Análisis de las principales limitaciones que afrontaron las empresas peruanas para la exportación de software en el periodo 2015-2019 / Analysis of the main limitations faced by the peruvian software companies between the years 2015 - 2019Bautista Urbano, Nilda, Cárdenas Paz, Rina Gabriela Natalia 02 September 2021 (has links)
El presente trabajo de investigación tiene como objetivo analizar las principales limitaciones que afrontaron las empresas peruanas para la exportación de software en el periodo 2015-2019 desde la perspectiva de tres dimensiones: Gestión comercial internacional, Certificaciones Internacionales de Calidad y Apoyo Institucional. Como Gestión comercial se considera a la experiencia exportadora, apertura al riesgo y gestión y creación de redes, mientras que la dimensión de certificación internacional de calidad investiga la obtención de certificaciones en empresas exportadoras. Finalmente, como apoyo institucional se estudia el apoyo ofrecido a las empresas de software, el impacto de losfondos y programas, tributación y existencia de clúster. Haciendo uso del método mixto, se procesaron las respuestas obtenidas de las 16 encuestas a empresas de software y 15 entrevistas aplicadas a empresas de software, así como entrevistas realizadas a los representantes de gremios y gobierno, identificados como actores claves para la exportación del software. Es nuestro deseo que los resultados obtenidos de la investigación provean de información valiosa sobre las limitantes que afrontan las empresas de software y que permita la creación y mejora de programas existentes. / The investigation aims to analyze the main limitations faced by the Peruvian software companies between the years 2015 - 2019 from the perspective of three categories: International Commercial Management, International Quality certifications and Government Support Each category has at least one dimension allowing to process the results obtained from, both, surveys and interviews. Accordingly, the category of International Commercial Management includes the dimensions: exporter experience, risk openness and network creation and control, while the international quality certifications include the acquisition of quality certification in software companies. At last, the Governmental support dimension analyzes the support given to software companies by the Peruvian government as well as the existence of tax benefices and programs in the public sector, and the existence of clusters. Replies were obtained from the surveys and interviews conducted among software owners and CEOs as well as government and specialized associations representatives, and processed from a quantitative and qualitative approach by using specialized software such as: SPSS and Atlas TI. The investigators’ desire behind this investigation is to contribute with information about the limitations faced by software companies regarding exports that enhances the development and facilitates the upgrade of available specialized programs for the sector as to increase the delivery of Peruvian software to the global markets. / Trabajo de investigación
Propuesta de mejora para optimizar la gestión comercial en las mypes de la industria peruana de software utilizando el Balanced Scorecard (BSC) / Improvement propposal to improve commercial management in SMEs of peruvian software industry using Balanced Scorecard (BSC)Meza Díaz, Kaleb Eduardo 06 October 2021 (has links)
En todo el mundo, la industria de software como parte del sector servicios mantiene un rol significativo en los avances económicos, lo cual se evidencia en la generación de nuevas oportunidades en el mercado. En nuestro país, las Mypes (Micro y Pequeñas Empresas) son el principal grupo empresarial de esta industria, pero se ve afectada principalmente por una inadecuada gestión comercial. Este factor es trascendental, pues genera desde incorrectas decisiones estratégicas hasta el cierre del negocio. Por ello, en la presente investigación, se consideró a la empresa peruana BEK Representaciones como caso de estudio, pues sus indicadores comerciales en el 2019 disminuyeron significativamente respecto al año anterior, destacando una disminución del 2% en sus ventas y logrando un 65% de efectividad en sus proformas emitidas. En consecuencia, en base a las características de la industria y el análisis de diversos artículos científicos, se ha planteado una propuesta de mejora centralizada en el Balanced Scorecard asociado al desarrollo de una óptima definición organizacional y otras herramientas de apoyo como el Análisis PESTEL, Matriz EFE y Dashboard. El enfoque innovador de esta solución es fomentar la gestión de información interna a partir de herramientas digitales. De acuerdo al plan piloto desarrollado, se obtuvo un incremento del índice de retención de clientes hasta un 100%, el porcentaje de proformas aceptadas alcanzó un 81%, el 86% de los servicios ofrecidos estuvieron en el tiempo acordado con el cliente y se adoptaron 6 nuevas métricas (financieras y no financieras), logrando así optimizar su gestión comercial. / Software industry as part of service sector keeps an important role in economic growth around the world, which generation of new market opportunites is a key benefit. In our country, Mypes (Micro and Small-Sized Enterprises) are the leading business group in this industry, but it’s affected by an inadequate commercial management. It generates from incorrect strategic decisions to business closure. Because of that, in this investigation, BEK Representaciones was considered as study case because its commercial indicators in 2019 drop significantly versus previous year, such decrease 2% in sales and only 65% effectiveness of invoices issued. Consequently, according to industry caractheristics and academic articles analysis, the current improvement propposal is centralized in Balanced Scorecard with an outstanding organizational definition (mission, vision and values) and other supporting tools as PESTEL Analysis, EFE Matrix and Dashboard. The innovative approach of this solution is promote Internal Information Management from digital tools. According to the pilot plan developed, the results of this investigation are the increase of clients retention until 100%, the percentage of invoices accepted reach 81%, 6 new metrics were addopted (financial and non-financial) and 86% of services offered were on time, achieving an improvement in the commercial management. / Tesis
29 May 2009
This thesis addresses two planning problems motivated by the operations of PSOD air transportation: scheduled maintenance planning, and base location and fleet allocation. In the first part of the thesis, we study tactical planning for scheduled maintenance which determines the daily maintenance capacities for two operating conditions: a growth phase and the steady state. We model tactical maintenance capacity planning during the growth phase as an integer program and develop an optimization-based local search to solve the problem. Tactical planning of steady state maintenance capacity concerns a special case for which we determine the optimal and the long run capacities with a pseudo-polynomial time algorithm. In the second part of the thesis, we address operational planning for scheduled maintenance which is concerned with assigning itineraries to jets and determining the specific jets to be scheduled for maintenance on a daily basis given a certain maintenance capacity. We present a solution methodology that employs a look-ahead approach to consider the impact of our current decisions on the future and decomposes the problem exploiting the differences between jets with respect to the proximity to their next maintenance. We further develop an integrated framework in order to capture the interaction between operational level maintenance decisions and flight scheduling. In the third and final part of the thesis, we present the tactical level base location and fleet allocation problem. As PSOD air transportation experiences changes in travel demand and fleet size, decisions regarding where to open new bases and how to allocate the number of jets among the bases are made. We first present a solution approach in which high level information about flight scheduling is used in a traditional facility location problem. We next develop a model that works directly with transportation requests and integrates a simplified version of flight scheduling with the base location and fleet allocation decisions in order to capture more detail.
Gestão por competências: modelo de avaliação de desempenho em vendas em uma empresa de cosméticos do Rio de JaneiroSantos, Adriano Cavalcante dos 07 December 2015 (has links)
Submitted by Marcia Silva (firstname.lastname@example.org) on 2016-06-13T19:49:01Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Dissert Adriano Cavalcante dos Santos.pdf: 1545020 bytes, checksum: c3035b8f6d0ea6e054c29426d274e166 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-06-13T19:49:01Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Dissert Adriano Cavalcante dos Santos.pdf: 1545020 bytes, checksum: c3035b8f6d0ea6e054c29426d274e166 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2015-12-07 / O presente estudo foi realizado na Divisão Profissional de uma empresa do segmento de cosméticos, localizada no estado do Rio de Janeiro, onde foram analisados os seus indicadores-chave de desempenho, objetivando verificar-se a percepção dos seus gestores em relação ao modelo de avaliação por desempenho em vendas adotado pela organização. O tipo de pesquisa foi descritivo, sendo aplicado um questionário buscando-se confirmar a eficácia do monitoramento destes índices para o desenvolvimento comercial da organização. A técnica de pesquisa foi o estudo de caso e os dados levantados se referem à empresa supracitada. Os resultados indicaram que, após a implantação do Modelo de Avaliação de Desempenho em Vendas a partir de abril de 2013, o setor da empresa objeto do estudo, identificando lacunas de capacitação a partir da análise dos dados monitorados, iniciou um processo de desenvolvimento personalizado dos seus colaboradores. A Divisão passou a contratar, de modo mais apurado, profissionais de vendas mais competentes. Este processo auxiliou significativamente a organização no alcance de seus objetivos comerciais e estratégicos. / This study was conducted in the Professional Division of a company in the cosmetics sector, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, where their key performance indicators were analyzed in order to verify the perception of its managers in relation to the valuation model by sales performance adopted by the organization. The type of research was descriptive, with a questionnaire seeking to confirm the effectiveness of monitoring these indices for the company commercial development. The research technique was the case study and the data collected refer to the aforementioned organization. The results indicated that, after the implementation of Performance Evaluation Model for Sales from April 2013, the sector of the study subject company, identifying skills gaps from the analysis of monitored data, started a custom development process of its employees. The Division began hiring of more accurate way more competent sales professionals. This has significantly helped the organization in achieving their business and strategic objectives.
Plan de negocios para la introducción de un nuevo modelo de servicio de laboratorio digital de confección de prótesis dentalesJimenez Schiattino, Juan Francisco, Rosado Jurado, Guillermo Favio, Saavedra Lozano, Sandra Paola, Villa Ortiz, Orlando Martín, Umezawa Pérez, Gabriela Harumi 21 August 2020 (has links)
La presente investigación evalúa la viabilidad de un nuevo servicio de laboratorio dental digital con tecnología 3D para el diseño y confección de prótesis dentales como propuesta para reducir los dolores actuales de los clientes, en este caso odontólogos y técnicos dentales; brindando asesoría y soporte técnico a lo largo del proceso. Los servicios existentes en el mercado actual ofrecen un producto trabajado bajo un procedimiento artesanal que, al involucrar varios pasos, más de un actor dentro del proceso y varios mini procesos manuales tanto en la fase preparatoria (clínica) y técnica; está expuesto a errores y lleva a los actores a tiempos de trabajo prolongados. Por lo mismo, la calidad de una prótesis trabajada bajo un proceso artesanal, es decir, el ajuste y precisión, color exacto y estética; muchas veces se ve afectada ocasionando a los clientes (odontólogos) una mala experiencia y el retraso por el reproceso que suele darse y a los usuarios finales (pacientes) una mala experiencia con la prótesis adquirida y la no satisfacción con el resultado final. Este servicio trabajado bajo proceso artesanal actualmente es ofrecido en su mayoría por técnicos dentales de manera particular y en muchos casos, informal. Actualmente no existe una empresa que brinde un servicio integral en el que las impresiones sean trabajadas de manera digital o que brinde un respaldo y seguridad. Para validar la idea de negocio se realizó una encuesta cuantitativa y entrevistas a profundidad y según el análisis de los resultados, se concluye que el desarrollo del laboratorio digital DentalTec, es viable. La fuente primaria estuvo conformada por más de 50 odontólogos de Lima Metropolitana. Con ello se evidenció que la propuesta de valor es atractiva para el público objetivo, al ofrecer mejores indicadores relevantes para ellos: menor tiempo, mayor ajuste y mejor estética. La propuesta de valor del laboratorio digital DentalTec está centrada en la impresión digital que ofrecerá como parte de todos los servicios. Se reemplaza el proceso tradicional artesanal, eliminando así reprocesos, errores humanos y largos tiempos de atención. Permitiendo a su vez a nuestros clientes, poder contar con un servicio de confianza que cumplirá con las fechas pactadas, con prótesis dentales de calidad y un mayor número de clientes atendidos en una menor cantidad de citas programadas. Finalmente, respecto al análisis financiero y a la proyección de ventas, en el escenario optimista se espera llegar a una cobertura del 2% del mercado en el primer año y a más del 10% en el quinto año, se logra un TIR del 159.4% cuando el COK de la empresa es 11%. Además, el VAN sería de S/.10,589,582 soles. De igual manera, en el escenario pesimista, se lograría un TIR superior al COK. Datos que nos llevan a apostar por este proyecto. / This research evaluates the feasibility of a new digital dental laboratory service with 3D technology for the design and manufacture of dental prostheses as a proposal to reduce the pain of current clients, in this case dentists and dental technicians; providing advice and technical support throughout all process. The services in the current market offer a product with an artisan procedure that involve several steps and more than one actor in the process. Therefore, the quality of a prosthesis worked under an artisan process it is affected with a wrong fit and precision, exact color and aesthetics. Clients (dentists) and users (patients) are not being satisfied with the final result. This service under the artisan process is currently offered mostly by dental technicians in an informal way. Currently there is no company that provides a service in which prints are worked digitally and provides security of a good result. To validate the business idea, we work with quantitative survey and interviews. Based on the analysis of the results, the development of DentalTec digital laboratory is viable. The quantitative survey was made in more than 50 dentists from Lima. This evidenced that DentalTec services are attractive to the target audience, offering better relevant indicators for them as less time, better fit and aesthetics. The value proposal of the DentalTec digital laboratory is focused on digital printing with personalized services. The traditional artisan process is replaced, and it will eliminate reprocessing, human errors and long times. At the same time, clients will have a trustworthy service with deadlines, with quality dental prostheses and an important number of clients attended in less appointments. Finally, regarding the financial analysis and the sales projection, in the optimistic scenario it is expected to reach a coverage of 2% of the market in the first year and more than 10% in the fifth year, an IRR of 159.4% is achieved when the company's opportunity cost is 11%. In addition, the NPV would be S /. 10,589,582 soles. In the same way, in the pessimistic scenario, an IRR higher than the opportunity cost would be achieved. Data that leads us to bet on this project. / Trabajo de investigación
A business analysis of the South African domestic commercial air transport market : low-cost carriers and full-service carriers in the context of the business environment and passenger behavioursDiggines, Colin Neville 31 July 2017 (has links)
This study attempted to establish the travel behaviours and choice criteria of the South African domestic air passenger and how they differed between low-cost carriers (LCCs) and full-service carriers (FSCs). The study was quantitative and used structured questionnaires to collect data via personal interviews. Descriptive and inferential techniques were used to analyse the data, including a binomial logistic regression to identify predictors of model choice. Analysis This study attempted to establish the travel behaviours and choice criteria of the South African domestic air passenger and how they differed between low-cost carriers (LCCs) and full-service carriers (FSCs). The study was quantitative and used structured questionnaires to collect data via personal interviews. Descriptive and inferential techniques were used to analyse the data, including a binomial logistic regression to identify predictors of model choice. Analysis showed that passengers had a limited understanding of the functioning of the models. This results in consumer perceptions and expectations being discordant with the true differences. In distinguishing between models, LCC passengers rate LCCs more favourably than FSC passengers, but both rate FSCs higher than LCCs. This shows the need of consumers to have the features and services of the FSCs. Amongst the key findings was the absolute importance of price to the passengers on both models when purchasing the ticket. The analysis showed that LCC passengers are highly price sensitive and show loyalty to the lowest price (not airline model). It was apparent that frequent flyer programmes (FFP), or linkages to 3rd party loyalty programmes, for LCCs need to be reconsidered. Younger LCC passengers especially, indicated a need for a simple FFP to receive some form of ‘reward’, as well as benefits traditionally only offered by FSCs. FSC passengers show a greater degree of loyalty and less fare sensitivity. This provides the FSCs with a degree of fare flexibility and the opportunity to move their loyal, less price-sensitive consumers up the price curve to maximise revenue. It was shown that, in distinguishing themselves from FSCs, it is important that LCCs are perceived as being more affordable than FSCs and are offering a value-for-money service. In essence, LCCs have to defend their positioning by (i) ensuring that their fares are not perceived to be as high as a FSCs and (ii) watching that the FSC fares are not declining to a level where FSCs are perceived as being as cheap as a LCC. For LCCs, brand building strategies around issues other than fare need to be devised, with attention paid to identifying determinant factors. / Business Management / D. Com (Business Management)
Operational performance measurement of world major airlines with a particular emphasis of Ethiopian airlines : an integrated comparative approachAbeyi Abebe Belay 11 1900 (has links)
Organizations specifically the airlines industry are increasingly facing the challenges of operational efficiency measurement. During the last years enormous attention has been given to the assessment and improvement of the performance of productive systems. However, literatures show that there are limitations of the existing models to measure efficiency uniformly and exhaustively across the airlines. The problems are due to lack of the technical efficiency measuring model which unifies and integrates different measuring models into a single model.Therefore, this thesis investigates assessment of the operational performance of world major airlines by employing integrated comparative models to address the above problems. In this study, technical efficiency is addressed among many performance issues by using three types of modes of performance measurement: a non parametric one, represented by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and; a parametric one, represented by Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and the Balance Scorecard (BSC) which is a strategic management tools. Unlike most of the previous studies, this study integrates the BSC concepts into DEA and SFA model. To evaluate technical efficiency of major international airlines, the study use panel of unbalanced data for the year 2007-2014 to make integrated comparative analysis. The research project incorporates seven leading variables and four lagging variables taken from BSC concept to implement into the DEA and SFA. All the three models of performance measurements have their own strength and limitation if they are used alone. But if the three models are integrated and combined together, they would yield better comparative and quality of efficiency assessment. Therefore, the study primarily developed a model beginning from the theoretical framework assumption into building of a unified comparative model of integrated comparative operational efficiency assessment of airlines. The research design and methodology uses secondary data collection i.e. annual reports and business reports of airlines which are collected from the airlines own website. The huge amount of financial and operational data cannot be collected by using primary data collection method as it would make it practically impossible and expensive. So by employing secondary data collection method saves time, money and a panel data can be accessed and generated easily. Hence, from 100 world major airlines population which are ranked by revenue, simple random sampling is used to select 80 samples airlines for this study. First, the BSC identifies the input and output variables. Next, the DEA model ranks the efficiency measurement, identifies the slack variables and benchmarks the airlines. Third, the SFA model identifies technical efficiency, the random error and technical inefficiency. Finally, the technical efficiency estimates obtained from the two techniques are analyzed comparatively. The research makes further analysis of particular case of the Ethiopian Airlines in relation to the most efficient and inefficient airlines and in comparison of the regional analysis. After extensive tests have been conducted, ‘Balanced Frontier Envelopment’ model is developed. According to this model, it is a paramount to measure efficiency with combining the strength of three models together and gives better results than the previous one or two combined models. The developed and integrated strategic model enhances measuring of the operating technical efficiency of airlines. This model benefit the airlines industry in many ways such as minimizing the cost and maximizing profit through managing technical efficiency which lead into the success of the airlines. From the model perspective, therefore, result of DEA model is much higher than the result of SFA model. DEA model is easier to manipulate than the SFA model because the former does not need the functional form while the later requires a functional form. Furthermore, according to the efficiency finding of the study, first, the European regional airlines are relatively more efficient than the rest of regions in the world. Second, the North America regional airlines are the second more efficient regional airlines in the world. Third, the Ethiopian airlines are the most efficient in Africa when we compare among Egyptair, Kenyan Airways and South African Airways. Fourth, high revenue does not necessarily leads to the technical efficiency of the firm. / Business Management / D.B.L. (Business Leadership)
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