductors

Ménard, Jean-Michel 31 August 2011 (has links)
The lateral spatial separation between the circular polarization components of a linearly polarized light beam impinging at off-normal incidence on an air-semiconductor interface is investigated experimentally and theoretically. This fundamental optical phenomenon is referred to as the Spin Hall effect of light (SHEL). An optical pump-probe technique is demonstrated to resolve in situ the nanometer size SHEL displacement of a beam transmitted inside an absorptive material. Three different types of optical interactions in silicon and GaAs demonstrate the technique’s general applicability. First, resonant ∼150 fs pump and probe pulses at λ = 820 nm resolve the SHEL displacement via free-carrier absorption in a 10 μm thick silicon sample. The measured SHEL displacements for a p-polarized probe beam are obtained between −10 to 150 nm as a function of the angle of incidence on the sample. Different angles of incidence are achieved by keeping a fixed angular separation between the pump and the probe beams while rotating the sample about the axis perpendicular to the plane of incidence. In another experiment, an optically thin (500 nm thick) GaAs sample allows one to use Pauli-blocking as an optical interaction to investigate the polarization and angular dependence of the SHEL in the probe beam. For such a polarization-dependent imaging technique, the SHEL displacement in the pump beam also contributes to the measured signal and is evaluated experimentally. A probe beam at normal incidence is used to measure a SHEL displacement of ∼180 nm in a transmitted p-polarized pump beam impinging on the sample with an angle of incidence of 55 degrees. Finally, two-photon absorption is used to resolve the SHEL in a (001) oriented 500 μm thick GaAs wafer using an optical source generating sub-bandgap radiation (λ = 1550 nm) with a pulse duration of 120 fs. Linearly p- and s- co-polarized pump and probe beams are also used to investigate the polarization dependence of the SHEL. All the experimental results obtained using these different optical interactions agree with the theory within the experimental error. Finally, analytical expressions of the shifts experienced by the circular components of a beam impinging at an interface between two optical media are also derived for an incident beam with an arbitrary spatial distribution.
3

Near-single-cycle laser for driving relativistic plasma mirrors at kHz repetition rate - development and application / Génération d'impulsions laser proches du cycle optique pour le pilotage de miroirs plasma relativistes au kHz

Böhle, Frederik 08 December 2017 (has links)
Les impulsions laser ultrabrèves nous permettent de suivre en temps réel les phénomènes ultrarapides au sein de la matière à l’échelle microscopique. C’est précisément pour l’invention de la chimie à l’échelle femtoseconde, ou femtochimie, qu’Ahmed Zewail se vit décerner le prix Nobel de chimie en 1999. Depuis les utilisateurs du laser cherchent à augmenter la résolution temporelle, c’est-à-dire réduire la durée des impulsions laser. Aujourd’hui, nous savons générer des flashs lumineux à l’échelle attoseconde dans le domaine spectral de l’extrême ultraviolet (XUV) mais l’efficacité de génération reste faible et le développement de sources laser attosecondes intenses constitue un sujet de recherche très actif sur le plan international.Notre groupe au LOA se concentre sur la génération d’impulsions attoseconde sur miroir plasma en régime relativiste. Pour cela, il cherche à développer une source d’impulsions femtosecondes à forte cadence et fort contraste et suffisamment énergétiques pour atteindre des intensités relativistes (>> 10^18W/cm2) lorsqu’elles sont fortement focalisées sur un plasma surdense. Un plasma surdense réfléchit la lumière incidente et par conséquent agit comme un miroir qui se déplaçant à vitesse relativiste et qui comprime l’impulsion incidente, produisant ainsi un flash attoseconde par cycle optique. En utilisant des impulsions proches d’un cycle optique, il est donc envisageable de générer une seule impulsion attoseconde intense pendant l’interaction.Dans la première partie de mon travail de thèse, j’ai réalisé un compresseur nonlinéaire pour réduire la durée des impulsions issues d’une chaîne à double dérive de fréquence (10mJ, 25fs, 1kHz) à phase enveloppe-porteuse (CEP) stabilisée. En propageant les impulsions du laser à haute intensité dans une fibre creuse remplie de gaz rare, j’ai réussi à générer des impulsions de 1.3 cycle optique avec une puissance crête autour de 1TW avec une CEP stabilisée. Dans un deuxième temps, j’ai mis en forme spatialement et temporellement les impulsions issues du compresseur à fibre pour générer à la fois des impulsions attosecondes intenses et des faisceaux d’électrons énergétiques sur un miroir plasma à gradient de densité contrôlé. Ces expériences nous permis, pour la première fois, de mettre en évidence la production d’impulsions attosecondes isolées dans l’XUV, l’émission corrélée de faisceaux d’électrons énergétiques en régime relativiste ainsi qu’un nouveau régime d’accélération d’électrons à très long gradient plasma. / Very short light pulses allow us to resolve ultrafast processes in molecules, atoms and condensed matter. This started with the advent of Femtochemistry, for which Ahmed Zewail received the Novel Prize in Chemistry in 1999. Ever since, researcher have been trying to push the temporal resolution further and we have now reached attosecond pulse durations. Their generation, however, remains very challenging and various different generation mechanisms are the topic of heated research around the world.Our group focuses on attosecond pulse generation and ultrashort electron bunch acceleration on solid targets. In particular, this thesis deals with the upgrade of a high intensity, high contrast, kHz, femtosecond laser chain to reach the relativistic interaction regime on solid targets. Few cycle driving laser pulses should allow the generation of intense isolated attosecond pulses. A requirement to perform true attosecond pump-probe exeriments.To achive this, a HCF postcompression scheme has been conceived and implemented to shorten the duration of a traditional laser amplifier. With this a peak intensity of 1TW was achieved with near-single-cycle pulse duration. For controlled experiments, a vacuum beamline was developed and implemented to accurately control the laser and plasma conditions on target.During the second part of this thesis, this laser chain was put in action to drive relativistic harmonic generation on solid targets. It was the first time ever that this has been achieved at 1 kHz. By CEP gating the few-cycle-pulses, single attosecond pulses were generated. This conclusion has been supported by numerical simulations. Additionally a new regime to accelerate electron bunches on soft gradients has been detected.
4

Short Pulses in Engineered Nonlinear Media

Holmgren, Stefan January 2006 (has links)
Short optical pulses and engineered nonlinear media is a powerful combination. Mode locked pulses exhibit high peak powers and short pulse duration and the engineered ferro-electric KTiOPO4 facilitates several different nonlinear processes. In this work we investigate the use of structured, second-order materials for generation, characterization and frequency conversion of short optical pulses. By cascading second harmonic generation and difference frequency generation the optical Kerr effect was emulated and two different Nd-based laser cavities were mode locked by the cascaded Kerr lensing effect. In one of the cavities 2.8 ps short pulses were generated and a strong pulse shortening took place through the interplay of the cavity design and the group velocity mismatch in the nonlinear crystal. The other laser had a hybrid mode locking scheme with active electro-optic modulation and passive cascaded Kerr lensing incorporated in a single partially poled KTP crystal. The long pulses from the active modulation were shortened when the passive mode locking started and 6.9 ps short pulses were generated. High-efficiency frequency conversion is not a trivial task in periodically poled materials for short pulses due to the large group velocity mismatch. Optimization of parameters such as the focussing condition and the crystal temperature allowed us to demonstrate 64% conversion efficiency by frequency doubling the fs pulses from a Yb:KYW laser in a single pass configuration. Quasi phase matching also offers new possibilities for nonlinear interactions. We demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously utilize several phase matched second harmonic interactions, resulting in a dual-polarization second harmonic beam. Short pulse duration of the fundamental wave is a key parameter in the novel method that we demonstrated for characterization of the nonlinearity of periodically poled crystals. The method utilizes the group velocity mismatch between the two polarizations in a type II second harmonic generation configuration. The domain walls of PPKTP exhibit second order nonlinearities that are forbidden in the bulk material. This we used in a single shot frequency resolved optical gating arrangement. The spectral resolution came from Čerenkov phase matching, a non-collinear phase matching scheme that exhibits a substantial angular dispersion. The second harmonic light was imaged upon a CCD camera and with the spectral distribution on one axis and the temporal autocorrelation on the other. From this image we retrieved the full temporal profile of the fundamental pulse, as well as the phase. The spectral dispersion provided by the Čerenkov phase matching was large enough to characterize optical pulses as long as ~200 fs in a compact setup. The Čerenkov frequency resolved optical gating method samples a thin stripe of the beam, i.e. the area close to the domain wall. This provides the means for high spatial resolution measurements of the spectral-temporal characteristics of ultrafast optical fields. / QC 20100831
5

Coherent combining of few-cycle pulses for the next generation of Terawatt-class laser sources devoted to attosecond physics / Combinaison cohérente d'impulsions de quelques cycles optiques dans le cadre du développement de futures sources laser Terawatt dédiées à la physique attoseconde

Jacqmin, Hermance 07 October 2016 (has links)
Cette thèse s’inscrit dans le cadre du développement d’une source laser TW, de cadence élevée, stabilisée en phase, et délivrant des impulsions de quelques cycles optiques pour explorer la physique attoseconde. De telles impulsions contiennent seulement quelques oscillations de l’onde porteuse (durée de 5 fs à une longueur d’onde centrale de 800 nm) et ne sont pas directement disponibles à la sortie d’une source laser femtoseconde classique. Une technique de post-compression efficace pour obtenir de telles impulsions consiste à élargir le spectre des impulsions laser par automodulation de phase dans une fibre creuse remplie de gaz, puis à compenser la phase spectrale introduite avec des miroirs chirpés. Cette technique convient à des impulsions dont l’énergie est inférieure au millijoule. Au-delà, la transmission et la stabilité du compresseur chutent fortement à cause d'effets non linéaires tels que l'autofocalisation et l'ionisation. Pour comprimer des impulsions énergétiques et dont la phase de l’enveloppe est stabilisée par rapport à la porteuse (stabilisation de la CEP), il est possible de diviser l'impulsion initiale en plusieurs répliques d'énergie moindre et de réduire ainsi l'intensité crête en entrée de fibre. Le spectre de chaque réplique est alors élargi indépendamment. Dans le cadre de cette thèse, la combinaison cohérente passive d'impulsions de quelques cycles optiques issues d'une fibre creuse remplie de gaz est démontrée pour la première fois. L'utilisation de lames biréfringentes (calcite) dont l’orientation est soigneusement déterminée permet de générer et combiner des répliques avec une efficacité élevée. Ainsi, dans le cas d’une division en deux répliques, des impulsions stabilisées en phase (CEP), de durée 6 fs et d'énergie 0.6 mJ ont été générées de manière fiable et reproductible. L’étude détaillée de cette technique, aussi bien théorique qu’expérimentale, a permis de mettre en évidence les conditions requises pour générer des impulsions de quelques cycles optiques et présentant un bon contraste temporel. Plus précisément, la phase spectrale relative entre les répliques peut être mesurée à l'aide d'une méthode interférométrique permettant de quantifier les déphasages résiduels dus à la lame qui recombine les répliques, ainsi que ceux induits lors de la propagation dans la fibre par d'éventuels effets de modulation de phase croisée ou d'ionisation. Les effets qui affectent le processus de combinaison des répliques, tels que les modifications des états de polarisation des répliques ou bien les interactions non linéaires entre les répliques, sont analysés en détail. Une méthode est proposée pour minimiser ces effets, même dans le cas plus critique de la division et combinaison d'impulsions à quatre répliques. / The framework of this thesis is the design and development of a TW-class, high-repetition rate, CEP-stabilized, few-cycle laser system devoted to attosecond physics. Few-cycle pulses includes only a few oscillations of the carrier wave (duration about 5 fs for 800nm central wavelength) and are not directly available at the output of typical femtosecond sources. One of the most popular techniques used for producing such pulses with high spatial quality is nonlinear spectral broadening in a gas-filled hollow-core fiber followed by temporal compression with chirped mirrors. However, as the input pulse energy approaches the milliJoule level, both the transmission and stability of hollow fiber compressors rapidly drop with the onset of self-focusing and ionization. A way of overcoming this limitation is to divide the input pulse into several lower energy replicas that can be subsequently recombined after independent spectral broadening in the fiber. In this thesis, the passive coherent combining of millijoule energy laser pulses down to few-cycle duration in a gas-filled hollow fiber is demonstrated for the first time. High combining efficiency is achieved by using carefully oriented calcite plates for temporal pulse division and recombination. Carrier-envelope phase (CEP)- stable, 6-fs, 800-nm pulses with more than 0.6 mJ energy were routinely generated in the case of twofold division and recombination. A detailed theoretical and experimental analysis of this temporal multiplexing technique is proposed to explain the conditions required for producing few-cycle pulses with high fidelity. In particular, an interferometric method for measuring the relative spectral phase between two replicas is demonstrated. This gives a measure of the phase mismatch in the combining plate, as well as that induced by eventual cross-phase modulation or ionization during propagation in the fiber. The effects degrading the combining process, as polarization change or nonlinear interactions between pulse replicas are analyzed in details. A method is proposed to overcome these limitations, even in the critical case of fourfold pulse division and combination.
6

Nonlinear Optical Response of Simple Molecules and Two-Photon Semiconductor Lasers

Reichert, Matthew 01 January 2015 (has links)
This dissertation investigates two long standing issues in nonlinear optics: complete characterization of the ultrafast dynamics of simple molecules, and the potential of a two-photon laser using a bulk semiconductor gain medium. Within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, nonlinear refraction in molecular liquids and gases can arise from both bound-electronic and nuclear origins. Knowledge of the magnitudes, temporal dynamics, polarization and spectral dependences of each of these mechanisms is important for many applications including filamentation, white-light continuum generation, all-optical switching, and nonlinear spectroscopy. In this work the nonlinear dynamics of molecules are investigated in both liquid and gas phase with the recently developed beam deflection technique which measures nonlinear refraction directly in the time domain. Thanks to the utility of the beam deflection technique we are able to completely determine the third-order response function of one of the most important molecular liquids in nonlinear optics, carbon disulfide. This allows the prediction of essentially any nonlinear refraction or two-photon absorption experiment on CS2. Measurements conducted on air (N2 and O2) and gaseous CS2 reveal coherent rotational revivals in the degree of alignment of the ensemble at a period that depends on its moment of inertia. This allows measurement of the rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of the isolated molecules. Additionally, the rotational contribution to the beam deflection measurement can be eliminated thanks to the particular polarization dependence of the mechanism. At a specific polarization, the dominant remaining contribution is due to the bound-electrons. Thus both the bound-electronic nonlinear refractive index of air, and second hyperpolarizability of isolated CS2 molecules, are measured directly. The later agrees well with liquid CS2 measurements, where local field effects are significant. The second major portion of this dissertation addresses the possibility of using bulk semiconductors as a two-photon gain medium. A two-photon laser has been a goal of nonlinear optics since shortly after the original laser*s development. In this case, two-photons are emitted from a single electronic transition rather than only one. This processes is known as two-photon gain (2PG). Semiconductors have large two-photon absorption coefficients, which are enhanced by ~2 orders of magnitude when using photons of very different energies, e.g., ћωa≈10ћωb. This enhancement should translate into large 2PG coefficients as well, given the inverse relationship between absorption and gain. Here, we experimentally demonstrate both degenerate and nondegenerate 2PG in optically excited bulk GaAs via pump-probe experiments. This constitutes, to my knowledge, the first report of nondegenerate two-photon gain. Competition between 2PG and competing processes, namely intervalence band and nondegenerate three-photon absorption (ND-3PA), in both cases are theoretically analyzed. Experimental measurements of ND-3PA agree with this analysis and show that it is enhanced much more than ND-2PG. It is found for both degenerate and nondegenerate photon pairs that the losses dominate the two-photon gain, preventing the possibility of a two-photon semiconductor laser.
7

Ondes scélérates complexes dans les fibres optiques / Complex rogue wave in the fiber optics

Frisquet, Benoit 24 March 2016 (has links)
Ce manuscrit de thèse présente l’étude d’instabilités non-linéaires et la génération d’ondes scélérates complexes liées à la propagation de la lumière dans des fibres optiques standards des télécommunications optiques. Un rappel est tout d’abord présenté sur les phénomènes physiques linéaires et non-linéaires impliqués et qui peuvent présenter une analogie directe avec le domaine de l’hydrodynamique. Les différentes formes d’ondes scélérates liées au processus d’instabilité de modulation, aussi appelées « breathers », sont alors présentées, elles sont obtenues par la résolution de l’équation de Schrödinger non-linéaire. À partir de ces solutions exactes, divers systèmes expérimentaux sont alors conçus par simulation numérique à partir de deux méthodes d’excitation d’ondes scélérates. La première est une génération exacte à partir des solutions analytiques en effectuant une mise en forme spectrale en intensité et en phase d’un peigne de fréquence optique. La seconde méthode est basée sur des conditions initiales approchées avec des ondes continues modulées sinusoïdalement. Les mesures expérimentales réalisées avec ces deux méthodes démontrent parfaitement la génération d’ondes scélérates complexes (solutions d’ordre supérieur du système) issues de la superposition non-linéaire ou collisions de « breathers » de premier ordre. Enfin, nous avons également étudié un système non-linéaire équivalent au modèle de Manakov, qui fait intervenir la propagation de deux ondes distinctes avec des polarisations orthogonales dans une fibre optique. L’analyse de stabilité et des simulations numériques de ce système multi-variable mettent en évidence un nouveau régime d’instabilité de modulation vectorielle ainsi que de nouvelles solutions d’ondes scélérates noires et couplées en polarisation. Un nouveau système expérimental mis en place a permis de confirmer ces prédictions théoriques avec un excellent accord quantitatif. / This manuscript presents the generation of complex rogue waves related to nonlinear instabilities occurring through the propagation of light in standard optical fibers. Linear and nonlinear physical phenomena involved are first listed, in particular some of them by analogy with the field of hydrodynamics. The different forms of rogue waves induced by the modulation instability process are then presented. They are also known as "breathers", and they are obtained by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. From these exact solutions, various experimental systems were designed by means of numerical simulations based on two rogue-wave excitation methods. The first one is an exact generation of mathematical solutions based on the spectral shaping of an optical frequency comb. The second method uses approximate initial conditions with a simple sinusoidal modulation of continuous waves. For both cases, experimental measurements demonstrate the generation of complex rogue waves (i.e., higher-order solutions of the system) arising from the nonlinear superposition or collision of first-order breathers. Finally, we also studied a nonlinear fiber system equivalent to the Manakov model, which involves the propagation of two distinct waves with orthogonal polarizations. The stability analysis and numerical simulations of this multi-component system highlight a novel regime of vector modulation instability and the existence of coupled dark rogue-wave solutions. A new experimental system setup was conceived and theoretical predictions are confirmed with an excellent quantitative agreement.
8

Linear and Nonlinear Rogue Waves in Optical Systems / Vagues scélérates linéaire et non-linéaire dans les systèmes optiques

Toenger, Shanti 27 June 2016 (has links)
Ces travaux de thèse présentent l’étude des différentes classes d’effets linéaires et non-linéaires en optiquequi génèrent des événements extrêmes dont les propriétés sont analogues à celles des « vagues scélérates » destructrices qui apparaissent à la surface des océans. La thèse commence avec un bref aperçu de l’analogie physique entre la localisation d’onde dans les systèmes hydrodynamique et les systèmes optique, pour lesquels nous décrivons les mécanismes de génération de vagues scélérates linéaire et non-linéaire. Nous présentons ensuite quelques résultats numérique et expérimentaux de la génération de vagues scélérates dans un système optique linéaire dans le cas d’une propagation spatiale d’un champ optique qui présenteune phase aléatoire, où nous interprétons les résultats obtenus en terme de caustiques optiques localisées.Nous considérons ensuite les vagues scélérates obtenues dans des systèmes non-linéaires qui présentent une instabilité de modulation décrite par l’équation de Schrödinger non-linéaire (ESNL). Nous présentons une étude numérique détaillée comparant les caractéristiques spatio-temporelles des structures localisées obtenues dans les simulation numérique avec les différentes solutions analytiques obtenues à partir de l’ESNL.Deux études expérimentales d’instabilités de modulation sont ensuite effectuées. Dans la première, nous présentons des résultats expérimentaux qui étudient les propriétés d’instabilité de modulation en utilisant un système d’agrandissement temporel par lentille temporelle; dans la deuxième, nous rapportons des résultats expérimentaux sur les propriétés des instabilités de modulation dans le domaine fréquentiel en utilisant une technique de mesure spectrale en temps-réel. Cette dernière étude examine l’effet sur la bande spectrale et surla stabilité d’un faible champ perturbateur. Tous les résultats expérimentaux sont comparés avec la simulation d’ESNL et abordés en termes des propriétés qualitatives d’instabilité de modulation. Dans toutes ces études,différentes propriétés statistiques sont analysées en rapport avec l’apparition des vagues scélérates. / This thesis describes the study of several different classes of linear and nonlinear effects in optics that generatelarge amplitude extreme events with properties analogous to the destructive “rogue waves” on the surface of theocean. The thesis begins with a brief overview of the analogous physics of wave localisation in hydrodynamicand optical systems, where we describe linear and nonlinear rogue wave generating mechanisms in bothcases. We then present numerical and experimental results for rogue wave generation in a linear opticalsystem consisting of free space propagation of a spatial optical field with random phase. Computed statisticsbetween experiment and modelling are in good agreement, and we interpret the results obtained in termsof the properties of localised optical caustics. We then consider rogue waves in the nonlinear system ofmodulation instability described by the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation (NLSE), and a detailed numericalstudy is presented comparing the spatio-temporal characteristics of localised structures seen from numericalsimulations with different known analytic solutions to the NLSE. Two experimental studies of modulationinstability are then reported. In the first, we present experimental results studying the properties of modulationinstability using a time-lens magnifier system; in the second, we report experimental results studying thefrequency-domain properties of modulation instability using real-time spectral measurements. The latter studyexamines the effect of a weak seed field on spectral bandwidth and stability. All experimental results arecompared with the NLSE simulations and discussed in terms of the qualitative properties of modulationinstability, in order to gain new insights into the complex dynamics associated with nonlinear pulse propagation.In all of these studies, different statistical properties are analised in relation to the emergence of rogue waves.
9

Etudes expérimentales et numériques des instabilités non-linéaires et des vagues scélérates optiques / Experimental and numerical studies of nonlinear instabilities and optical rogue waves

Wetzel, Benjamin 06 December 2012 (has links)
Ces travaux de thèse rapportent l’étude des instabilités non-linéaires et des évènements extrêmesse développant lors de la propagation guidée d’un champ électromagnétique au sein de fibresoptiques. Après un succinct rappel des divers processus linéaires et non-linéaires menant à lagénération de super continuum optique, nous montrons que le spectre de celui-ci peut présenterde larges fluctuations, incluant la formation d’événements extrêmes, dont les propriétés statistiqueset l’analogie avec les vagues scélérates hydrodynamiques sont abordées en détail. Nous présentonsune preuve de principe de l’application de ces fluctuations spectrales à la génération de nombres etde marches aléatoires et identifions le phénomène d’instabilité de modulation, ayant lieu lors de laphase initiale d’expansion spectrale du super continuum, comme principale contribution à la formationd’événements extrêmes. Ce mécanisme est étudié numériquement et analytiquement, en considérantune catégorie de solutions exactes de l’équation de Schrödinger non-linéaire présentant descaractéristiques de localisations singulières. Les résultats obtenus sont vérifiés expérimentalement,notamment grâce à un système de caractérisation spectrale en temps réel et à l’utilisation conjointede métriques statistiques innovantes (ex : cartographie de corrélations spectrales). L’excellent accordentre simulations et expériences a permis de valider les prédictions théoriques et d’accéder àune meilleure compréhension des dynamiques complexes inhérentes à la propagation non-linéaired’impulsions optiques. / This thesis reports the study of nonlinear instabilities and extreme events occurring during the guidedpropagation of an electromagnetic field into optical fibers. After a short overview of the various linearand nonlinear processes leading to optical supercontinuum generation, we show that its spectrumcan exhibit large fluctuations, including the formation of extreme events, whose statistical propertiesas well as hydrodynamic rogue waves analogy are studied in detail. We provide a proof of principle ofusing these spectral fluctuations for random number and random walk generation and identify modulationinstability, associated with the onset phase of supercontinuum spectral broadening, as themain phenomenon leading to extreme event formation. This mechanism is studied both numericallyand analytically, considering a class of exact solutions of nonlinear Schrödinger equation which exhibitsingular localization characteristics. The results are experimentally verified, especially througha real-time spectral characterization system along with the use of innovative statistical metrics (e.g.spectral correlation maps). The excellent agreement between simulations and experiments allowedus to validate the theoretical predictions and get further insight into the complex dynamics associatedto nonlinear optical pulse propagation.

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