• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 20
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 31
  • 31
  • 13
  • 11
  • 9
  • 8
  • 8
  • 7
  • 7
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 5
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of anisotropy-controlled spin-valve structures

Fujimoto, Tatsuo January 1995 (has links)
No description available.
2

Spin momentum transfer effects for spintronic device applications

Zhou, Yan January 2009 (has links)
The recent discovery that a spin-polarized current can exert a large torque on a ferromagnet, through direct transfer of spin angular momentum, offers the possibility of electrical current controlled manipulation of magnetic moment in nanoscale magnetic device structures. This so-called spin torque effect holds great promise for two applications, namely, spin torque oscillators (STOs) for wireless communication and radar communication, and spin transfer torque RAM (STT-RAM) for data/information storage.   The STO is a nanosized spintronic device capable of microwave generation at frequencies in the 1-65 GHz range with high quality factors. Although the STO is very promising for future telecommunication, two major shortcomings have to be addressed before it can truly find practical use as a radio-frequency device. Firstly, its very limited output power has to be significantly improved. One possibility is the synchronization of two or more STOs to both increase the microwave power and further increase the signal quality. Synchronization of serially connected STOs has been suggested in this thesis. In this configuration, synchronization relies on phase locking between the STOs and their self-generated alternating current. While this locking mechanism is intrinsically quite weak, we find that the locking range of two serially connected spin-valve STOs can be enhanced by over two orders of magnitude by adjusting the circuit I-V phase to that of an intrinsic preferred phase shift between the STO and an alternating current. More recently, we have also studied the phase-locking of STOs based on magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ-STO) to meet the power specifications of actual application where the rf output levels should be above 0 dBm (1 mW). In addition to the spin torque terms present in GMR spin valves, MTJs also exhibit a significant perpendicular spin torque component with a quite complex dependence on both material choices and applied junction bias. We find that the perpendicular torque component modifies the intrinsic preferred I-V phase shift in single MTJ-STOs in such a way that serially connected STOs synchronize much more readily without the need for additional circuitry to change the I-V phase.   Secondly, equal attention has been focused on removing the applied magnetic field for STO operation, which requires bulky components and will limit the miniaturization of STO-based devices. Various attempts have been made to realize STOs operating in zero magnetic field. By using a tilted (oblique angle) polarizer (fixed layer) instead of an in-plane polarizer (standard STO), we show zero field operation over a very wide polarizer angle range without sacrificing output signal. In addition, the polarizer angle introduces an entirely new degree of freedom to any spin torque device and opens up for a wide range of additional phenomena.   The STT-RAM has advantages over other types of memories including conventional MRAM in terms of power consumption, speed, and scalability. We use a set of simulation tools to carry out a systematic study on the subject of micromagnetic switching processes of a device for STT-RAM application. We find that the non-zero k spin wave modes play an important role in the experimentally measured switching phase boundary. These may result in telegraph transitions among different spin-wave states, and be related to the back-hopping phenomena where the switching probability will decrease with increasing bias in tunnel junctions. / QC 20100819
3

Spin-transfer-torque effect in ferromagnets and antiferromagnets

Wei, Zhen 27 May 2010 (has links)
Spintronics in metallic multilayers, composed of ferromagnetic (F) and non-magnetic (N) metals, grew out of two complementary discoveries. The first, Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), refers to a change in multilayer resistance when the relative orientation of magnetic moments in adjacent F-layers is altered by an applied magnetic field. The second, Spin-Transfer-Torque (STT), involves a change in the relative orientation of F-layer moments by an electrical current. This novel physical phenomenon offers unprecedented spatial and temporal control over the magnetic state of a ferromagnet and has tremendous potential in a broad range of technologies, including magnetic memory and recording. Because of its small size (<10nm), point contact is a very efficient probe of electrical transport properties in extremely small sample volumes yet inaccessible with other techniques. We have observed the point-contact excitations in magnetic multilayers at room temperature and extended the capabilities of our point-contact technique to include the sensitivity to wavelengths of the current-induced spin waves. Recently MacDonald and coworkers have predicted that similar to ferromagnetic multilayers, the magnetic state of an antiferromagnetic (AFM) system can affect its transport properties and result in antiferromagnetic analogue of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) = AGMR; while high enough electrical current density can affect the magnetic state of the system via spin-transfer-torque effect. We show that a high density dc current injected from a point contact into an exchange-biased spin valve (EBSV) can systematically change the exchange bias, increasing or decreasing it depending on the current direction. This is the first evidence for current-induced effects on magnetic moments in antiferromagnetic (FeMn or IrMn) metals. We searched for AGMR in multilayers containing different combinations of AFM=FeMn and F=CoFe layers. At low currents, no magnetoresistance (MR) was observed in any samples suggesting that no AGMR is present in these samples. In samples containing F-layers, high current densities sometimes produced a small positive MR – largest resistance at high fields. For a given contact resistance, this MR was usually larger for thicker F-layers, and for a given current, it was usually larger for larger contact resistances (smaller contacts). We tentatively attribute this positive MR to suppression at high currents of spin accumulation induced around and within the F-layers. / text
4

Crescimento de fibras monocristalinas pela técnica LHPG e caracterização dos compostos Ba0,77Ca0,23TiO3, Ca2FeMoO6, CaMoO4 e SrMoO4-CaMoO4 (cristal gradiente). / Growth of single crystal fibers by the technique LHPG and characterization of compounds Ba0,77Ca0,23TiO3, Ca2FeMoO6, CaMoO4 and SrMoO4-CaMoO4 (crystal gradient).

Barbosa, Luciara Benedita 08 August 2003 (has links)
Este trabalho teve como finalidade determinar e otimizar as condições para a preparação e a caracterização de monocristais de alguns óxidos que apresentam considerável dependência de suas propriedades físico-químicas finais e magnitude da pressão da atmosfera de crescimento. Experimentos que envolvem diversas adaptações de um sistema de fusão a laser de pedestais foram projetados para investigar o melhor crescimento de monocristais de molibdatos alcalinos isolados e mistos (CaMoO4, cristal gradiente de CaMoO4-SrMoO4, Ca2</subFeMo06) e de um óxido titanato alcalino (Ba0,77Ca0,23TiO3). Também, os aspectos teóricos das condições experimentais foram estudados nos termos de um modelo termodinâmico existente. Adicionalmente, é mostrado que técnicas de caracterização estruturais (curvas de rocking com raios-X, topografia de raios X, método de Rietveld), térmicas (análise térmica diferencial) e ópticas (absorção ótica) foram aplicadas com sucesso além de outros métodos de caracterização bem estabelecidos (fotografia de retro-reflexão de raios-X, análise por raios-X de elétrons retro-espalhados, microscopia eletrônica de varredura). Os experimentos e os dados das caracterizações revelam que CaMoO4, SrMoO4 e Ba0,77Ca0,23 podem ser crescidos ao ar sem alterações de suas propriedades quando tratamento térmico cuidadoso é realizado nos reagentes de partida e aos produtos, enquanto que o Ca2FeMoO6 somente pode ser crescido em atmosfera isostática de N2 e em uma faixa pequena de pressões (0,25-0,75 bar). Em qualquer caso, a estabilidade do processo de crescimento é alcançada quando gradientes térmicos específicos e relações geométricas na zona fundida são estabelecidos após a imposição de uma atmosfera adequada de crescimento. As medidas estruturais, térmicas, ópticas e de composição convencionais confirmam a formação de fases e estequiometrias desejadas. Os dados estruturais refinados e de alta resolução demonstram o controle da composição e conseqüentemente do espaçamento interplanar de rede no cristal gradiente CaMoO4-SrMoO4, um primeiro exemplo de cristal gradiente de um óxido crescido por uma técnica de zona flutuante, e abrindo um panorama largo de possibilidades para a preparação de outros cristais gradientes de óxidos. / This thesis examines the conditions for the optimized single crystal preparation and characterization of some oxides compounds that present high dependency of the nature and pressure magnitude of the growth atmosphere on their final physico-chemical properties. Experiments involving several adaptations to a laser-heated pedestal growth system were designed to investigate the best crystal growth of a mixed alkaline titanate oxide (Ba0,77Ca0,23TiO3) and single and mixed alkaline molybdates oxides (CaMoO4, cristal gradiente de CaMoO4-SrMoO4, Ca2</subFeMo06). AIso, theoretical aspects of the experimental conditions were studied in terms of an existent thermodynamical model. In addition, it is shown that non-standard to techniques to characterize crystal\' s structural features (X-ray rocking, X-ray topography, Rietveld\'s method), thermo-physical (Differential Thermal Analysis) and optical properties (Optical Absorption) were succesfully applied besides others well established characterization methods. (X-ray Laue backreflection photography, Electron Dispersive X-Ray Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy). Experiments and characterizations data reveal that CaMoO4, SrMoO4 e Ba0,77Ca0,23succesfully grow in air at room conditions when careful thermal treatment of the starting materiaIs and products, while Ca2FeMo06 only can be grown in isostatic atmosphere of N2/H2 (95&#8240 vol./5&#8240 voI.) and at a short pressure range (0.25-0.75 bar). In any case, the stability of the growth process is reached when specific thermal gradients and geometric relations in the meU are established after the imposition of an adequate growth atmosphere. Conventional structure, thermal, optical and composition measurements confirm the formation of desired phases and stoichiometries with excellent results for both single and mixed compounds. Refined and high resolution structural data demonstrate large control of composition and therefore interplanar lattice spacing in the gradient crystal CaMoO4-SrMoO4, a first example of an oxide gradient crystal grown by a floating zone technique, and open a wide panorama of possibilities for the preparation of novel gradient oxides crystals.
5

Elaboration et caractérisation des propriétés magnétiques et de transport de films et multicouches à base de GdCo et de multicouches Fe/Cr

Thanh Nam, Nguyen 05 November 2007 (has links) (PDF)
Cette thèse en cotutelle entre l'Université Joseph Fourier à Grenoble et l'Université Nationale du Vietnam à Hanoi traite de l'étude des propriétés magnétiques et électriques de structures basées sur GdCo et sur des multicouches Fe/Cr. GdCo est un alliage ferrimagnétique dont la composition peut être choisie afin d'obtenir la compensation, c'est à dire une aimantation nette nulle, à une température de compensation inférieure à la température de Curie. Les films ont été déposés par la technique de pulvérisation cathodique magnétron. Ils sont amorphes et possèdent une anisotropie perpendiculaire induite par la croissance. Proche de la température de compensation, l'aimantation spontanée est perpendiculaire et l'imagerie par effet Kerr polaire ainsi que l'effet Hall extraordinaire ont été largement utilisés pour étudier les films dans la gamme (4-300 K) et de 0 à 6 Tesla. Un gradient de composition dans le plan peut être induit et a entrainé l'étude d'une paroi de compensation d'aimantation nulle. Les contributions de Gd et Co à l'effet Hall extraordinaire ont été déterminées. Proche de la compensation, l'effet Hall à haut champ permet d'accéder au régime de spin flop. Des multicouches GdCo/Cu/NiFe pour lesquelles GdCo est à anisotropie perpendiculaire et NiFe à anisotropie planaire ont été élaborées. Elles présentent de la magnétorésistance géante (GMR) dont la valeur ne dépend pas de l'angle entre les aimantations nettes desdeux couches magnétiques. <br /> L'étude de la GMR des multicouches Fe/Cr traite de la contribution des interfaces au mécanisme GMR. En variant l'épaisseur du fer et en recuisant les multicouches, il est possible d'accéder aux contributions d'interface.
6

Fabrication and Characterization of Nanocontact Spin-Torque Oscillators

Redjai Sani, Sohrab January 2013 (has links)
The manufacturing of nanocontact-based spin-torque oscillators (NC-STOs)has opened the door for spintronic devices to play a part as active microwaveelements. The NC-STO has the capability of converting a direct current intoa microwave signal, and vice versa, by utilizing the spin transfer torque (STT)in ferromagnetic multilayer systems. However, the high-frequency operation ofNC-STOs typically requires high magnetic fields and the microwave power theygenerate is rather limited. As a result, NC-STOs are not yet commercially used,and they require improvements in both material systems and device geometriesbefore they can find actual use in microwave applications. In order to improve and advance this technology, NC-STOs are requiredwith both different nanocontact (NC) sizes and geometries, and using differ- ent stacks of magnetic materials. This dissertation presents experimental in- vestigations into the manufacturing of such devices using different fabrication techniques and a number of different magnetic material stacks. Currently, the fabrication of NC-STOs is limited to advanced laboratories, because NC fabri- cation requires high-resolution lithography tools. In the present work, we have developed an alternative method of fabrication, which does not require such tools and has the capability of fabricating NC-STOs having one to hundreds of NCs in a variety of sizes, possibly  down to 20 nm. Devices fabricated with this method have shown mutual synchronization of three parallel-connected NCs, and pairwise synchronization in devices with four and five NCs. Furthermore, the present work demonstrates low-field operation (down to0.02 Tesla) of NC-STOs at a record high frequency of 12 GHz. This wasachieved by implementing multilayers with a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA) material in the free layer of the NC-STO. In addition, the fabricateddevices revealed an unexpected dynamic regime under large external appliedfield (above 0.4 Tesla). The new dynamic regime was found to be due to anentirely novel nanomagnetic dynamic object â a so-called magnetic droplet soliton,predicted theoretically in 1977 but not experimentally observed until now.Detailed experiments and micromagnetic simulations show that the droplet hasvery rich dynamics. Finally,  spin-torque-induced  transverse spin wave instabilities have beenstudied.  A NC-STO with  a material stack consisting of a single ferromag- netic metal sandwiched between two non-ferromagnetic metals was fabricated. Prior to this work, evidence of spin wave instabilities was reported as resis- tance switching in nanopillar- and mechanical point contact based STOs. In the present  work, the fabricated NC-STOs showed actual microwave  signals up to 3 GHz under zero applied field with strong current hysteresis. All  the fabricated NC-STOs open up new means of studying STT in different environ- ments, in order to resolve their current drawbacks for industrial applications. / <p>QC 20130527</p>
7

Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy: Theory and Experiment

January 2015 (has links)
abstract: A theoretical study of a three-dimensional (3D) N/S interface with arbitrary spin polarization and interface geometry is presented. The 3D model gives the same intrinsic spin polarization and superconducting gap dependence as the 1D model. This demonstrates that the 1D model can be use to t 3D data. Using this model, a Heusler alloy is investigated. Andreev reflection measurements show that the spin polarization is 80% in samples sputtered on unheated MgO(100) substrates and annealed at high temperatures. However, the spin polarization is considerably smaller in samples deposited on heated substrates. Ferromagnetic FexSi􀀀x alloys have been proposed as potential spin injectors into silicon with a substantial spin polarization. Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy (ARS) is utilized to determine the spin polarization of both amorphous and crystalline Fe65Si35 alloys. The amorphous phase has a significantly higher spin polarization than that of the crystalline phase. In this thesis, (1111) Fe SmO0:82F0:18FeAs and Pb superconductors are used to measure the spin polarization of a highly spin-polarized material, La0:67Sr0:33MnO3. Both materials yield the same intrinsic spin polarization, therefore, Fe-superconductors can be used in ARS. Based on the behavior of the differential conductance for highly spin polarized LSMO and small polarization of Au, it can be concluded that the Fe-Sc is not a triplet superconductor. Zero bias anomaly (ZBA), in point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR), has been utilized as a characteristic feature to reveal many novel physics. Complexities at a normal metal/superconducting interface often cause nonessential ZBA-like features, which may be mistaken as ZBA. In this work, it is shown that an extrinsic ZBA, which is due to the contact resistance, cannot be suppressed by a highly spin-polarized current while a nonessential ZBA cannot be affected the contact resistance. Finally, Cu/Cu multilayer GMR structures were fabricated and the GMR% measured at 300 K and 4.5 K gave responses of 63% and 115% respectively. Not only do the GMR structures have a large enhancement of resistance, but by applying an external magnetic eld it is shown that, unlike most materials, the spin polarization can be tuned to values of 0.386 to 0.415 from H = 0 kOe to H = 15 kOe. / Dissertation/Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation Physics 2015
8

Crescimento de fibras monocristalinas pela técnica LHPG e caracterização dos compostos Ba0,77Ca0,23TiO3, Ca2FeMoO6, CaMoO4 e SrMoO4-CaMoO4 (cristal gradiente). / Growth of single crystal fibers by the technique LHPG and characterization of compounds Ba0,77Ca0,23TiO3, Ca2FeMoO6, CaMoO4 and SrMoO4-CaMoO4 (crystal gradient).

Luciara Benedita Barbosa 08 August 2003 (has links)
Este trabalho teve como finalidade determinar e otimizar as condições para a preparação e a caracterização de monocristais de alguns óxidos que apresentam considerável dependência de suas propriedades físico-químicas finais e magnitude da pressão da atmosfera de crescimento. Experimentos que envolvem diversas adaptações de um sistema de fusão a laser de pedestais foram projetados para investigar o melhor crescimento de monocristais de molibdatos alcalinos isolados e mistos (CaMoO4, cristal gradiente de CaMoO4-SrMoO4, Ca2</subFeMo06) e de um óxido titanato alcalino (Ba0,77Ca0,23TiO3). Também, os aspectos teóricos das condições experimentais foram estudados nos termos de um modelo termodinâmico existente. Adicionalmente, é mostrado que técnicas de caracterização estruturais (curvas de rocking com raios-X, topografia de raios X, método de Rietveld), térmicas (análise térmica diferencial) e ópticas (absorção ótica) foram aplicadas com sucesso além de outros métodos de caracterização bem estabelecidos (fotografia de retro-reflexão de raios-X, análise por raios-X de elétrons retro-espalhados, microscopia eletrônica de varredura). Os experimentos e os dados das caracterizações revelam que CaMoO4, SrMoO4 e Ba0,77Ca0,23 podem ser crescidos ao ar sem alterações de suas propriedades quando tratamento térmico cuidadoso é realizado nos reagentes de partida e aos produtos, enquanto que o Ca2FeMoO6 somente pode ser crescido em atmosfera isostática de N2 e em uma faixa pequena de pressões (0,25-0,75 bar). Em qualquer caso, a estabilidade do processo de crescimento é alcançada quando gradientes térmicos específicos e relações geométricas na zona fundida são estabelecidos após a imposição de uma atmosfera adequada de crescimento. As medidas estruturais, térmicas, ópticas e de composição convencionais confirmam a formação de fases e estequiometrias desejadas. Os dados estruturais refinados e de alta resolução demonstram o controle da composição e conseqüentemente do espaçamento interplanar de rede no cristal gradiente CaMoO4-SrMoO4, um primeiro exemplo de cristal gradiente de um óxido crescido por uma técnica de zona flutuante, e abrindo um panorama largo de possibilidades para a preparação de outros cristais gradientes de óxidos. / This thesis examines the conditions for the optimized single crystal preparation and characterization of some oxides compounds that present high dependency of the nature and pressure magnitude of the growth atmosphere on their final physico-chemical properties. Experiments involving several adaptations to a laser-heated pedestal growth system were designed to investigate the best crystal growth of a mixed alkaline titanate oxide (Ba0,77Ca0,23TiO3) and single and mixed alkaline molybdates oxides (CaMoO4, cristal gradiente de CaMoO4-SrMoO4, Ca2</subFeMo06). AIso, theoretical aspects of the experimental conditions were studied in terms of an existent thermodynamical model. In addition, it is shown that non-standard to techniques to characterize crystal\' s structural features (X-ray rocking, X-ray topography, Rietveld\'s method), thermo-physical (Differential Thermal Analysis) and optical properties (Optical Absorption) were succesfully applied besides others well established characterization methods. (X-ray Laue backreflection photography, Electron Dispersive X-Ray Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy). Experiments and characterizations data reveal that CaMoO4, SrMoO4 e Ba0,77Ca0,23succesfully grow in air at room conditions when careful thermal treatment of the starting materiaIs and products, while Ca2FeMo06 only can be grown in isostatic atmosphere of N2/H2 (95&#8240 vol./5&#8240 voI.) and at a short pressure range (0.25-0.75 bar). In any case, the stability of the growth process is reached when specific thermal gradients and geometric relations in the meU are established after the imposition of an adequate growth atmosphere. Conventional structure, thermal, optical and composition measurements confirm the formation of desired phases and stoichiometries with excellent results for both single and mixed compounds. Refined and high resolution structural data demonstrate large control of composition and therefore interplanar lattice spacing in the gradient crystal CaMoO4-SrMoO4, a first example of an oxide gradient crystal grown by a floating zone technique, and open a wide panorama of possibilities for the preparation of novel gradient oxides crystals.
9

Mise au point d’un laboratoire sur puce pour la détection de cellules eucaryotes par des capteurs à magnétorésistance géante / Development of a lab on a chip for the detection of eukaryotic cells by giant magnetoresistance sensors

Giraud, Manon 21 November 2019 (has links)
Les tests « in vitro » permettent d’établir près de 70% des diagnostics et leur développement pour une utilisation au plus près du patient apparaît donc comme un enjeu majeur de santé publique. Dans ce contexte, les critères ASSURED (« Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid and robust, Equipment-free and Deliverable to end-users ») a été défini par l’organisation mondiale de la santé pour que les chercheurs développent des outils de diagnostic dits « Point of Care » utilisables par le plus grand nombre. Avec l’essor de la microfluidique, la gamme des dispositifs possibles s'est élargie et des biocapteurs intégrés ont été développés, transformant le signal biologique d’une reconnaissance d’un biomarqueur par une sonde biologique en un signal optique, électrochimique, mécanique ou encore magnétique. Comme les milieux biologiques sont en grande majorité amagnétiques, les capteurs magnétiques ne sont pas affectés par l’utilisation de matrices biologiques complexes comme peuvent l’être les mesures optiques ou électrochimiques. De plus ces capteurs sont faciles à produire et intégrables dans les puces microfluidiques. Cette thèse a pour objectifs de concevoir un outil de diagnostic in vitro basé sur des capteurs à magnétorésistance géante et de tester ses performances. Cette étude a été réalisée en utilisant une lignée cellulaire de myélome murin. Les cellules sont marquées spécifiquement par des particules magnétiques fonctionnalisées par des anticorps dirigés contre un de leurs antigènes et sont passées dans le canal microfluidique au-dessus des capteurs. Cette méthode de détection dynamique permet de compter les objets magnétiques un par un. La difficulté réside dans la distinction des signaux spécifiques provenant des cellules marquées des signaux faux positifs induits par les billes restant en solution. Deux types de dispositifs ont été conçus dans cette thèse pour lever ce verrou. Le premier possède une couche inerte de séparation de quelques micromètres entre les capteurs GMR et le canal qui permet de supprimer les signaux des billes isolées. Le second dispositif, qui a des capteurs à la fois au-dessus et au-dessous du canal microfluidique, permet une double détection simultanée de chaque objet magnétique. Il est ainsi possible de connaître le nombre de billes qui les marquent et de déterminer s’il s’agit d’un agrégat de billes ou d’un objet biologique. / The « in vitro » tests are requested for the establishment of nearly 70% of diagnoses and their development for on-site detection therefore appears to be a major public health issue. In this context, the ASSURED criterion (« Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, User-friendly, Rapid and robust, Equipment-free and Deliverable to end-users ») has been defined by the World Health Organization to encourage researchers to develop diagnostic tools called « Point of Care » that can be widely used.With the rise of microfluidics, the range of possible devices has broadened and integrated biosensors have been developed, transforming the biological signal from a biomarker recognition by a biological probe into an optical, electrochemical, mechanical or magnetic signal. As biological environments are largely non-magnetic, magnetic sensors are not affected by the use of complex biological matrices as are optical or electrochemical measurements. In addition, these sensors are easy to produce and can be integrated into microfluidic chips. The objectives of this thesis are to design a diagnostic tool in vitro based on giant magnetoresistance sensors and to test its performance. Its development was carried out using a murine myeloma cell line. The cells are specifically labeled by magnetic particles functionalized by antibodies directed against one of their antigens and flown in the microfluidic channel above the sensors. This dynamic detection method allows magnetic objects to be counted one by one. The challenge is to distinguish the signals coming from the labeled cells from those of the beads remaining in solution. In order to address this problem, two labs on chips are developed in this thesis. In a first device, an inner layer of a few micrometers separates the sensors from the channel which allows to suppress the signals of the isolated beads. The second device has sensors both above and below the microfluidic channel and can measure the number of beads corresponding to each doubly detected object which can thus be identified (aggregates or biological objects).
10

Giant Magnetoresistance - eine ab-initio Beschreibung / Giant Magnetoresistance - an ab-initio description

Binder, Jörg 13 July 2001 (has links) (PDF)
Die vorliegende Arbeit ist ein Beitrag zur Theorie des spinabhängigen Transports in magnetischen Vielfachschichten. Es wird erstmalig eine parameterfreie Beschreibung des Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) vorgelegt, welche detaillierte Einsichten in die mikroskopischen Vorgänge gestattet. Die ab-initio Berechnung der Elektronenstruktur der magnetischen Vielfachschichten basiert auf der Spindichtefunktionaltheorie unter Verwendung eines Screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker-Verfahrens. Die Streueigenschaften von Punktdefekten werden über die Greensche Funktion des gestörten Systems selbstkonsistent bestimmt. Die Transporteigenschaften werden durch Lösung der quasiklassischen Boltzmann-Gleichung unter Berücksichtigung der Elektronenstruktur der Vielfachschicht und der Anisotropie der Streuung an Fremdatomen berechnet. Die Boltzmann-Gleichung wird iterativ unter Einbeziehung der Vertex-Korrekturen gelöst. Der Formalismus wird auf Co/Cu- und Fe/Cr-Vielfachschichten, die Standardsysteme der Magnetoelektronik, angewandt. Es werden die Abhängigkeit der Streuquerschnitte, der spezifischen Restwiderstände und des GMR von der Art und der Lage der Übergangsmetalldefekte in Co/Cu- und Fe/Cr-Vielfachschichten diskutiert. Darüber hinaus wird der Einfluß des Quantum Confinements auf den GMR eingehend untersucht. Vorteile und Grenzen der vorliegenden theoretischen Beschreibung werden aufgezeigt. / A new theoretical concept to study the microscopic origin of Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) from first principles is presented. The method is based on ab-initio electronic structure calculations within the spin density functional theory using a Screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. Scattering at impurity atoms in the multilayers is described by means of a Green's-function method. The scattering potentials are calculated self-consistently. The transport properties are treated quasi-classically solving the Boltzmann equation including the electronic structure of the layered system and the anisotropic scattering. The solution of the Boltzmann equation is performed iteratively taking into account both scattering out and scattering in terms (vertex corrections). The method is applied to Co/Cu and Fe/Cr multilayers. Trends of scattering cross sections, residual resistivities and GMR ratios are discussed for various transition metal impurities at different positions in the Co/Cu or Fe/Cr multilayers. Furthermore the relation between spin dependence of the electronic structure and GMR as well as the role of quantum confinement effects for GMR are investigated. Advantages and limits of the approach are discussed in detail.

Page generated in 0.0733 seconds