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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
11

Avaliação do potencial citotóxico de três novos derivados da a-santonina em modelos experimentais in vitro / Evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of three new derivatives of α-santonin in experimental models

Ferreira, José Roberto de Oiveira January 2009 (has links)
FERREIRA, José Roberto de Oliveira. Avaliação do potencial citotóxico de três novos derivados da a-santonina em modelos experimentais in vitro. 2009. 86 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Farmacologia) - Universidade Federal do Ceará. Faculdade de Medicina, Fortaleza, 2009. / Submitted by denise santos (denise.santos@ufc.br) on 2012-04-12T12:35:06Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2009_dis_jroferreira.pdf: 720293 bytes, checksum: a4d2e7d3d42fdf2d1311fb27cbe778ce (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Eliene Nascimento(elienegvn@hotmail.com) on 2012-04-13T16:16:40Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 2009_dis_jroferreira.pdf: 720293 bytes, checksum: a4d2e7d3d42fdf2d1311fb27cbe778ce (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2012-04-13T16:16:40Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2009_dis_jroferreira.pdf: 720293 bytes, checksum: a4d2e7d3d42fdf2d1311fb27cbe778ce (MD5) Previous issue date: 2009 / The sesquiterpene lactones have different chemical structures, and a variety of biological activities, among which stand out the cytotoxic and antitumour activities. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of three new α-Santonin (1) derivatives: 3-oxo-7αH,6H-eudesma-1,4,11-trien-6,12-olide (2), 11,13-dehydrolumissantonin (3) and 10α-acetoxi-3-oxo-1,7αH,6H-guai-4,11-dien-6,12-olide (4) and study your effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis events. All new derivatives inhibited the proliferation of tumor cells, by MTT assay, except the prototype (α-santonina) after 72 h of incubation. The cell lines HL60 (leukemia) and HCT-8 (colon) showed greater sensitivity to treatment with these derivatives, with values of IC50 for HL60 equal to 1.14 (0.23-2.77); 2.30 (1.87-2.84) and 1.60 (1.09-2.35) µM and for HCT-8 equal to 2.92(0.98-4.86); 1.96 (1.64-2.29) and 0.36 (0.16-0.79) µM for compounds 2, 3 and 4, respectively.. Two derivatives were less cytotoxic to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC): IC50 equal to 10.75 (4.6-23.3) µM (3) and IC50 equal to 16.77 (7.3-36.8) µM (4). However, compound 2 showed lower selectivity (IC50 equal to 3.24 (1.6-5.3) µM) on PBMC. None of the studied compounds induced hemolytic effects. To evaluate the mechanism of action promoted by these derivatives, HL60 cells was chosen as an experimental model, since this linage was one of the most sensitive to treatment. HL60 cultures were treated with α-santonin derivatives (1 and 2 µM) during 24 h. All compounds were able to reduce the number of viable cells evaluated by the trypan blue dye exclusion test at highest concentration, without increasing the number of non-viable cells. The antiproliferative action is related to the ability to inhibit the synthesis of DNA. After treatment, the derivatives were able to induce apoptosis, as observed by cell morphology pattern (chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation), and by flow cytometry (membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation, anexin positive cells, and caspases 3 and 7 activation). None of all derivatives analyzed caused depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, suggesting the involvement of the extrinsic pathway in the apoptotic process. The compounds 3 and 4 induce G2/M cell cycle arrest, indicating a different mechanism of action in relation to compound 2. These data suggest that α-santonin derivatives evaluated in the present study showed a anticancer potential, especially the compound 4, which induced moderate toxicity on PBMC, in addition this compound induced a higher rate of cell death via apoptosis when compared to the other α-santonin derivatives evaluated. / As lactonas sesquiterpênicas apresentam estruturas químicas diversificadas, bem como uma grande variedade de atividades biológicas, dentre as quais se destaca a atividade citotóxica e antitumoral. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o potencial citotóxico de três novos derivados da α-santonina (1): 3-oxo-7αH,6H-eudesma-1,4,11-trien-6,12-olideo (2), 11,13-dehidrolumissantonina (3) e 10α-acetoxi-3-oxo-1,7αH,6H-guai-4,11-dien-6,12-olideo (4) e estudar seus efeitos sobre a proliferação celular, ciclo celular e eventos apoptóticos. Todos os novos derivados inibiram a proliferação das células tumorais, pelo ensaio do MTT, exceto o protótipo (α-santonina), após 72 h de incubação. As linhagens HL60 (leucemia) e HCT-8 (cólon) mostraram maior sensibilidade ao tratamento com os novos derivados, cujos valores de CI50 para HL60 foram 1,14 (0,23-2,77); 2,30 (1,87-2,84) e 1,60 (1,09-2,35) µM e HCT-8 iguais a 2,92(0,98-4,86); 1,96 (1,64-2,29)e 0,36 (0,16-0,79) µM, para os compostos 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. Dois dos três derivados foram menos citotóxicos para as células mononucleares do sangue periférico (PBMC) com CI50 igual a 10,75 (4,6-23,3) µM (3) e CI50 igual a 16,77 (7,3-36,8) µM (4). Porém, o composto 2 apresentou menor seletividade (CI50 igual a 3,24 (1,6-5,3) µM) em relação as células não tumorais. Nenhum dos compostos estudados induziu efeitos hemolíticos. Para estudo do mecanismo de ação foi escolhida a linhagem HL-60 como modelo experimental. Culturas de HL60 foram tratadas com os derivados (1 e 2 µM) por 24 h. Todos os derivados foram capazes de reduzir o número de células viáveis, avaliado pelo ensaio de exclusão do azul de tripan, na maior concentração testada, sem induzir aumento na incidência de células não viáveis. A ação antiproliferativa esta relacionada com a capacidade de inibir a síntese de DNA. Após o tratamento, os derivados foram capazes de induzir apoptose, como observado pelo padrão de morfologia celular: presença de condensação de cromatina e fragmentação nuclear, bem como por citometria de fluxo (manutenção da integridade de membrana plasmática, fragmentação do DNA, externalização da fosfatidilserina e ativação de caspases 3 e 7). Nenhum dos derivados causou despolarização da membrana mitocondrial, sugerindo a participação da via extrínseca no processo apoptótico. Os compostos 3 e 4 foram capazes de causar acúmulo de células na fase G2/M do ciclo celular, indicando um mecanismo de ação diferenciado em relação ao composto 2. Esses dados sugerem que os derivados da α-santonina avaliados no presente estudo apresentam um potencial anticâncer, em especial o composto 4 pela moderada toxicidade em PBMC e por ser capaz de induzir uma maior taxa de morte celular via apoptose quando comparado aos demais derivados estudados.
12

Importancia da proteina tirosina fosfatase para a viabilidade de celulas leucemicas tratadas com quinonas

Assis, Cristiane Fernandes de 27 February 2003 (has links)
Orientadores: Carmen Verissima Ferreira, Hiroshi Aoyama / Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Biologia / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-03T16:41:04Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Assis_CristianeFernandesde_M.pdf: 3042510 bytes, checksum: f14f76bf214fea214d8604a04d205472 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2003 / Resumo: o objetivo geral deste trabalho foi correlacionar o efeito citotóxico da hidroquinona (HQ) e da tetrahidroxiquinona (THQ) sobre as células HL60 com alteração da atividade de PTPs. As qui nonas apresentaram efeito inibitório sobre fosfatases de membrana e citosol das células HL60. A viabilidade das células HL60 foi avaliada através de 3 parâmetros: redução do MTT, atividade fosfatásica e conteúdo de proteínas. Para a HQ foram obtidos os seguintes valores de ICso: 20 e 50jJM para fosfatase e MTT, respectivamente. Quando as células foram tratadas em presença da GSH os valores de ICso para HQ foram 80jJM para fosfatase e 50jJM para MTT. Em relação à função mitocondrial e atividade fosfatásica, as células quando tratadas com THQ apresentaram um ICso 50jJM. Entretanto, a THQ em presença da GSH foi menos tóxica como revelado pelos valores de ICso encontrados (240JJM para fosfatase e 160JJM para o MTT). As células HL60 tratadas com HQ e THQ reduziram o NBT, indicando positividade na diferenciação de 103 e 89%, respectivamente. A fragmentação do DNA observada na presença da HQ (35%) e THQ (24%) indica indução de apoptose. Nossos resultados mostram que o efeito citotóxico das qui nonas sobre as células HL60 foi inespecífico e dependente da metabolização das mesmas, com produção de compostos mais reativos. Portanto, o estresse oxidativo causado pela HQ e THQ pode inicialmente alterar vias de sinalização que têm a participação de proteínas tirosina fosfatases, já que estas enzimas respondem negativamente a baixos níveis de agentes oxidantes / Abstract: The aim of this work was to correlate the cytotoxic effect of hydroquinone (HQ) and tetrahydroxiquinone (THQ) on HL60 cells with protein tyrosine phosphatases activities changing. The quinones presented inhibitory effect in the phosphatases isolated from HL60 cells (membrane and cytosol). The cell viability was evaluated through 3 parameters: MTT reduction, phosphatase activity and protein content. For the HQ the following ICso values were obtained: 20 and 50IJM for phosphatase and MTT, respectively. When these cells were treated in presence of GSH the ICso values for HQ were 80IJM for phosphatase and 50IJM for MTT. In relation to the mitochondrial function and phosphatase activity, when the cells were treated with THQ, the ICso was 50IJM for both parameters. However, THQ in presence of GSH was less toxic as revealed through to ICso values of (240IJM for phosphatase and 160IJM for MTT). HL60 cells treated with HQ and THQ reducted NBT, indicating differentiation positivity of 103 and 89%, respectively. DNA fragmentation was observed in the presence of HQ (35%) and THQ (24%) revealing apoptose induction. Ours results showed that cytotoxic effect of quinones on HL60 cells was inespecific and depended on the compounds metabolization, producing more toxic metabolites. Finally, the oxidative stress caused by HQ and THQ could initially changes signaling pathways which PTPs are involved, because these enzymes are negatively regulated by low levei of oxidant agents / Mestrado / Bioquimica / Mestre em Biologia Funcional e Molecular
13

Implication des protéines BNIP3 et OPA1 dans la balance entre survie par autophagie-mitophagie et mort par apoptose dans les neurones / Involvement of BNIP3 and OPA1 proteins in the balance between survival by autophagy-mitophagy and death by apoptosis in neurons

Moulis, Manon 17 October 2016 (has links)
Les mitochondries sont des organites essentiels qui fusionnent et fissionnent en permanence. Cette dynamique est régulée par différentes GTPase, notamment OPA1 qui est impliquée dans la fusion mitochondriale. OPA1 possède également une fonction anti-apoptotique, régulée par BNIP3, un membre pro-apoptotique de la famille Bcl-2. En conditions de stress, comme l'hypoxie, la protéine BNIP3 est induite et inhibe OPA1, ce qui conduit à une fragmentation des mitochondries et à l'apoptose. En plus de sa fonction pro-apoptotique, BNIP3 a récemment été impliquée dans l'autophagie et la mitophagie, une forme d'autophagie sélective des mitochondries qui assure le contrôle qualité de l'organite. Mon travail de thèse a visé à étudier l'implication des protéines BNIP3 et OPA1 dans la balance entre survie par autophagie-mitophagie et mort par apoptose dans les neurones. La protéine BNIP3 a été induite ou surexprimée en utilisant, respectivement, un mimétique de l'hypoxie ou des lentivirus, dans des neurones en culture primaire. Par des analyses biochimiques et de microscopie nous avons étudié les effets de cette induction/surexpression sur la morphologie mitochondriale, l'autophagie-mitophagie et l'apoptose, ainsi que l'impact d'OPA1 sur ces processus. Nous avons montré que l'induction de BNIP3 provoque une séquence d'évènements qui débute par la fragmentation du réseau mitochondrial, est suivie par un processus d'autophagie-mitophagie de survie et se termine par la mort des neurones. Alors que la surexpression d'OPA1 diminue la fragmentation des mitochondries et la mort des neurones, elle n'affecte pas l'autophagie-mitophagie dans nos conditions. Les mutations du gène d'OPA1 sont responsables d'une maladie neurodégénérative, l'Atrophie Optique Dominante Autosomale de type 1 (ADOA1), qui se traduit par une atrophie du nerf optique, pouvant conduire à la cécité, et des atteintes neurologiques extra-oculaires variées. Nous avons démontré dans des modèles in vitro et in vivo de l'ADOA1 que le taux de protéine BNIP3 basal est réduit. Ceci s'accompagne in vitro d'une diminution de l'autophagie-mitophagie qui pourrait contribuer à sensibiliser les neurones haploinsuffisants en protéine OPA1 à différents stress. BNIP3 participerait donc, de concert avec son partenaire OPA1, au contrôle du destin des neurones, favorisant la survie cellulaire grâce à son activité pro-autophagique et mitophagique lors de dommages modérés, mais entraînant la mort quand les dommages sont trop conséquents. La découverte d'une modulation de l'expression de BNIP3 dans des modèles d'ADOA1 permet de proposer un rôle de la protéine dans l'étiologie de la maladie. / Mitochondria are essential organelles that constantly fuse and divide. These dynamic processes are controlled by various GTPases, such as OPA1, which is involved in mitochondrial fusion. OPA1 has also an anti-apoptotic function, which is regulated by BNIP3, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Upon stresses, such as hypoxia, BNIP3 is induced and inactivates OPA1, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis. Besides its pro-apoptotic function, BNIP3 was recently shown to be involved in autophagy and mitophagy, a selective autophagy of mitochondria that ensures their quality control. This study aims to decipher the role of BNIP3 and its partner OPA1 in the balance between survival by autophagy-mitophagy and death by apoptosis in neurons. BNIP3 induction or overexpression was achieved, respectively, using a mimetic of hypoxia or lentiviruses, in primarily cultured neurons. Various microscopy and biochemistry approaches were used to analyse the impact of this induction/overexpression on mitochondrial morphology, autophagy-mitophagy and apoptosis. We showed that BNIP3 induction led to a sequence of events that started with mitochondrial network fragmentation, followed by pro-survival autophagic and mitophagic processes, and ended by cell death. OPA1 mutations lead to a neurodegenerative condition: Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy type 1 (ADOA1). ADOA1 patients suffer from optic nerve atrophy leading to blindness and various extra-ocular neurological defects. We evidenced in in vitro and in vivo ADOA1 models a lowered BNIP3 basal level. This decrease is associated in vitro with a reduction of autophagy-mitophagy that could lead to increased susceptibility to various stresses. BNIP3 thus controls, together with its partner OPA1, the fate of neurons, favoring cell survival upon moderate damages thanks to its pro-autophagic and mitophagic activity, or leading to cell death upon extensive damages. Having demonstrated that BNIP3 expression is affected in ADOA1 models, we propose a role of the protein in the etiology of the disease.
14

Modulation of tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (trail) receptors in a human osteoclast model in vitro

McManus, Stephen January 2010 (has links)
We have previously shown that osteoclasts (OCLs) from multiple myeloma (MM) specimens vary from healthy OCLs in their expression of the TRAIL receptors. TRAIL (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand), a member of the TNF superfamily, has been shown to induce apoptosis in cells by binding receptors DR4 and DR5, but not DcR1 and DcR2, its decoy receptors, which lack the necessary internal death domain. The observed modulation of these receptors may confer a resistance to apoptosis in the MM environment, and could be related to the cytokine pattern that primarily involves the resorption promoting Receptor Activator of NF-[kappa]B Ligand (RANKL) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 (MIP-1[alpha]). The aim of our study was to determine which cytokines present in the disease might be responsible for this modulation. In long term cultures of OCL precursors from cord blood in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL, multinucleated cells (MNCs) that express OCL markers form, and can resorb bone. Through immunocytochemistry we showed that these MNCs can express all four TRAIL receptors. By stimulating with various cytokines (RANKL, MIP-1[alpha], Transforming Factor [bêta] (TGF[bêta]), osteoprotegerin (OPG), TRAIL), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in OCL cultures, we were able to observe receptor modulation at the mRNA level using real time PCR, the protein level using Western blot analysis, and cell surface expression via immunocytochemistry. To determine if these changes translated to a difference in resistance to apoptosis, cells treated with [with] apoptosis-inducing levels of TRAIL after 5 days of stimulation with the selected cytokines were evaluated via TUNEL to quantify apoptosis. While no correlation has yet been established between the observed receptor modification and apoptosis induction, sample size is a factor, and further tests will be performed. Our results suggest the possibility that TRAIL receptor modification is induced by multiple cytokines present in bone diseases, capable of altering both the susceptibility and resistance pathways in osteoclasts. By potentially prolonging the lifespan of the OCL, these regulatory influences may ultimately be contributory factors to the augmentation of resorption in the micro-environment of bone resorptive diseases like multiple myeloma, Paget's disease of bone, or osteoporosis.
15

Identification, évolution et mort cellulaire chez un groupe de protistes, les Parabasalia / Identification, evolution and cellular death in a protist group, the Parabasalia

Mantini, Clea 19 October 2010 (has links)
Les Parabasalia constituent un groupe d’eucaryotes unicellulaires répartis en 2 classes : les hypermastigines et les trichomonadines. Le premier volet de ma thèse concerne l’étude de la systématique de ce groupe par l’utilisation d’outils moléculaires. En séquençant les gènes codant pour différents marqueurs de nombreux taxons d’intérêt, des phylogénies moléculaires sont construites et comparées à la systématique traditionnelle basée sur un nombre limité de caractères morphologiques. Ces phylogénies moléculaires sont largement en conflit avec la classification actuelle et appelle donc à une révision globale de la taxonomie de ce groupe. Le second volet de mes travaux concerne l’étude des processus de mort cellulaire chez la trichomonadine, Trichomonas vaginalis, l’agent responsable de la trichomonose humaine qui est la maladie transmise sexuellement d’origine non virale la plus répandue à travers le monde. Il est possible d’induire une forme de mort cellulaire distincte de la nécrose chez ce parasite via l’utilisation de drogues pro-apoptotiques comme la staurosporine. Certaines caractéristiques de cette mort cellulaire sont communes à celles observées pour l’apoptose des métazoaires alors que d’autres semblent spécifiques à ce parasite. Ce microorganisme présente en outre deux particularités intéressantes dans le cadre de notre projet. La première est son unicellularité. En effet, on sait aujourd’hui que l’apparition des mécanismes de mort cellulaire a précédé celle de la multicellularité. De ce fait, étudier ces processus de mort cellulaire chez les unicellulaires peut apporter des informations intéressantes sur un problème de biologie générale qui est l’origine de la mort cellulaire chez les métazoaires. La seconde est qu’il est dépourvu de mitochondries et de ce fait pouvoir induire une mort cellulaire chez Trichomonas pourrait remettre en question le rôle central de la mitochondrie dans le processus apoptotique. Nous avons donc initié l’identification et la caractérisation des molécules potentiellement impliquées dans la mort cellulaire chez ce microorganisme. Une recherche in silico menée dans le programme de séquençage du génome de T. vaginalis ne nous a pas permis d’identifier de protéines homologues à celles connues comme étant impliquées dans le processus d’apoptose chez les métazoaires à l’exception de possibles métacaspases qui sont considérées comme des caspases primitives. Ces protéines, au nombre de 11 chez Trichomonas, possèdent toutes le domaine catalytique peptidase C14 et la dyade histidine-cystéine du site catalytique caractéristiques des caspases. Ces métacaspases de Trichomonas peuvent se regrouper en deux classes : l’une englobant celles présentant une extension amino-terminale et l’autre regroupant celles ne présentant pas cette extension. Dans un premier temps, nous avons étudié l’expression relative des 11 gènes codant ces métacaspases par PCR quantitative après induction de l’apoptose par la staurosporine. Nous avons montré une surexpression significative de la plupart de ces gènes. Cette régulation est donc différente de celle généralement observée pour les gènes de caspases. Nous avons ensuite mené une étude biochimique et enzymatique pour un représentant de chacune des deux classes de métacaspases de Trichomonas. Après production de ces protéines en système bactérien, nous avons montré, par western blot, qu’elles ont la propriété de s’autocliver tout comme les métacaspases étudiées chez d’autres organismes et les caspases initiatrices des métazoaires. Ces résultats ont été confirmés par la production de ces deux métacaspases mutées au niveau des deux résidus C et H du site catalytique. De plus, l’étude de l’activité enzymatique de ces protéines révèle une forte spécificité endopeptidase arginine ou lysine spécifique comme pour les autres métacaspases décrites jusqu’à présent et donc différente de celle des caspases qui est aspartate spécifique. [...] / The Parabasalia are a group of unicellular eukaryotes divided into two classes: hypermastigines and trichomonadines. The first part of my thesis is the study of this group’s systematic by using molecular tools. By sequencing the genes coding for different markers of interest in many taxa, molecular studies are constructed and compared with traditional systematics based on a limited number of morphological characters. These molecular phylogenies are largely in conflict with the current classification and therefore it’s necessary to do a revision of this group’s taxonomy. The second part of my work concerns the study of cell death of one trichomonads, Trichomonas vaginalis. It’s the causative agent of human trichomoniasis which is a sexually transmitted disease of nonviral origin most common worldwide. It is possible to induce a form of cell death distinct from necrosis in the parasite through the use of pro-apoptotic drugs such as staurosporine. Some features of this cell death are common to those observed for metazoan apoptosis, while others seem specific to this parasite. This organism also has two interesting features in the context of our project. One is his unicellularity. In fact, now we know that the apparition of the cell death mechanism preceded that of multicellularity. Therefore, the study of these cell death processes in unicellular organisms can provide valuable information on a general biology problem , the cell death origin in metazoans. The second is that T. vaginalis is devoid of mitochondria and thus can induce cell death in trichomonads could answer the question of the central role of mitochondria in apoptosis. We have therefore initiated the identification and characterization of molecules potentially involved in cell death in this organism. An in silico research conducted in the program to sequence the genome of T. vaginalis does not allow us to identify proteins homologous to those known to be involved in the process of apoptosis in metazoans except metacaspase possible that caspases are considered primitive. These proteins, numbering 11 in Trichomonas, possess all the catalytic domain Peptidase C14 dyad histidine-cysteine catalytic site characteristics of caspases. These metacaspase Trichomonas can be grouped into two classes: one comprising those having an amino-terminal extension and the other comprising those that do not have this extension. Initially, we studied the relative expression of 11 genes encoding these metacaspase Quantitative PCR after induction of apoptosis by staurosporine. We showed a significant overexpression of most of these genes. This regulation is therefore different from that generally observed for genes of caspases. We then conducted a biochemical and enzyme for one representative of each of the two classes of Trichomonas metacaspase. After producing these proteins in bacterial system, we showed by Western blot, they have the property of autocliver like metacaspase studied in other organisms and metazoan initiator caspases. These results were confirmed by the production of these two metacaspase mutated at both C and H residues of the catalytic site. In addition, the study of the enzymatic activity of these proteins reveals a high specificity endopeptidase specific arginine or lysine as for other metacaspase described so far and therefore different from that of caspases is specific aspartate. that of caspases. Finally, we construct a subtractive library to identify other proteins potentially involved in cell death in this protozoan.[...]
16

Evaluation biologique de l'inhibition des phosphatases CDC25 dans des lignées d'adenocarcinomes mammaires humains / Biological evaluation of the inhibition of the CDC25 'cell division cycle) phosphatases in human breast cancer cells

Viry, Elodie 05 November 2010 (has links)
Les phosphatases CDC25 sont des enzymes clés qui interviennent dans la progression du cycle cellulaire en régulant l’activité des kinases dépendantes des cyclines (Cdk) par déphosphorylation. Ces phosphatases sont des cibles thérapeutiques intéressantes car leur surexpression, notamment dans le cancer du sein, a pu être corrélée au développement de résistance à certains agents anticancéreux ainsi qu’à un mauvais pronostic.Ce projet vise à évaluer le système des phosphatases CDC25 en tant que cibles intéressantes dans le traitement du cancer du sein.Lors de cette étude, nous nous sommes intéressés à deux composés organosoufrés naturellement présents dans l’ail et l’oignon, les diallyl- (DAS4) et dipropyl- (DPS4) tétrasulfures. Nous avons montré que ces composés étaient capables d’inhiber, de manière irréversible, les phosphatases CDC25A et C in vitro. Le potentiel anticancéreux des composés DAS4 et DPS4 a été confirmé sur des cellules d’adénocarcinome mammaire humain : MCF-7 et MDA-MB-231 (lignées sensibles) et Vcr-R (lignée résistante). Leur croissance est apparue significativement altérée par ces deux composés qui a pu être associée à un blocage du cycle cellulaire en phase G2/M. Par ailleurs, nos résultats ont également suggéré l’existence d’une activité pro-apoptotique des composés DAS4 et DPS4 qui est indépendante de la production d’espèces réactives oxygénées. L’étude de l’induction de l’apoptose dans le cas des cellules MCF-7 a révélé l’implication des protéines de la famille Bcl-2.Ces résultats suggèrent que l’inhibition des phosphatases CDC25A et C serait un des mécanismes qui contribuerait à l’activité anticancéreuse des composés organosoufrés. / The CDC25 phosphatases are important regulators of eukaryotic cell cycle progression and play a crucial role in the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) by dephosphorylation. CDC25s are attractive targets in cancer therapy because their over-expression was reported in various types of human malignancies, including breast cancer, and this has been correlated with either poor prognosis or tumor aggressiveness.Our study aims to evaluate the CDC25s as interesting targets in breast cancer treatment. This study reports the inhibitory activity of two tetrasulfides : diallyl- (DAS4) and dipropyl- (DPS4) tetrasulfides naturally occurring in garlic and onion, towards the human cell division cycle (CDC) 25 phosphatases. Both compounds have emerged as interesting irreversible inhibitors of the CDC25 isoforms A and C in vitro.Then, we have investigated the anticancer properties of DAS4 et DPS4 on both sensitive (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and resistant (Vcr-R) human breast carcinoma cell lines. Experiments performed on cultured cells have showed that growth of both sensitive and resistant cells was significantly decreased by these tetrasulfides and appeared to be associated with a G2/M cell cycle arrest. In addition, our results also suggested that DAS4 and DPS4 induce apoptotis in MCF-7 cells without affecting reactive oxygen species production. Analysis of mechanisms implicated in apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cells after treatment with DAS4 et DPS4 have suggested the involvement of the Bcl-2 family members. Taken together, these results suggest phosphatases CDC25A and C as possible targets of naturally occuring polysulfides contributing to their anticancer properties.
17

Silenciamento de XIAP potencializa os efeitos da superexpressão de TP53 na redução da proliferação e aumento da morte celular em gliomas

Silva, Andrew Oliveira January 2012 (has links)
Gliomas malignos compreendem o subtipo mais comum e devastador de tumores primários do sistema nervoso central (SNC), sendo o Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) a forma mais agressiva e mortífera. Pacientes com este tipo de tumor apresentam um prognóstico de sobrevida que não ultrapassa os 18 meses, após o diagnóstico. Isso é decorrente do fato de que os GBMs possuem elevada resistência aos tratamentos de quimio e radioterapia, além de serem altamente infiltrativos e neurologicamente destrutivos. Um importante fator que contribui para essa resistência é a superexpressão da proteína XIAP (X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis), o mais potente inibidor de apoptose da família das IAPs. Este atua inibindo diretamente a ativação das Caspases 3, 7 e 9. P53 é considerada uma das mais potentes proteínas supressoras tumorais, uma vez que esta atua como reguladora central em diversas vias de sinalização de mecanismos celulares distintos, como a via de controle do ciclo celular, reparo ao DNA, apoptose, senescência, autofagia, entre outras. Isto justifica o fato de p53 estar frequentemente mutada, nos mais variados tipos de cânceres. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar os efeitos resultantes da interação entre a superexpressão da proteína supressora tumoral p53 e o silenciamento da proteína anti-apoptótica XIAP na proliferação, na sobrevivência de GBMs. Quando p53 foi superexpressa (P+) na linhagem de glioma U87 silenciada para XIAP (Xi), através de RNAi, a taxa de proliferação celular reduziu significativamente em relação às células com as intervenções isoladas (U87Xi e U87wtP+) ou em relação ao controle selvagem U87wt, ao longo de dez dias. O ensaio de citotoxicidade LDH revelou um aumento na desestabilização da membrana citoplasmática nas células com a manipulação gênica combinada (U87XiP+) em relação os controles U87Xi e U87wtP+. O ensaio com AnexinaV/PI demonstrou uma elevação na marcação de células U87XiP+ com os dois marcadores, indicando uma maior indução de morte celular em relação aos controles. Além disso, como consequência da modulação combinada de p53 e XIAP, os níveis das proteínas pró-apoptóticas Bax e PUMA aumentaram tanto na linhagem U87wt, quanto na linhagem U87Xi, ao superexpressar p53. Além disso, os níveis de p21 e da proteína anti-apoptótica Bcl-xL foram reduzidos na linhagem U87Xi em relação ao controle U87wt. Outra constatação importante foi o aumento dos níveis de caspase-3 na linhagem U87Xi em relação ao controle U87wt e um aumento ainda maior nas células com a intervenção combinada (U87XiP+). Todos estes dados convergem para o fato de que a combinação do silenciamento de XIAP e superexpressão de p53 é mais efetiva na redução da proliferação e indução de morte na linhagem de glioma U87, do que as manipulações gênicas realizadas de forma isoladas, além de sugerir uma possível via de integração entre XIAP e p53, tendo como ponto de conexão o controle dos níveis citoplasmáticos da proteína p21 tanto por p53, quanto por XIAP, mostrando que a modulação combinada de proteínas da via apoptótica é capaz de potencializar os efeitos produzidos pelas intervenções de forma isoladas, representando uma nova e promissora estratégia no desenvolvimento de novas terapias para o tratamento de Gliomas.
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Identification de nouvelles molécules à potentiel anticancéreux

Balde, Elhadj Saidou ES 17 June 2010 (has links)
Les molécules actuellement utilisées dans la chimiothérapie anticancéreuse sont pour la majorité d’origine végétale mais peuvent aussi provenir d’organismes marins ou de microorganismes. Ces molécules bien qu’ayant des cibles moléculaires différentes, induisent dans la majorité des cas une mort cellulaire par apoptose. Or ces dernières années le développement d’une chimiorésistance des cellules cancéreuses vis à vis de ce type de molécules s’est particulièrement accru. Face à cette situation le besoin de trouver de nouvelles molécules avec des mécanismes d’action différents se fait de plus en plus pressant. Dans cette perspective nous avons évalué le potentiel anticancéreux des alcaloïdes du Pavetta crassipes K Schum, du Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln, de l’isostrychnopentamine (ISP) isolée du Strychnos usambarensis Gills et de 14 phytotoxines d’origine fongique. Nous avons évalué leurs activités inhibitrices de croissance in vitro sur des lignées humaines cancéreuses de glioblastome (U373), d’oligodendrogliome (Hs-683), de poumon non à petite cellule (A549), de prostate (PC3), de sein (MCF7), d’œsophage (OE21), de mélanome (SKMEL-28) et des lignées murines de mélanome (B16F10) et de carcinome mammaire (MXT). Ces différentes lignées sont décrites dans la littérature comme ayant des niveaux variables de sensibilité aux molécules inductrices d’apoptose. Nous montrons ainsi dans notre travail que l’isostrychnopentamine ou encore des extraits issus de Pavetta crassipes K Schum ont in vitro des activités anticancéreuses intéressantes quelque soit la sensibilité de la lignée cellulaire aux stimuli pro-apoptotiques. De surcroit les lignées connues pour avoir un certain niveau de résistance à l’apoptose sont plus sensibles (IC50 ~ 1µM) aux effets de ces deux fractions que les lignées cancéreuses ou normales habituellement sensibles à l’apoptose (IC50 ~ 2,5µM). Les taux comparatifs d’apoptose induite par l’isostrychnopentamine dans 2 lignées dites résistantes à l’apoptose (U373 et A549) montrent une complète indépendance du taux de sensibilité à l’apoptose de ces lignées. Cette situation laisse penser que l’apoptose n’est pas le mécanisme d’action principale de la molécule. L’évaluation du potentiel anticancéreux des 14 phytotoxines d’origine fongique sur des lignées cellulaires de cancer humain et murin nous a permis de retenir deux phytotoxines (le bislongiquinolide et le dihydrotricodimerol) pour des investigations plus poussées. En effet les résultats obtenus en vidéomicroscopie indiquent que ces deux phytotoxines ont un effet cytostatique qui in fine conduit à un effet cytotoxique.
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Molecular mechanism of anticancer drug-induced apoptosis in breast cancer (MTLn3) cells /

Huigsloot, Merei, January 2003 (has links)
Proefschrift--Faculteit der wiskunde en natuurwetenschappen en die der genesskunde--Leiden--Universiteit, 2003. / Notes bibliogr.
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Etude du facteur de transcription c-Rel dans l'apoptose et la prolifération

Bernard, David. Vandenbunder, Bernard. January 2001 (has links) (PDF)
Thèse de doctorat : Sciences de la vie et de la santé : Lille 1 : 2001. / Textes en français et en anglais. Résumé en français. Bibliogr. f. 59-77. Notes bibliogr.

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