Karamichael, Joulia Paraskevi
25 August 2008
While the move towards the inclusion of learners with a learning disability gains momentum, the Deaf community is reluctant for the inclusion of deaf learners in a mainstream society. Arguing that the needs of deaf learners are entirely different to those of other learning disabilities, they believe that a mainstream educational environment will deprive a deaf learner with a sense of identity and a common culture. Consequently, the purpose of this research essay is to investigate the experiences of a solitary mainstreamed deaf learner in a high school educational environment, and to try and ascertain the effect such an educational environment has had on him. My participant is currently the only deaf learner in his school. He is completing Grade 12 this year at an IEB school. Utilising an oral-audal mode of communication, as well as having a cochlear implant and an assistive device, the participant communicates predominantly through lip-reading and speaking English. He identifies himself as belonging to a hearing world, and as such his exposure to other deaf peers, Deaf culture and Sign language is minimal. This research study employed a qualitative research design and data was collected using documentation, an open questionnaire, observation and an in-depth interview. All data collected was analysed using the qualitative content analysis technique. Each data source was analysed, data was broken down into codes, grouped into common categories and finally placed in educationally relevant themes. In this research essay, four themes were identified, namely the learning environment, mode of communication, socialisation in a hearing world and mainstream versus specialised educational settings. Through the analysis of the data it became evident that aspects such as the curriculum, educators’ teaching strategies and methodologies, as well as the school’s extra-curricular programme all contributed to the learner’s learning environment. While utilising an oral-audal mode of communication, the participant’s audal input is affected by his ability to lip-read, environmental pollution, and his familiarity with the speaker. Because he has been exposed to a hearing environment from birth, he has developed adequate socialisation skills. While preferring to socialise with individuals who are familiar with him, he does however not mind socialising with strangers. As such he has developed good social skills. While having been exposed to both a mainstream and a specialised educational setting during his educational career, the participant has enjoyed the opportunities mainstream education has afforded him and encourages other deaf learners to mainstream as he has. He does however state that in order to succeed within a mainstream environment, the deaf learner has to be self-motivated, confident and an active participant both in and out of the classroom. In addition, the participant felt that having mainstreamed had affected his character, making him quieter, more sensitive, gentle and emotionally strong. In essence, the following study has helped to highlight both the benefits and challenges a deaf learner faces in a mainstream educational environment. Through the concerted and unified efforts of all stakeholders – the school, its educators, the deaf learner and his family, it becomes evident that deaf learners can be successfully included and achieve positive academic, emotional and social development. / Mrs. O.R. Pettipher
The History and Development of the Program of Playground Activities in the Dallas Elementary SchoolsGuy, Sue Hazel 08 1900 (has links)
This study was made to determine when and why the program of playground activities began in the elementary schools of Dallas, Texas, and how this program has developed. A study was made of the platoon school system to determine the necessity for supervised play periods, and the influence of this need on the growth of the playground activity programs.
23 June 2008
This study focuses on the needs of parents of learners with hearing impairments in a mainstream school. Since 1994, South African society has undergone massive changes informed by the Constitution based on a human rights perspective. The ultimate aim is an inclusive society based on the principles of democracy. The educational system has been transformed from one which supported exclusivity and inequalities on the basis of language, colour and ability to one which embraces diversity and inclusivity. The release of Education White Paper 6: Building an Inclusive Education and Training System (Department of Education, 2001) was the culmination of a process of restructuring of the education system to cater for all learners. Engelbrecht & Green (2001:6) emphasise that inclusive education is not about how to assimilate individual learners with identified special needs into existing forms of schooling, but about restructuring schools and education systems so that they can accommodate the learning needs of every individual. The new dispensation has made it possible for parents to assume the role of partners in education. Although School Governing Bodies have been established, parents still need a lot of support in order to play a meaningful role. In the case of parents of learners with hearing impairments in mainstream schools, there is a lot of ground that must still be covered in terms of their needs. In carrying out this research, an exploratory, descriptive, contextual and qualitative design was undertaken to find out what type of support is needed by parents who have children with hearing impairments in a mainstream school. Interviews were conducted with parents who have children with hearing impairments. During the interviews, ethical measures were adhered to and steps to ensure trustworthiness were also followed. Data were analysed and distinctive patterns of concerns emerged from the data, relating to the type of support parents needed. The findings indicate that in terms of the needs of parents of learners with hearing impairments in mainstream schools, Parent-school Partnerships; Capacity Building; Support Processes, Support and Networking; and Shared Decision-making were aspects identified by parents that had to be addressed. Based on the findings, it is recommended that schools lead the process, and that education officials be involved at all levels. The establishment of parent support groups will enable parents to be active agents of change in addressing their needs. District officials, governmental sectors, as well as community organizations serving the interests of learners who have hearing impairments, need to provide expertise and support for parents in starting and maintaining these processes. / Prof. R.E. Swart
Naiker, Vasidevan Subreya
21 October 2008
M.Ed. / This study explores how digital video conferencing (DVC) supports the teaching and learning of Deaf learners providing access to an appropriate curriculum. Whilst there are policies addressing the educational needs of the Deaf in South Africa, there are still gaps between policy and practice, as a result there are not enough visible results that ensure equal access and equal opportunities. The lack of visual educational technologies that support the delivery of instruction in schools for the Deaf in South Africa create barriers to effective teaching and learning. The main aim of this study is, how does digital video conferencing support the teaching and learning of Deaf. Also, the experiences of Deaf learners who are exposed to digital video conferencing technologies will be described. The findings will be used to make recommendations for improving the teaching and learning strategies in Deaf education. This study also examines how Digital Video Conferencing and related educational technologies support the teaching and learning of Deaf learners. According to DEAFSA, 2002, 14.43% of learners within special educational needs are Deaf. In my 14 years experience in Deaf education, and 11 years as principal of the school for Deaf learners, I have found that barriers exist in Deaf learners who are part of the system. The constructivist theory which focuses on the individual in the learning process, will be used in this study. This study proves that Digital video conferencing intervention can minimize the barriers that exist in Deaf education and afford learners the opportunity to participate in and make use of their natural language, that is South African Sign Language. The qualitative research design is therefore most appropriate for this study, since the focus is to obtain data that could facilitate an understanding of the experience of Deaf learners, whose teaching and learning sites are supported using digital video conferencing technologies. The video recorded responses from Deaf participants increased the validity of the data. The participants in this study are twelve grade 10 (N1) Deaf learners from Tshwane north. The participants being Deaf learners in this research project receive instruction as activities from their educator using DVC. The findings revealed that DVC liberates learners with special needs and their teachers, especially, opening up opportunities for the Deaf in particular. DVC technology must be seen as an educational tool to support the delivery of the exciting National Curriculum Statements (NCS) curriculum, and more importantly, supports the communicative modes of the Deaf, and in doing, so improves the status of Deaf education in South Africa Finally this new role requires the educator of the Deaf to assume responsibility for creating within Deaf learners a desire to learn (Storbeck, 1998). In doing so, using DVC technologies would foster an ethos of achievement among Deaf learners. DVC technology provides exactly what the Deaf have been waiting for, that is educational technologies that would support the acquisition of their natural language, South African Sign Language. The use of DVC technology in the teaching and learning of Deaf learners in South Africa is a new concept, therefore it is necessary for the teacher of the Deaf to use instructional methods that motivate learners and encourage active learning. / Prof. J. Pillay
Investments in Children's Health and Schooling in Rural Southern Mozambique: the role of mothers' decision-making autonomy and father's labor migrationJanuary 2014 (has links)
abstract: The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the association of mother's autonomy and male labor migration with child's health and education, taking into account possible differences by child's gender. The dissertation uses data from a household longitudinal survey conducted in rural southern Mozambique in 2006, 2009 and 2011 to address three main questions: 1) Is decision-making autonomy associated with child's schooling and child mortality? 2) Is father's labor migration associated with children's health outcomes? 3) If so, do these relationships change by gender of the child? The dissertation makes three main contributions to the literature. First, it finds a significant effect of mother's decision-making autonomy on child's outcomes, independent of other characteristics related to women's status. Second, it illustrates the cumulative nature of the effect of father's labor migration on the health of children left behind. And finally, the dissertation shows that women's decision-making autonomy and male migration affect children's outcomes differently depending on the gender of the child and on the outcome being analyzed. The dissertation is structured in five chapters. The first chapter gives an introductory overview of women's autonomy and male migration as determinants of children's outcomes, and presents the setting. The second chapter examines the relationship between mother's decision-making autonomy and enrollment for primary school-age children. Results show a positive association of women's decision-making autonomy with the probability of being enrolled for daughters, but not for sons. The effect of women's decision-making autonomy is net of other characteristics associated with autonomy. The third chapter analyzes the association of mother's decision-making autonomy and under-five child mortality. Results show a positive effect women's decision-making autonomy for sons' survival chances. The fourth chapter examines the effect of father's labor migration on health of children left behind. Results indicate that a proportion of child's life spent away by the father has a negative effect on the child's chances of being stunted but that it also decreases the likelihood of the child receiving age-adequate immunization. These results are gendered as the effect of father's migration on both outcomes is significant only for daughters. Chapter five presents the concluding remarks. / Dissertation/Thesis / Ph.D. Sociology 2014
A educação infantil no contexto da creche: um estudo sobre a educação, o cuidado da criança de zero a três anos e a formação de professores no município de Marília,SPSpada, Ana Corina Machado [UNESP] 16 February 2006 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:25:59Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2006-02-16Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:14:25Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 spada_acm_me_prud.pdf: 1152551 bytes, checksum: 4199d89f22610d5abb56c11de151d1f2 (MD5) / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / This research discusses the children.s education developed in public child day care centers. Historically, the attendance developed by child day care had been directed to children from popular class in Brazil and specially in Brazil, this kind of attendance were developed based on philanthropic work, with practices inside the institutions purely based on physical care. Considering on these elements that influenced the practices used inside the child day care space, as well the public policies created to this modality of education, this research intended to identify how has the children.s education at public child day care has been developed. To attend this intention, the research objectives concentrated on verify the conceptions about Children.s Education and about infancy between: principals, teacher.s and Children.s Education auxiliaries that work with children from zero to three years old; investigate the practices that composes the daily routine of children.s education developed by children between zero to three years, verifying how it is organized in time and space; investigate if and how the attendance in children.s education at Marília is organized according to Official Public Policies of Children.s Education; discuss the importance of these investigations from teacher.s formation. The research were developed with two public child day care at Marília, SP, Brazil and the methodology used consisted on a qualitative approach, in a ethnographic modality (BOGDAN; BIKLEN, 1994). The search reveals that the daily routine in both institutions researched emphasizes the physical care instead of the education, it means, the aspects concerning hygiene and alimentation receive more attention then the elements that are related effectively with the education.
Crianças público alvo da educação especial na educação infantil / Children target audience of especial education in early childhood educationNunes, Monica Isabel Canuto 10 February 2015 (has links)
Submitted by Erika Demachki (firstname.lastname@example.org) on 2015-03-20T19:25:25Z No. of bitstreams: 2 Dissertação - Mônica Isabel Canuto Nunes - 2015.pdf: 3274692 bytes, checksum: c499eed4ea60c6835ee2f1c56607e95f (MD5) license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Erika Demachki (email@example.com) on 2015-03-20T19:26:42Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 2 Dissertação - Mônica Isabel Canuto Nunes - 2015.pdf: 3274692 bytes, checksum: c499eed4ea60c6835ee2f1c56607e95f (MD5) license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2015-03-20T19:26:42Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 2 Dissertação - Mônica Isabel Canuto Nunes - 2015.pdf: 3274692 bytes, checksum: c499eed4ea60c6835ee2f1c56607e95f (MD5) license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2015-02-10 / Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Goiás - FAPEG / The Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988 and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education - Law. 9394/96 ensure education as a right of every citizen. However, it is still a big challenge the access and the permanence, especially in Early Childhood Education and public target children for special education. In the context of an educational policy of inclusion and the quest for a developing of a pedagogy centered in child, capable of successfully educating them, the question is: children from 0 to 05 years old, audience of special education, are having the warranty access and successful permanence in early childhood institutions in the municipalities of microregion of Pires do Rio? In order to find answers to proposed questions were defined as mainly aimed to analyze the guidelines and actions that direct access, permanence and the inclusion of public target children for special education,in early childhood education institutions in the microregion of Pires do Rio, whose researched corpus consisted by local school systems and institutions of child education of the following municipalities: Ipameri, Orizona, Palmelo, Pires do Rio, Santa Cruz de Goiás and Urutaí. The time frame covers the period of the year 2000, when it was launched the State Program for Diversity in a Inclusive Government Perspective of the municipalities in Goiás, until the year of 2013, the time of data collection. The procedures of data collection involved document analysis and semi-structured interviews with managers, municipal secretaries of education, special education coordinators linked the Municipal Education Secretariats, as well as directors, coordinators, school teachers and support teachers of early childhood institutions, which had enrolled the target audience children of special education. From the analysis of the data obtained in this study, we note that access of children in special education in early childhood institutions, especially in the municipalities of the microregion of Pires do Rio, is very reduced, occurring more in kindergarten than in day care center. The knowledge of the reality of early childhood education from the six counties surveyed institutions allowed to realize the urgent need for new pedagogical proposal that put children and their full development as a center of teaching practices developed in these educational institutions. / A Constituição Federal Brasileira de 1988 e a Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional - Lei nº. 9394/96 asseguram a educação como direito de todo cidadão. Todavia, ainda é um grande desafio o acesso e a permanência, especialmente à educação infantil e de crianças público alvo da educação especial. No contexto de uma política educacional de inclusão e na busca pelo desenvolvimento de uma pedagogia centrada na criança, capaz de educá-las com sucesso, questiona-se: as crianças de 0 a 05 anos, alvo da educação especial, estão tendo a garantia do acesso e da permanência exitosa nas instituições de educação infantil nos municípios da Microrregião de Pires do Rio? A fim de encontrar respostas ao questionamento proposto definiu-se como objetivo central analisar as diretrizes e ações que direcionam o acesso, a permanência e a inclusão de crianças público alvo da educação especial, nas instituições de educação infantil da Microrregião de Pires do Rio, cujo corpus pesquisado constituiu-se pelos sistemas municipais de ensino e as instituições de educação infantil dos seguintes municípios: Ipameri, Orizona, Palmelo, Pires do Rio, Santa Cruz de Goiás e Urutaí. O recorte temporal abrange o período do ano 2000, quando foi lançado o Programa Estadual para a Diversidade numa Perspectiva Inclusiva pelo Governo de Goiás nos municípios goianos, até o ano de 2013, momento da coleta dos dados. Os procedimentos de coleta de dados envolveram análise documental e entrevistas semiestruturadas com gestores, secretários municipais de educação, coordenadores de educação especial vinculados as Secretarias Municipais de Educação, assim como diretores, coordenadores pedagógicos, professores regentes e de apoio de instituições de educação infantil, as quais tinham crianças público alvo da educação especial matriculadas. A partir da análise dos dados obtidos nesta pesquisa, nota-se que o acesso das crianças da educação especial nas instituições de educação infantil, em especial nos municípios da Microrregião de Pires do Rio, é bastante reduzido, ocorrendo mais na pré-escola do que na creche. O conhecimento da realidade das instituições de educação infantil dos seis municípios pesquisados permitiu perceber a necessidade urgente de uma nova proposta pedagógica, que coloque a criança e seu pleno desenvolvimento como centro das práticas pedagógicas desenvolvidas nestas instituições educacionais.
Desejo e cuidado na educação de crianças pequenas em creches / Desire and care in children\'s education in daycares centersAna Carolina Linardi Munguía Payés 14 November 2017 (has links)
A entrada dos bebês nas creches a partir de poucos meses de idade e a convivência em ambientes coletivos por até 12 horas diárias constituem um cenário atual que faz interrogar a educação infantil sobre o compromisso que assume, com as famílias e a sociedade, ao participar de forma tão enfática desse período inaugural na vida das crianças. Para a psicanálise, o bebê humano não nasce pronto e somente se constitui a partir de um outro que lhe dedique cuidados no interior de um laço particularizado. Na primeiríssima infância serão lançadas as bases para a saúde mental e a constituição subjetiva ulterior, o que, em grande parte, depende das relações estabelecidas nesse período. A educadora, ao cuidar do bebê, participa como mais um elemento na constituição psíquica da criança, sustentando-lhe o campo do Outro e trabalhando para manter em funcionamento alguns eixos da função materna. No entanto, apesar dessa importância, hoje o termo \"cuidado\" enseja um ponto de discórdia na Educação Infantil, sobre o qual tensionam perspectivas distintas que, muitas vezes, se atualizam na experiência educativa através da dissociação do cuidado no ato educativo. Este estudo busca isolar a problemática que vem se formando no campo da pedagogia e analisá-la à luz das ferramentas conceituais da psicanálise freudo-lacaniana, pretendendo, assim, redimensionar o termo \"cuidado\", ao apontar para aquilo que de não anônimo deve comparecer no laço entre educadora e bebê e que está em causa na constituição psíquica do infans. Para saber como as educadoras se implicam em meio às tensões discursivas da instituição, procurou-se escutar cinco educadoras de duas creches sobre o lugar do desejo em causa nos cuidados que dedicavam aos bebês, utilizando os IRDI como operadores de leitura acerca de como se endereçavam às crianças sob seus cuidados. Os resultados indicaram que nenhuma educadora dissocia o cuidado da educação dos bebês, no entanto, estão sujeitas a tensões discursivas que as colocam em posição de ter que responder a dois diferentes amos: o discurso institucional e o desejo. Concluiu-se que o cuidado dedicado a bebês não pode ser reduzido a uma dimensão técnica, asséptica ou assubjetiva, pois é preciso que algo de singular ou de não anônimo compareça no cuidado para que a educadora cumpra função educativa junto ao bebê. / In Brazil, infants increasingly attend in day-cares centers since an early age and spending up to 12 hours a day in a collectivity experience. This is a current scenario that interrogates about the education\'s commitment with families and society, since that institution has participated emphatically on this inaugural period of children\'s lives. For psychoanalysis, when the human baby is born, he is not yet constituted, and this will only be possible by an adult\'s caring in a particularized bond. For this reason, the relationships established in the early childhood are essentials in laying the mental health\'s foundations. The educator participates as an element in the baby\'s subject constitution by its care, or, in another words, by holding the Other\'s field and working to keep some axes of the maternal function in operation. Despite its importance, different perspectives in Education stress the term \"care\" giving rise to a discord, that sometimes incurs dissociating the care in the experience with babies. This study pretends to analyze this issue in a freudo-lacanian psychoanalysis perspective, aiming to resizing the term \"care\" by pointing that it should be nonanonymous in order to contribute to psychic constitution of infants. In order to know how the educators imply themselves in the discursive tensions of the institution, or what the space for desire in the education bond, five educators was listened using IRDI as reading\'s operators of their discourses. The results indicated that no one educator dissociates the care in their experiences, however, they were required to answer to two different masters: the institutional discourse and desire. It was concluded that babies care cannot be reduced to a technical or aseptic dimension, since that is necessary something of singular or non-anonymous in the education bond.
Avaliação na creche : o caso dos espaços não-escolares / Evaluatiojn at day-care scools : the case of the non-scholar placesGodoi, Elisandra Girardelli 19 December 2006 (has links)
Orientador: Helena Costa Lopes de Freitas / Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Faculdade de Educação / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-07T22:36:35Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Godoi_ElisandraGirardelli_D.pdf: 1247344 bytes, checksum: b0f8463d0e6663ea2b237eced4f92617 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2006 / Resumo: Esta tese tem como objeto de estudo a investigação das formas de avaliação presentes na educação das crianças de 0 a 3 anos e, para cumprir este objetivo, destacou a creche como espaço de observação. Buscando referências de estudos na área da avaliação, verifica-se que a sua maioria tem destacado a escola como espaço de discussão; assim esta pesquisa traz uma contribuição importante tanto para o campo da avaliação como para a área da educação infantil, na medida em que abre a possibilidade de pensarmos a avaliação das crianças pequenas em espaços nãoescolares - neste caso, a creche - como primeira etapa da educação básica. Este estudo buscou entender as práticas avaliativas presentes no cotidiano, tendo como referência as seguintes questões: Como a avaliação é construída e vivida diariamente pelas crianças, professoras e monitoras no espaço da creche? Quais são os instrumentos utilizados neste momento da educação? Que papel a avaliação cumpre? Pela própria natureza do tema, a metodologia foi construída através de pesquisa qualitativa, realizada em uma creche da Rede Municipal de Campinas durante um ano e utilizou os seguintes recursos na coleta de dados: observações e entrevistas. A partir da coleta de dados e partindo do pressuposto que a avaliação é um dos elementos da organização do trabalho pedagógico, foi elaborada uma descrição do cotidiano da creche, de como o conhecimento e as experiências eram construídas naquele espaço e as relações entre as professoras, monitoras e as crianças. Este cotidiano é apresentado desde a entrada até a saída das crianças. Durante esta descrição verifica-se uma tendência a ritualização destas experiências, além da existência de uma avaliação informal que se manifestava de modo freqüente neste percurso, controlando o comportamento e a postura das crianças. Para isso, o poder do adulto (professoras e monitoras) sobre a criança era permeado por ameaças, recompensas e punições. A avaliação presente neste espaço comparava, rotulava, classificava, ora reprovava, ora aprovava a criança. Uma avaliação baseada na vigia e no controle constante (na observação se a criança obedecia ou não às regras que eram determinadas), que disciplinava o corpo e determinava as formas das crianças se portarem, como: a maneira que deveriam se sentar, comer, dormir, brincar, entre outras. Ao mesmo tempo, os dados revelaram um movimento de transgressão por parte das crianças em relação a estas regras, ou seja, uma resistência à forma de trabalho que, se apresentava rotineiro e homogêneo, que educava para o disciplinamento e para a submissão. Assim, em contrapartida a esta forma de trabalho, as crianças mostravam sinais de (des) encontro entre as propostas dos adultos e da instituição e o seu jeito de ser / Abstract: The object of study of this thesis is the investigation into the evaluation ways present in the children¿s education from 0 to 3 years old. To achieve this objective, the day-care center were chosen to be observed. According to most of the studies in the evaluation area, the school place was highlighted for discussion: therefore this research brings an important contribution either to the evaluation matter or the early child education, as it is possible to consider think young children¿s evaluation at nonscholar places which in this case is the day-care as the first stage in the basic education. This study tried to understand the evaluation practices that are evident in a daily basis, outstanding the following questions: How is the evaluation built and experienced by the children, teachers and monitors at the day-cares? What are the instruments used by the school staff and the children at this moment of education? Which role does the evaluation play? As the own theme requires the methodology was developed and experienced through qualitative research conducted in a public day-care center in Campinas and during one year. The resources used to obtain the data were: observations and interviews. Considering the collected data and assuming that the organization is one of the elements from the organization of the pedagogical work, it was elaborated a description of the daily routine at the day-care and how the knowledge and experiences were built at that place and the relationship among the teachers, monitors and children. That routine was showed from the beginning to the end of the day when the children went home. In the description process it was seen a tendency to the rituals in the experiences, besides the existence of a frequent informal evaluation in this trajectory, controlling the children¿s behavior and posture. For that reason, the adult¿s authority (teachers and monitors) over a child included threats, prizes and punishments. The evident evaluation in that place would compare, label, classify, approving and disapproving the children at the same time. The evaluation was based on constant watching and controlling (observing if the child was o belying or not the given rules), even the children¿s bodies and behavior as: how they should sit eat, sleep, play and others. At the same time, the data revealed that the children does these rules not accepted a resistance to the assignments that were common and equal to everyone which would educate for the discipline and submission. In that way this the children behavior were not aligned with the adult¿s proposal / Doutorado / Ensino, Avaliação e Formação de Professores / Doutor em Educação
Educação e formação humana: uma discussão sobre o conceito de autonomia discente. / Education and human\'s development: a discuss about student autonomy concept.Fatima Mitie Soejima 27 March 2008 (has links)
Considerando a importância de se refletir sobre o desenvolvimento pleno do ser humano no processo de se tornar um cidadão crítico, autônomo e participativo da sociedade que vive, o presente trabalho aborda o conceito de autonomia partindo, especialmente, do pensamento de autores clássicos: Paulo Freire, Vygotsky e Piaget. Inclui também a análise do conceito de autonomia tal como comparece nos Referenciais Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Infantil (RCNEIs) pelo fato destes se configurarem como materiais de orientação didática aos professores da área. A educação infantil é entendida por esta pesquisa como fase em que se situa o início do processo de autonomia dos sujeitos. No que se refere aos procedimentos metodológicos, foi necessário retomar-se a obra de Freire buscando aprofundar a análise do conceito de autonomia no âmbito de sua concepção de homem e de educação. Os autores da psicologia do desenvolvimento, Lev Semenovich Vygotsky e Jean Piaget, ofereceram subsídio teórico para se pensar sobre os primórdios do processo de autonomia do sujeito. No processo de análise identificaram-se algumas aproximações entre Freire e Vygotsky, dentre elas a compreensão do desenvolvimento humano a partir das relações dialéticas entre sujeito, meio social e contexto histórico-cultural. A revisão bibliográfica sobre os trabalhos publicados na área permitiu ampliar a discussão e identificar os trabalhos que já se debruçaram sobre o tema da autonomia. Inclui-se ainda nos procedimentos metodológicos a realização de um trabalho de campo. Este foi desenvolvido em uma Escola Municipal de Educação Infantil (EMEI) com o intuito de fazer um primeiro mapeamento sobre as práticas e processos no âmbito da Educação Infantil que possam relacionar-se com a construção da autonomia das crianças. As atividades de campo abrangeram desde observações em salas de aula até as brincadeiras no parque, passando por registros do horário de lanche coletivo das crianças, bem como entrevistas com as educadoras das turmas observadas. Esta pesquisa compreende o conceito de autonomia como uma produção histórica e social, abarcando a capacidade humana de fazer escolhas e de tomada de decisões, mediante o respeito à vontade pessoal e ao grupo ao qual pertence. A partir das análises dos dados coletados, verificou-se que a autonomia das crianças relaciona-se intimamente com a forma de trabalho das educadoras, trazendo a importância da rotina como forma de segurança às crianças dentro do contexto escolar. / Given the relevance to reflect on human being development process of becoming a censorious, self-regulating and social engaged citizen, this research approach the concept of autonomy specially considering biographies of honorable authors such as: Paulo Freire, Vygotsky e Piaget. It also analyses the autonomy concept according to Referenciais Curriculares Nacionais da Educação Infantil (RCNEIs) because this legal document is one of the most important reference for educators. This study understands the education of children as an initial stage on individual autonomy process. To analyze more deeply the concept of autonomy on educational bases it was necessary to use the Freire\'s methodological procedures as reference. Authors such as Lev Semenovich Vygotsky e Jean Piaget were used as sources to base the beginning of autonomy process according to the psychology of development theories. By analyzing the biographies the study related the Freire\'s and Vygotsky\'s theories about human development. The review of biographies about published works and previous studies allowed rising the discussion on this study. An in loco work was incorporated on the methodological procedures also which happened in a Escola Municipal de Educação Infantil (EMEI) to select the practices and processes on children\'s education related to children\'s autonomy development. The in loco activities included interview with educators of the children besides other matters. This research recognizes the autonomy concept as an historical and social output, incorporating the human capacity to make choices or give a judgment on the individual or social will. By analyzing the selected basis it was possible to conclude that children\'s autonomy is related to educator\'s methodology considering the routine as an important way to create a self-confident feeling in school context.
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