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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Spin momentum transfer effects for spintronic device applications

Zhou, Yan January 2009 (has links)
The recent discovery that a spin-polarized current can exert a large torque on a ferromagnet, through direct transfer of spin angular momentum, offers the possibility of electrical current controlled manipulation of magnetic moment in nanoscale magnetic device structures. This so-called spin torque effect holds great promise for two applications, namely, spin torque oscillators (STOs) for wireless communication and radar communication, and spin transfer torque RAM (STT-RAM) for data/information storage.   The STO is a nanosized spintronic device capable of microwave generation at frequencies in the 1-65 GHz range with high quality factors. Although the STO is very promising for future telecommunication, two major shortcomings have to be addressed before it can truly find practical use as a radio-frequency device. Firstly, its very limited output power has to be significantly improved. One possibility is the synchronization of two or more STOs to both increase the microwave power and further increase the signal quality. Synchronization of serially connected STOs has been suggested in this thesis. In this configuration, synchronization relies on phase locking between the STOs and their self-generated alternating current. While this locking mechanism is intrinsically quite weak, we find that the locking range of two serially connected spin-valve STOs can be enhanced by over two orders of magnitude by adjusting the circuit I-V phase to that of an intrinsic preferred phase shift between the STO and an alternating current. More recently, we have also studied the phase-locking of STOs based on magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ-STO) to meet the power specifications of actual application where the rf output levels should be above 0 dBm (1 mW). In addition to the spin torque terms present in GMR spin valves, MTJs also exhibit a significant perpendicular spin torque component with a quite complex dependence on both material choices and applied junction bias. We find that the perpendicular torque component modifies the intrinsic preferred I-V phase shift in single MTJ-STOs in such a way that serially connected STOs synchronize much more readily without the need for additional circuitry to change the I-V phase.   Secondly, equal attention has been focused on removing the applied magnetic field for STO operation, which requires bulky components and will limit the miniaturization of STO-based devices. Various attempts have been made to realize STOs operating in zero magnetic field. By using a tilted (oblique angle) polarizer (fixed layer) instead of an in-plane polarizer (standard STO), we show zero field operation over a very wide polarizer angle range without sacrificing output signal. In addition, the polarizer angle introduces an entirely new degree of freedom to any spin torque device and opens up for a wide range of additional phenomena.   The STT-RAM has advantages over other types of memories including conventional MRAM in terms of power consumption, speed, and scalability. We use a set of simulation tools to carry out a systematic study on the subject of micromagnetic switching processes of a device for STT-RAM application. We find that the non-zero k spin wave modes play an important role in the experimentally measured switching phase boundary. These may result in telegraph transitions among different spin-wave states, and be related to the back-hopping phenomena where the switching probability will decrease with increasing bias in tunnel junctions. / QC 20100819
2

Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with MgO Tunnel Barrier

Almasi, Hamid, Almasi, Hamid January 2017 (has links)
Spintronics discusses about fundamental physics and material science in mostly nanometer size structures. Spintronics also delivers many promising technologies for now and the future. One of the interesting spintronic structures is called “Magnetic Tunnel junction” (MTJ). A typical MTJ consists of a thin (1-3nm) insulator layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers. In this work, I present MTJ with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) using an MgO tunnel barrier. The effect of different heavy metals (HMs) adjacent to the ferromagnets (FMs) on tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and PMA of the junctions are discussed. Namely, Ta, Mo, Ta/Mo, W, Ir, and Hf have been utilized in HM/FM/MgO structures, and magneto-transport properties are explored. It is shown that when Ta/Mo is employed, TMR values as high as 208%, and highly thermally stable PMA can be obtained. Some physical explanation based on electronic band structure and thermochemical effects are discussed. In the last part of this work, the newly discovered tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) effect in antiferromagnets is studied, and clear TAMR is demonstrated for NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Ta structures.
3

The Study of the Colossal Magnetoresistance Tunneling

Wu, Tsung-Chan 27 July 2002 (has links)
We imitated the sandwich structure of TMR(Tunneling Magnetoresistance) to apply to CMR(Colossal Magnetoresistance) material . We choose one of the Colossal Magnetoresistance material La0.67Sr0.33MnO3(113) to be the Ferromagnetic(FM) layers as top and bottom layer in sandwich structure and use La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 ¡P SrO(214) to be middle layer which have Antiferromagnetic(AFM) property to form FM-AFM-FM structure. The FM and AFM layer can match their lattice in interface joint. What its purpose is to use this structure to enhance SPT (Spin Polarization Tunneling) effect and let spintronics can periodical spin-flip in supper lattice structure of antiferromagnetic. Upon this compose we try to show increase the LFMR (Low Field Magnetoresistance) by use CMR. The experiment result shows maybe the film structure damage occurred in our made TMR tunneling device process (ex. Ion etching process), so we should improvement the process to get the exactly experiment data. Additional, due to the alignment of the moment of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 is unstable, the back and forth hysteresis loop can¡¦t overlap, So that afterwards we can use the more stable material La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 which have more stable moment.
4

Magnetoresistance and Space : Micro- and Nanofeature Sensors Designed, Manufactured and Evaluated for Space Magnetic Field Investigations

Persson, Anders January 2011 (has links)
In recent years, the interest for miniaturization of spaceborne instruments and subsystems has increased steadily, as this enables development of small and lightweight satellite classes as well as more versatile payloads on traditional spacecraft. In essence, this thesis work is an investigation of the applicability of magnetoresistive technology to a magnetometer intended for space. Two types of magnetoresistive sensors, promising with respect to performance competiveness also after considerable miniaturization, were developed and evaluated, namely magnetic tunnel junctions and planar Hall effect bridge sensors. In the case of the magnetic tunnel junctions, much effort was put on the micromanufacturing process. Two schemes were developed and evaluated for sensor contouring: one employing focused ion beam processes for rapid prototyping, and the other combining sputtering and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for precise etch depth monitoring during ion etching. For the former, the resulting implantation damages were investigated with chemical analysis and correlated to the sensor properties. In the latter, the depth of the etching was monitored live with a resolution sufficient to stop the etching in the 1 nm thick tunneling barrier. The effect and extent of redeposition were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and micromagnetic analysis. With the knowledge so gained, the tunneling magnetoresistance of the manufactured junctions could be improved significantly and their inherent noise could be reduced. As a step in space flight qualification, the magnetic tunnel junctions were subjected to both g and particle radiation, leaving them unaffected by the first, but rendering them a reduced tunneling magnetoresistance ratio and an increased coercivity by the latter. In the case of the planar Hall effect bridge sensors, their inherent noise was thoroughly investigated, revealing both electric and magnetic 1/f noise at low frequencies along with thermal noise at higher frequencies. In addition, an analytical model of the magnetic properties of the planar Hall effect bridges was developed, and a design process, based on the model, was established to optimize the bridges for a particular application. In conclusion, both types of sensors show great promises for use in space. Of the two, the planar Hall effect bridge sensors had a better detection limit at low frequencies, whereas the magnetic tunnel junctions were more precise at higher frequencies. However, both sensors had a bandwidth greatly exceeding that of traditional spaceborne magnetometers. A magnetometer employing the magnetic tunnel junctions from this work is currently included as payload onboard the Vietnamese satellite F-1 scheduled for launch this year. A magnetometer using magnetoresistive sensors – planar Hall effect sensors, magnetic tunnel junctions, or both – enables a mass reduction of more than two orders of magnitudes compared with traditional systems.
5

Estudo de junções túnel magnéticas com barreiras isolantes piezoelétricas de AlN / Study of magnetic tunnel junctions with insulating barriers piezoelectric of AlN

Pace, Rafael Domingues Della 20 January 2015 (has links)
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico / We analyze the possibility of using aluminum nitride (AlN) as a piezoelectric tunnel barrier in magnetic or non-magnetic tunnel junctions. Samples in the form of monolayers, bilayers, multilayers and tunnel junctions were produced by magnetron sputtering from an aluminum metal target. The insulating AlN barrier was grown in a reactive atmosphere of argon and nitrogen. Through the monolayers and bilayers we investigated the growth conditions of AlN onto different substrates, buffer, and cap layers. Using x-ray diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy it was possible to verify the excellent degree of texturing of AlN films with the direction <002> perpendicular the substrate plane. The multilayer showed that the use of AlN as a piezoelectric tunnel barrier is feasible, since the crystallographic structure remains when the thickness of the AlN is drastically reduced to a thickness so that quantum tunneling is possible. We also held magnetization measurements and tunnel magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions. It is important that the coercive fields of the electrodes are different, so that from the application of an external field can be obtained a situation where the magnetization of the electrodes point in opposite directions. The average thickness of the tunnel barrier in multilayers and tunnel junctions were obtained by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The nonlinear IxV curves of tunnel junctions were measured at room temperature and at lower temperatures, and showed a linear behavior at low voltages, and a nonlinear behavior for higher voltages. Measurements of tunnel magnetoresistance showed spin dependent tunneling. Simulations using the Simmons model for symmetric barrier allowed us to obtain the effective area of tunneling, effective thickness of the barrier, and the height of the barrier. Effective area values are some orders of magnitude smaller than the actual area of the junctions, and transmission electron microscopy pictures show that the tunnel transport occurs at some hot spots. In the measurements of the IxV curves we observe a minimum thickness of 6nm for the insulating barrier to be piezoelectric, as the polarization effect was detected. The curves have a shift to negative bias, both in magnetic and non-magnetic tunnel junctions. Using the results of the simulation we verified the exponential pattern of resistance, normalized by the effective area of tunneling, depending on the thickness of the insulator. For effective barrier thickness above 1nm, the barrier height increases with insulator thickness, as expected. For barrier thickness between 0;8 and 1nm, there is a decline in barrier height. We have not found recorded in the literature this type of behavior for normal insulating systems or for piezoelectric materials. / Nesta tese analizamos a possibilidade do uso de nitreto de alumínio (AlN) como barreira túnel piezoelétrica em junções túnel magnéticas ou não magnéticas. Amostras na forma de monocamadas, bicamadas, multicamadas e junções túnel foram produzidas pela técnica de "magnetron sputtering"a partir de um alvo metálico de alumínio. A barreira isolante de AlN foi crescida em uma atmosfera reativa de argônio e nitrogênio. Através das monocamadas e das bicamadas investigamos as condições de crescimento do AlN sobre diferentes substratos, e camadas "buffer"e camadas "cap". Utilizando difração de raio-x e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão foi possível verificar o excelente grau de texturização dos filmes de AlN com a direção <002> perpendicular ao plano do substrato. As multicamadas mostraram que a utilização do AlN como barreira túnel piezoelétrica é viável, pois a estrutura cristalográfica se mantém quando a espessura do AlN é drasticamente reduzida até uma espessura que ocorra o fenômeno de tunelamento quântico. Também foram realizadas medidas de magnetização e de magnetorresistência túnel em junções túnel magnéticas. Nestas, é importante que os campos coercivos dos eletrodos sejam diferentes, para que a partir da aplicação de um campo externo seja possível obter uma situação onde os momentos magnéticos dos eletrodos apontem em sentidos contrários. A espessura média da barreira túnel nas multicamadas e junções túnel foram obtidas através de difração de raio-x e de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. As curvas IxV não lineares das junções túnel foram medidas a temperatura ambiente e a baixa temperatura, e apresentaram um comportamento linear a baixas tensões e uma relação não linear para tensões mais elevadas. Para a realização de simulações foi utilizado modelo de Simmons para barreira simétrica. Os parâmetros obtidos através deste modelo são, a área efetiva de tunelamento Se f , a espessura efetiva da barreria te f e a altura da barreira f0. Através da observação dos resultados da área efetiva que são algumas ordens de grandeza menores que a área real da junção, e das imagens de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão podemos afirmar que o transporte túnel se dá por "hot spots". Nas medidas das curvas IxV observamos uma espessura mínima de 6nm para a barreira isolante piezoelétrica onde o efeito de polarização foi detectado. As curvas sofrem um deslocamento para tensões negativas, isto ocorre tanto nas junções túnel magnéticas como nas não magnéticas. Utilizando os resultados dos ajustes foi possível verificar o caráter exponencial da resistência, normalizada pela área efetiva de tunelamento, em função da espessura do isolante. Para espessura efetiva da barreira, a partir de 1nm, a altura da barreira aumenta com a espessura do isolante. Resultado este esperado, mostrando uma tendência do crescimento da altura da barreia com a espessura. Para espessura de barreia entre 0;8 e 1nm, há presença de um declínio na altura da barreira. Não encontramos registro na literatura deste tipo de comportamento para sistemas isolantes normais nem para materiais piezoelétricos. Medidas de magnetorresistência túnel nas junções mostraram que o tunelamento é dependente de spin.
6

Structure, magnetism and transport properties of Ca<sub>x</sub>Sr<sub>1-x</sub>Mn<sub>0.5</sub>Ru<sub>0.5</sub>O<sub>3</sub> bulk and thin film materials

Meyer, Tricia Lynn January 2013 (has links)
No description available.
7

Amorphe weichmagnetische CoFeNiSiB-Detektionsschichten in Spinventilen / Amorphous soft magnetic CoFeNiSiB detection layers in spinvalves

Käufler, Andrea Regina 16 May 2002 (has links)
No description available.
8

Etude ab initio du transport quantique dépendant du spin / Ab initio investigations of spin-dependent quantum transport

Zhou, Jiaqi 06 December 2019 (has links)
Les dispositifs spintroniques exploitent le degré de liberté du spin électronique pour traiter l'information. Dans cette thèse, nous étudions les propriétés de transport quantique dépendant du spin pour optimiser les performances des composants associés. Par l’approche ab initio, nous calculons la magnétorésistance à effet tunnel (tunneling magnetoresistance, TMR), l’effet Hall de spin (spin Hall effect, SHE) et l’efficacité de l’injection de spin (spin injection efficiency, SIE). Nous montrons ainsi que les métaux lourds (heavy metals, HM) influencent la TMR dans des jonctions tunnel magnétiques (magnetic tunnel junctions, MTJs) à base de MgO. L’utilisation de W, Mo, ou Ir peut améliorer la TMR. De plus, le dopage par substitution aide à optimiser le SHE dans les HMs, ce qui renforce les angles de Hall de spin (SHA) pour rendre plus efficace le renversement d’aimantation par couple spin-orbite (spin-orbit torque, SOT) dans les MTJ. Afin de contourner les problèmes induits par le désaccord de maille entre couches ferromagnétiques et MgO, nous avons conçu une MTJ basée sur l'hétérojonction VSe₂/MoS₂ de van der Waals (vdW) et calculons la TMR à température ambiante. L’apparition d’effets de résonance tunnel permet d’utiliser la tension appliquée pour moduler la TMR dans cette structure. Nous proposons également d’y favoriser le SOT en utilisant des matériaux 2D avec un fort SHE. MoTe₂ et WTe₂ apparaissent comme de bons candidats. Ces dichalcogénures de métaux de transition (transition metal dichalcogenides, TMDC) présentent un fort SHE ainsi que de grands SHA grâce à leur faible conductivité électrique. Enfin, motivés par la demande d'un dispositif commutable bidimensionnel à grande longueur de diffusion spin, nous étudions un système d'injection de spin dans le silicène et obtenons des SIE élevés sous tension appliquée. L’ensemble de ces travaux apportent un éclairage pour la recherche de nouveaux dispositifs spintroniques. / Spintronics devices manipulate the electron spin degree of freedom to process information. In this thesis, we investigate spin-dependent quantum transport properties to optimize the performances of spintronics devices. Through ab initio approach, we research the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), spin Hall effect (SHE), as well as spin injection efficiency (SIE). It has been demonstrated that heavy metals (HMs) are able to modulate TMR effects in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), and tungsten, molybdenum, and iridium are promising to enhance TMR. Moreover, substitutional atom doping can effectively optimize SHE of HMs, which would strengthen spin Hall angles (SHAs) to achieve efficient spin-orbit torque (SOT) switching of MTJs. To eliminate the mismatch between ferromagnetic and barrier layers in MgO-based MTJs, we design the MTJ with bond-free van der Waals (vdW) heterojunction VSe₂/MoS₂ and report the room-temperature TMR. The occurrence of quantum-well resonances enables voltage control to be an effective method to modulate TMR ratios in vdW MTJ. We put forward the idea of SOT vdW MTJ, which employs SOT to switch vdW MTJ and requires vdW materials with strong SHE. Research on MoTe₂ and WTe₂ verifies the possibility of realizing this idea. Both of them are layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) and exhibit strong SHEs, as well as large SHAs thanks to their low electrical conductivity. Lastly, motivated by the demand of a two-dimensional (2D) switchable device with long spin diffusion length, we construct the spin injection system with silicene monolayer, and reveal high SIEs under electric fields. Works in this thesis would advance the research of spintronics devices.

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