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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Temporal genetic structure of feral honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a coastal prairie habitat of southern Texas: impact of Africanization

Pinto, Maria Alice 30 September 2004 (has links)
The goal of this study was to examine the impact of Africanization on the genetic structure of the Welder Wildlife Refuge feral honey bee population by scoring mtDNA and microsatellite polymorphisms. Adult honey bee workers, collected between 1991 and 2001, were screened for mtDNA using the cytochrome b/BglII, ls rRNA/EcoRI, and COI/HinfI PCR-based assays. The procedure allowed identification of four mitotypes: eastern European, western European, A. m. lamarckii, and A. m. scutellata. The relative frequencies of the four mitotypes changed radically during the 11-year period. Prior to immigration of Africanized honey bees, the resident population was essentially of eastern European maternal ancestry. The first colony of A. m. scutellata mitotype was detected in 1993. Between 1995 and 1996 there was a mitotype turnover in the population from predominantly eastern European to predominantly A. m. scutellata. From 1997 onward, most colonies (69 %) were of A. m. scutellata mitotype. The temporal change in mtDNA was paralleled by nuclear DNA. The 12 microsatellite loci analyzed indicated (1) the mechanism of Africanization of the Welder population involved both maternal and paternal bi-directional gene flow (hybridization) between European and Africanized honey bees; and (2) the resident panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic asymmetrical admixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes. The steepest increase in the proportion of introgressed A. m. scutellata nuclear alleles occurred between 1994 and 1997. The post-Africanization gene pool was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean proportion of European-derived alleles was 37 % as given by mR estimator or 25 % as given by mY estimator, for 1998-2001). If European genes continue to be retained at moderate frequencies, then the Africanized population is best viewed as a "hybrid swarm" instead of "pure African". The most radical change in the genetic structure of the Welder Wildlife Refuge feral honey bee population (observed between 1995 and 1997) coincided with arrival of the parasitic Varroa mite. We suggest that Varroa likely hastened the demise of European honey bees and had a major role in restructuring the Welder Wildlife Refuge feral honey bee population.
2

Aspectos reprodutivos de rainhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L.): influência do peso ao nascer no desempenho das colônias / Reproductive aspects of Africanized queens (Apis mellifera L.): influence of virgin queen weight at eclosion on colony performance

Daiana Almeida de Souza 30 October 2009 (has links)
A rainha é a progenitora de todos os integrantes da colônia de abelhas (Apis mellifera L.) através da qual são passadas as características hereditárias para seus descendentes, sendo de extrema importância nos programas de melhoramento genético apícola. A qualidade de uma rainha é determinada principalmente por fatores intimamente relacionados à sua estrutura reprodutiva, o que é refletido tanto no peso destas, como na atividade de postura e na sua longevidade. Por esse motivo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do peso ao nascer de rainhas de abelhas africanizadas sobre o os aspectos relacionados ao comportamento reprodutivo em rainhas fecundadas naturalmente e inseminadas instrumentalmente, bem como acompanhar o desenvolvimento e produtividade das colônias descendentes destas rainhas. Os experimentos foram realizados no Apiário Experimental do Departamento de Genética da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto USP, onde foram estabelecidas doze colônias de abelhas africanizadas divididas em quatro grupos: seis colônias com rainhas fecundadas naturalmente e seis inseminadas instrumentalmente, subdivididas em três colônias com rainhas leves (< 180 mg) e três com rainhas pesadas (> 200 mg), onde o peso foi registrado imediatamente após as rainhas emergirem. As rainhas leves e pesadas, fecundadas naturalmente, foram acompanhadas simultaneamente em colméias de observação, visando analisar o comportamento de acasalamento dos dois grupos, enquanto que as rainhas inseminadas instrumentalmente, de ambos os pesos, foram fecundadas com 6 l de sêmen. Após as fecundações, todas as rainhas foram estabelecidas em caixas tipo núcleo, montadas a partir biomassa semelhante. Vinte dias após a introdução das rainhas nos núcleos estas colônias foram avaliadas quinzenalmente, por meio de mapeamento dos quadros a fim de estimar a porcentagem de ovos, cria aberta, cria fechada e pólen estocado, assim como foram realizados teste de viabilidade de cria. O acompanhamento do tempo de expansão populacional foi estimado através do período necessário para transferência das colônias das caixas tipo núcleo (com três quadros e alimentador) para caixas tipo ninho (com nove quadros e alimentador). Na análise dos dados relacionados ao comportamento de acasalamento observouse que as rainhas leves realizaram maior quantidade de vôos nupciais que as rainhas pesadas, sendo que 56% das nove rainhas leves realizaram mais de um vôo nupcial, enquanto que apenas 33% das nove rainhas pesadas realizaram mais de um vôo nupcial, embora esta diferença não tenha sido estatisticamente significante. Constatamos ainda diferença de um dia na idade de realização de vôos de acasalamento, sendo que as rainhas leves saíram um dia antes, com idade média de 6,11 ± 1,53 dias, enquanto que para as rainhas pesadas essa média foi de 7, 09 ± 4,59 dias. Esta diferença também foi observada na idade em que as rainhas iniciaram a ovoposição, que foi de 7,77 ± 1,86 dias para rainhas leves e 9,88 ± 3,02 dias para rainhas pesadas. Com relação à duração dos vôos nupciais e horário em que foram realizados, ambos ii os grupos tiveram resultados muito semelhantes. As comparações das médias dos dados gerados pelos mapeamentos realizados em colônias com rainhas fecundadas naturalmente e inseminada instrumentalmente, mostraram diferenças estatisticamente significantes relacionada área de postura de ovos (P = 0,117) e área de cria fechada (P = 0,003), onde as colônias descendentes de rainhas pesadas apresentaram desempenho superior em relação as colônias com rainhas leves. Este melhor desempenho é representado ainda pela maior taxa de viabilidade de cria das colônias com rainhas pesadas, dado estatisticamente significante. Atrelado a este fato, as colônias com rainhas pesadas mostraram-se ainda mais rápidas na expansão populacional, que colônias com rainhas leves, onde foi verificada uma diferença média de 24 dias a menos, pelas colônias descendentes de rainhas pesadas, para a transferência para caixas maiores tipo ninho. Quando comparamos as rainhas fecundadas naturalmente e inseminadas instrumentalmente, foi observada diferença média de um dia na idade em que iniciaram a ovoposição, sendo que as rainhas fecundadas naturalmente iniciaram com 9,31 ± 2,49 dias e as rainhas inseminadas instrumentalmente com 10,43 ± 0,51 dias. Observou-se também diferença estatisticamente significante apenas para a variável área de postura (P = 0,004), onde as colônias com rainhas fecundadas naturalmente apresentaram médias superiores, muito embora esta diferença não tenha afetado o desenvolvimento geral das colônias com rainhas inseminadas instrumentalmente, o que foi representado pelo tempo de expansão populacional, igual entre as colônias com rainhas de ambos os tipos de fecundação. Conclui-se que a utilização da técnica de inseminação instrumental de abelhas é uma metodologia viável para a aplicação em programas de melhoramento apícola, uma vez que não encontramos diferenças no desenvolvimento entre colônias descendentes de rainhas inseminadas instrumentalmente e descendentes de rainhas fecundadas naturalmente. Tomando-se por base os principais resultados obtidos no presente trabalho concluímos que a utilização da característica fenotípica peso da rainha acima de 200mg como uma característica importante a ser adotada em programas de seleção e melhoramento de abelhas / The queen is the progenitor of all the honey bee colony members. The quality of a queen is determined mainly by factors closely related to her reproductive structure, including weight, egg-laying activity and longevity. We evaluated the influence of adult eclosion weight on the reproductive behavior of naturally mated and instrumentally inseminated Africanized queens, and we monitored the development and productivity of colonies headed by these queens. Twelve colonies of Africanized honey bees were divided into two groups: six colonies with naturally mated queens and six with instrumentally inseminated queens; there were three light queens (<180 mg) and three heavy queens (> 200 mg) in each mating type group; queen weight was recorded immediately after the virgin queens emerged. The virgin queens in the naturally mated queens group were introduced into observation hives, to compare the mating behavior of the light and heavy queens. The other six queens were artificially inseminated with 6 l semen. After the inseminations, all of the artificially inseminated queens were introduced into four standard Langstroth frame nuclei, which were established with similar numbers of bees and brood area. Beginning 20 days after the introduction of these queens, the colonies were evaluated twice per month, by mapping combs to estimate the areas containing eggs, open and closed brood and stored pollen; the viability of the brood was also investigated. We observed the time it took to outgrow the nucleus boxes (three combs plus an internal frame-size feeder); the colonies were then transferred to 10 frame hives (with nine combs and a feeder). We observed that the light queens made more nuptial flights than heavy queens; five of the nine light queens made more than one nuptial flight, whereas only three of the nine heavy queens took more than a nuptial flight, though this difference was not significant. We also observed a one day difference in the age of queen when she made her mating flights; the light queens went on their first mating flights at a mean age of 6.11 ± 1.53 days, while for the heavy queens the mean was 7.09 ± 4.59 days. A similar tendency was observed in the age at which the queens started oviposition, which was 7.77 ± 1.86 days for light queens and 9.88 ± 3.02 days for heavy queens. The two types of queens had similar duration and time of day of nuptial flights. Heavy queens (both artificially and naturally inseminated) produced significantly more eggs (P = 0.117) and more sealed brood (P = 0.003) than did light queens. Brood viability was significantly greater in the colonies headed by heavy queens. Colony expansion was also faster in colonies with heavy queens. It took an average of 24 days less for the heavy-queen colonies to expand to a point that they needed to be transferred from the four-frame nucleus hives to the 10-frame standard hives. Oviposition by the naturally mated queens began earlier (9.31 ± 2.49 days) than by instrumentally inseminated queens (10.43 ± 0.51 days). Naturally mated queens laid significantly more eggs (P = 0.004), although this difference did not affect the rate of colony population expansion. We concluded that the use of instrumental iv insemination of honey bees is a viable methodology for use in bee breeding programs, since we found no differences in development between colonies with artificially versus naturally inseminated queens. We also concluded that queen weight above 200 mg is a useful characteristic to select for in Africanized honey bees.
3

Feral Africanized honey bee ecology in a coastal prairie landscape

Baum, Kristen Anne 30 September 2004 (has links)
Honey bees, Apis mellifera, play an important role in many ecosystems, pollinating a wide variety of native, agricultural, and exotic plants. The recent decline in the number of feral and managed honey bee colonies in North America, as well as the arrival of Africanized honey bees, have caused concern about adequate pollination for agricultural crops and natural plant communities. However, little is known about feral colonies, and the feral population is the source for Africanized honey bees as they spread and infiltrate managed populations. The goal of my dissertation was to examine the ecology of feral honey bee colonies, adding the spatial context necessary to understand the population ecology and patterns of resource use by feral honey bees on the Welder Wildlife Refuge. I defined the functional heterogeneity of feral honey bee habitat by identifying the suitability of different habitats for feral colonies based on the distribution and abundance of important resources (cavities, nectar, and pollen). I evaluated the distribution and abundance of feral colonies by examining nest site characteristics, population trends, and spatial and temporal patterns in cavity use. Lastly, I examined resource use by evaluating patterns in pollen collection and identifying where and when honey bees searched for resources. Overall, the Welder Wildlife Refuge provided excellent habitat for feral honey bees, supporting a high density of feral colonies. The dense live oak habitat was the best overall source for cavities, nectar, and pollen. Nectar and pollen were abundant throughout the year, with the exception of December and January, when a large number of honey bees searched for resources. Cavities did not appear to vary in their suitability for feral colonies based on measured structural and environmental attributes, since no cavity attributes were correlated with indices of cavity quality. However, the cavity quality indices varied between cavities, suggesting some cavities were more suitable for feral honey bees than others. Colonies were aggregated within the study area, probably due to the distribution of resources. The invasion of Africanized honey bees appeared to fragment the existing European population, with Africanized colonies aggregated in distribution and European colonies random in distribution.
4

Divergências morfométricas e comportamentais em Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera:apidae)

Sousa, Arlik Rafael Santiago de 31 July 2014 (has links)
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico / Bees of the genus Apis are widely distributed throughout the tropical regions of the planet, playing fundamental role as pollinators. In Brazil they are a polihibrid formed by the crossbreed of African subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata and European subspecies, where due generalist habits the introgression of alleles of the African subspecies has led to a predominance of the your characteristics in relation to European subspecies. The scope of this work was to characterize the divergence among 71 colonies of Africanized honey bees located in three distinct ecoregions (Forest zone, Ecotone and Semiarid) of the State of Sergipe Brazilian northeast, through morphological and behavioral analyses, in order to assess the relationship between the effects of seasonality and the different patterns morphoclimatic ecoregions in morphology, behavior and distribution of these groups of bees. In this work we used geometric morphometric techniques observing the anatomical landmarks of the wing venation with the aid of software Tps / DIG and evaluation of hygienic behavior by pin-killing method in two distinct seasonal periods, the dry and rainy. The correlation between the hygienic behavior indexes and environmental variables was obtained by Spearman correlation and the causal relations by path analysis, with the aid of software R. The morphometric analyzes were performed by means of multivariate analysis with the aid of software MORPHOJ and PAST. Thus, the results of this study demonstrated that the high gene flow evidenced between studied colonies and pronounced differences in apiaries and ecoregions with influence of altitude on shape (r=0,06239; p= 0.05) and size (0.001) contributed therefore for the separation of these groups as result of phenotypic plasticity rather than genetic divergence among populations of Africanized honey bees. Furthermore, the results also demonstrated significant difference in hygienic behavior of these populations between the dry and rainy season (p= 0,022; α=0,05) and between ecoregions (p=0,001; α=0,05) with the influence of temperature (ρ=0,065; p=0,471; α=0,05) and altitude (ρ=-0,294; p=0,001 α=0,05) upon pluviosity (ρ=0,274; p=0,002; α=0,05) that demonstrated be the main modulator of hygienic behavior, thus reinforcing the influence of environmental factors on the expression of this trait. Therefore, it is concluded by the influence of stochastic factors in the morphology, behavior and distribution of Africanized honey bees, where polyphenisms found denote the high genetic variability of these populations, a fact that can be exploited in future conservation, handling and breeding programs. / As abelhas do genero Apis estao amplamente distribuidas pelas regioes tropicais do planeta, sendo fundamentais no papel de polinizadores. No Brasil, estas sao um poliibrido formado pelo cruzamento entre a subespecie africana Apis mellifera scutellata e as subespecies europeias. Devido a habitos generalistas, a introgressao de alelos da subespecie africana tem levado a uma predominancia nas caracteristicas desta em relacao as europeias. O presente trabalho teve como escopo a caracterizacao da divergencia entre 71 colonias de A. mellifera africanizadas, situadas em tres distintas ecorregioes (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertao) do Estado de Sergipe, nordeste do Brasil, por meio de analises morfologicas e comportamentais, com o objetivo de avaliar as relacoes entre os efeitos da sazonalidade e dos distintos padroes morfoclimaticos das ecorregioes na morfologia, comportamento e distribuicao desses grupos de abelhas. Neste estudo foram utilizadas tecnicas de morfometria geometrica, com observacao dos marcos anatomicos da venacao alar, com o auxilio do software Tps/DIG e avaliacao do comportamento higienico pelo metodo de perfuracao de crias em dois periodos estacionais, o seco e o chuvoso. A correlacao entre os indices de comportamento higienico e as variaveis ambientais foi obtida por meio da correlacao de Spearman e as relacoes de causalidade por meio da analise de trilha, com o auxilio do software R. As analises morfometricas foram realizadas por meio de tecnicas de analise multivariada, com o auxilio dos softwares MORPHOJ e PAST. Assim, os resultados deste trabalho demonstraram que o intenso fluxo genico evidenciado entre as colonias estudadas e as diferencas pronunciadas nos distintos apiarios e ecorregioes, com influencia da altitude na forma (r=0,06239; p= 0.05) e tamanho (0.001) contribuiram, portanto, para a separacao desses grupos como resultado da plasticidade fenotipica e nao de divergencia genetica entre as populacoes de abelhas africanizadas. Alem disso, os resultados tambem demonstraram haver diferenca significativa no comportamento higienico dessas populacoes, entre os periodos seco e chuvoso (p= 0,022 ¿=0,05) e entre as ecorregioes (p=0,001; ¿=0,05), com influencia da temperatura ( Ï=0,065 p=0,471; ¿=0,05) e altitude ( Ï=-0,294; p=0,001; ¿=0,05) sobre a pluviosidade ( Ï=0,274 p=0,002; ¿=0,05) sendo esta o principal modulador do comportamento higienico, reforcando a influencia de fatores ambientais na manifestacao dessa caracteristica. Portanto, conclui-se pela influencia de fatores estocasticos na morfologia, comportamento e distribuicao das abelhas africanizadas, onde os polifenismos encontrados denotam a grande variabilidade genetica dessas populacoes, fato esse que pode ser explorado em futuros programas de conservacao, manejo e melhoramento.

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