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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Effective use of TNF antagonists

Yocum, David January 2004 (has links)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists are biologic response modifiers that have significantly improved functional outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is a progressive disease in which structural joint damage can continue to develop even in the face of symptomatic relief. Before the introduction of biologic agents, the management of RA involved the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) early in the course of disease. This focus on early treatment, combined with the availability of the anti-TNF agents, has contributed to a shift in treatment paradigms favoring the early and timely use of DMARDs with biologic therapies. Improvement in symptom control does not always equate to a reduction in disease progression or disability. With the emergence of structure-related outcome measures as the primary means for assessing the effectiveness of antirheumatic agents, the regular use of X-rays is recommended for the continued monitoring and evaluation of patients. In addition to the control of symptoms and improvement in physical function, a reduction in erosions and joint-space narrowing should be considered among the goals of therapy, leading to a better quality of life. Adherence to therapy is an important element in optimizing outcomes. Durability of therapy with anti-TNF agents as reported from clinical trials can also be achieved in the clinical setting. Concomitant methotrexate therapy might be important in maintaining TNF antagonist therapy in the long term. Overall, the TNF antagonists have led to improvements in clinical and radiographic outcomes in patients with RA, especially those who have failed to show a complete response to methotrexate.
2

Effects of Infliximab Therapy on Hospitalization, Surgery and Healthcare Consumption in Crohn’s Disease: A Population Based Propensity Score Matched Analysis

Leombruno, John Paul 13 April 2010 (has links)
Background : The majority of patients with Crohn’s Disease (CD) will be hospitalized and receive surgery for their disease. Hospitalizations and surgical procedures account for the majority of the direct costs of CD. Purpose : Our objective was to use population-based administrative data from the province of Quebec, Canada, to estimate the effectiveness of infliximab therapy in reducing CD-related surgery, hospitalization and health care resource consumption in subjects with CD. Methods : We obtained patient level prescription data, physician billing claims and hospitalization data from the Régie de l'Assurance Maladie du Québec (RAMQ) a Canadian provincial health care provider. Subjects who were enrolled in the system for a minimum of two years and who received prescription drug benefits for each year they participated in the study were identified as being affected by CD using a validated algorithm. For each subject treated with infliximab, up to two closely matched comparison subjects were selected using propensity score methods. We compared time to first CD-related intra-abdominal surgery and hospitalization as well as total hospitalized days and physician visits between infliximab users and non-users. Results : We were able to match 319 (77%) out of the 414 infliximab users to comparison subjects using propensity score matching; 300 were matched to two infliximab non-users and 19 were matched to one non-user to create 619 matched-pair sets. Subjects who received infliximab therapy had a significantly reduced risk of experiencing a CD-related intra-abdominal surgery (HR=0.674, 95%CI 0.533-0.853, p=0.001), any hospitalization (HR=0.753, 95%CI 0.619-0.917 p=0.005), and CD-related hospitalization (HR=0.726, 95%CI 0.565-0.934 p=0.013). Infliximab users experienced lower rates of hospitalized days (RateR=0.6418, 95%CI 0.4399-0.9362; P=0.021) and gastroenterologist visits (RateR=0.810, 95% CI 0.700-0.937; P=0.005). Infliximab users and non-users had similar rates of non-gastroenterologist physician visits (RateR=0.928, 95% CI 0.851-1.057; P=0.262). Conclusion : Infliximab therapy was associated with significant reductions in CD-related intra-abdominal surgeries, hospitalizations, hospitalized days and gastroenterologist visits. Our results confirm the population-based effectiveness of infliximab beyond the ideal conditions of clinical trials.
3

Effects of Infliximab Therapy on Hospitalization, Surgery and Healthcare Consumption in Crohn’s Disease: A Population Based Propensity Score Matched Analysis

Leombruno, John Paul 13 April 2010 (has links)
Background : The majority of patients with Crohn’s Disease (CD) will be hospitalized and receive surgery for their disease. Hospitalizations and surgical procedures account for the majority of the direct costs of CD. Purpose : Our objective was to use population-based administrative data from the province of Quebec, Canada, to estimate the effectiveness of infliximab therapy in reducing CD-related surgery, hospitalization and health care resource consumption in subjects with CD. Methods : We obtained patient level prescription data, physician billing claims and hospitalization data from the Régie de l'Assurance Maladie du Québec (RAMQ) a Canadian provincial health care provider. Subjects who were enrolled in the system for a minimum of two years and who received prescription drug benefits for each year they participated in the study were identified as being affected by CD using a validated algorithm. For each subject treated with infliximab, up to two closely matched comparison subjects were selected using propensity score methods. We compared time to first CD-related intra-abdominal surgery and hospitalization as well as total hospitalized days and physician visits between infliximab users and non-users. Results : We were able to match 319 (77%) out of the 414 infliximab users to comparison subjects using propensity score matching; 300 were matched to two infliximab non-users and 19 were matched to one non-user to create 619 matched-pair sets. Subjects who received infliximab therapy had a significantly reduced risk of experiencing a CD-related intra-abdominal surgery (HR=0.674, 95%CI 0.533-0.853, p=0.001), any hospitalization (HR=0.753, 95%CI 0.619-0.917 p=0.005), and CD-related hospitalization (HR=0.726, 95%CI 0.565-0.934 p=0.013). Infliximab users experienced lower rates of hospitalized days (RateR=0.6418, 95%CI 0.4399-0.9362; P=0.021) and gastroenterologist visits (RateR=0.810, 95% CI 0.700-0.937; P=0.005). Infliximab users and non-users had similar rates of non-gastroenterologist physician visits (RateR=0.928, 95% CI 0.851-1.057; P=0.262). Conclusion : Infliximab therapy was associated with significant reductions in CD-related intra-abdominal surgeries, hospitalizations, hospitalized days and gastroenterologist visits. Our results confirm the population-based effectiveness of infliximab beyond the ideal conditions of clinical trials.
4

Avaliação da influência da terapia por infliximabe na cicatrização óssea de alvéolos dentários pós-exodontia em ratos / Therapy influence of evaluation by infliximab on bone healing after tooth extraction dental alveoli in rats

Ferreira Júnior, Antonio Ernando Carlos 19 February 2016 (has links)
FERREIRA JÚNIOR, A. E.C. Avaliação da influência da terapia por infliximabe na cicatrização óssea de alvéolos dentários pós-exodontia em ratos. 2016. 83 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Odontologia) - Faculdade Farmácia, Odontologia e Enfermagem, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, 2016. / Submitted by Erika Fernandes (erikaleitefernandes@gmail.com) on 2016-04-19T12:48:50Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2016_dis_aecferreirajunior.pdf: 3340356 bytes, checksum: 7bfe62f8b747a6f031eacf97be445966 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Erika Fernandes (erikaleitefernandes@gmail.com) on 2016-04-19T12:49:00Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 2016_dis_aecferreirajunior.pdf: 3340356 bytes, checksum: 7bfe62f8b747a6f031eacf97be445966 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-19T12:49:00Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2016_dis_aecferreirajunior.pdf: 3340356 bytes, checksum: 7bfe62f8b747a6f031eacf97be445966 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2016-02-19 / Bone healing after tooth extraction depends on variables such as surgical technique, local and systemic factors and use of pharmacological substances. Anti-inflammatory drugs can alter the tissue repair, interfering with the inflammatory phase of healing. Infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody, human-murine anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) which has been widely used to replace corticosteroids in rheumatology clinic because it has fewer side effects in the long term. However, TNF-α pathway acts directly on osteoclastogenesis, can change the physiological response of bone turnover and its inhibition may lead to immunosuppression, increasing the risk of local infection. It was aim of this study to evaluate the influence of infliximab in healing after dental extractions alveoli. For this purpose, 84 Wistar rats (n = 7) were randomized into two groups (infliximab EV 5 mg / kg or saline EV 1ml / kg, pre-treated with 4 weekly administrations prior to extraction, weekly maintained until the day of sacrifice) . The animals were sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after surgery. The occurrence of root fractures, surgical time and the weight of extracted teeth were recorded. On the day of sacrifice the weight of animals and organs (liver, spleen, kidneys, stomach) were measured. After fixation in 10% formalin buffered and macroscopic analysis, jaw and fragments of these organs, followed for histological processing and microscopic study. The jaws were submitted to radiographic, histomorphometric (size of the deposition of scar tissue, percentage of area represented by bone tissue and number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, mononuclear and osteoclasts), immunohistochemistry (Picrossirius Red) and immunohistochemistry (TNF-α) . There were no differences seen in determining the radiolucent area related to post-extraction site between the experimental groups (p = 0.646). However, the histomorphometric analysis was visualized lower completion by bone and a greater amount of tissue remaining in infllximabe group significantly on day 14 (p <0.001). Furthermore, a smaller number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in 3 (p <0.01) and 7 days (p <0,001) mononuclear on the 7th day (p <0.01) and osteoclasts in the 7th and 14th days (p < 0.01 and p <0.001, respectively) were observed. It also observed lower TNF-α immunoreactivity in the post-extraction sites on days 7,14, 21 and 28 (p <0.01; p <0.05, p <0.05 and p <0.01 respectively). We conclude that TNF-α inhibitors may alter the bone repair capacity in post-extraction sites. These findings suggest the need for further precautions in gory dental procedures in patients undergoing systemic therapy of these drugs. / A cicatrização óssea pós-exodontia depende de variáveis como técnica cirúrgica, fatores locais e sistêmicos e uso de substâncias farmacológicas. Os anti-inflamatórios podem alterar a reparação tecidual, interferindo na etapa inflamatória de cicatrização. O infliximabe é um anticorpo monoclonal quimérico, humano-murino, anti-Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa (TNF-α) que tem sido amplamente utilizado em substituição aos corticosteroides na clínica reumatológica por possuir menos efeitos adversos em longo prazo. No entanto, a via TNF-α age diretamente na osteoclastogênese, podendo modificar a resposta fisiológica do turnover ósseo e sua inibição pode provocar imunossupressão, aumentando o risco de infecção local. Foi objetivo deste estudo avaliar a influência do infliximabe na cicatrização de alvéolos dentários pós-exodontias. Para tanto, 84 ratos Wistar (n=7) foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de estudo (infliximabe EV 5mg/kg ou salina EV 1ml/kg, pré tratados com 4 administrações semanais antes da exodontia, mantidas semanalmente até o dia do sacrifício). Os animais foram sacrificados 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após o procedimento cirúrgico. A ocorrência de fraturas radiculares, o tempo cirúrgico e o peso dos dentes extraídos foram anotados. No dia do sacrifício o peso dos animais e dos órgãos (fígado, baço, rins, estômago) foram aferidos. Após fixação em formol 10% tamponado e análise macroscópica, a mandíbula e fragmentos desses órgãos, seguiram para processamento histológico e estudo microscópico. As mandíbulas foram submetidas à avaliação radiográfica, histomorfométrica (dimensão da deposição de tecido conjuntivo cicatricial, percentual da área representada por tecido ósseo e número de polimorfonucleares neutrófilos, mononucleares e osteoclastos), histoquímica (Picrossirius Red) e imuno-histoquímica (TNF-α). Não foram vistas diferenças na aferição da área radiolúcida referente ao sítio pós-exodontia entre os grupos experimentais (p=0,646). Entretanto, na análise histomorfométrica, foi visualizado menor preenchimento por tecido ósseo bem como maior quantidade de tecido conjuntivo remanescente no grupo infllximabe, de forma significante no 14º dia (p<0,001). Além disso, um menor número de polimorfonucleares neutrófilos no 3º (p< 0,01) e 7º dias (p<0,001), de mononucleares no 7º dia (p<0,01) e de osteoclastos no 7º e 14º dias (p<0,01 e p< 0,001, respectivamente) foi observado. Também foi verificada menor imunoexpressão de TNF-α nos sítios pós-exodontia nos dias 7,14, 21 e 28 (p<0,01; p<0,05, p<0,05 e p<0,01 respectivamente). Conclui-se que inibidores de TNF-α podem alterar a capacidade de reparo ósseo em sítios pós-exodontia. Estes achados sinalizam a necessidade de maiores precauções nos procedimentos odontológicos cruentos em pacientes sob terapia sistêmica desses fármacos.
5

Effect of infliximab therapy on serum and fecal biomarker levels in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease

Ellis, Montana 11 November 2021 (has links)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), divided into Crohn’s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and indeterminate colitis (IC), is a chronic, crippling autoimmune condition characterized by gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. The methods used to diagnose IBD and assess its activity can be invasive and costly and typically include a combination of histologic, endoscopic, radiologic, clinical, and biochemical measures. Currently, there is an increasing need for the development of noninvasive assessment measures to detect an interval response to prescribed therapy. Previous studies have found serial and fecal biomarkers to be reliable, but non-specific indicators of GI tract inflammation. At present, they cannot be used to distinguish between inflammation resulting from infection and that caused by chronic inflammation in patients with IBD. The aim of this study is to measure changes in serum and fecal biomarkers over time in individual children and adolescents with CD, UC, and IC initiating infliximab therapy while investigating any parallels between fluctuations in biomarker levels and endoscopic, clinical, and biochemical outcomes. The inflammatory biomarkers evaluated in this study include fecal and serum anti-Saccharomyces-Cerevisiae Antibody (ASCA), fecal and serum lactoferrin, fecal hemoglobin, fecal calprotectin, fecal IL1-α, fecal IL1-β, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The data for this study was collected from a multicenter longitudinal prospective cohort study following pediatric patients over the course of six consecutive infliximab infusion appointments. Study sites include Boston Children’s Hospital and Riley Children’s Hospital in Indianapolis. Participants were recruited from a pool of CD, UC, and IC patients who were either new to infliximab, had been receiving infliximab for less than six months, or had been receiving infliximab for more than one year. Patients brought in stool samples at each of their scheduled infliximab infusions, biochemical labs (ESR and CRP) were obtained, and patients completed a health-related quality of life survey (IMPACT-III Questionnaire). Forty-three patients (26 with CD, 16 with UC, and one with IC) completed this study. There was no significant difference in mean serum or fecal ASCA levels between participants with CD and those with UC. However, average serum and fecal ASCA were higher in patients with CD than those with UC at almost every infusion. The baseline mean CRP level in patients with CD was significantly higher than that observed in patients with UC (p<0.05). In patients with CD, the mean IMPACT-III score was significantly higher (improved quality of life) at Infusion 5 than at baseline. The data collected in this study suggest serial biomarker measurements may be useful in monitoring a patient’s response to infliximab therapy. This study is not yet complete and requires further data analysis to more definitively conclude if a single or a composite metric including several fecal and/or serum inflammatory biomarkers would provide a more robust assessment of disease activity in children and young adults with IBD.
6

Efeitos da inflamação continuada e do tratamento imunomodulador com anti-TNF no controle da colite experimental / Effects of sustained inflammation and immunomodulatory treatment with anti-TNF in the control of experimental colitis

Silva, Jefferson Luiz da 10 December 2018 (has links)
As Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais (DII), como a colite ulcerativa e a doença de Crohn, são resultados de uma resposta imune desregulada no intestino de indivíduos geneticamente suscetíveis apresentando disbiose intestinal. Essas doenças geralmente são tratadas com anticorpos monoclonais, como o anti-TNF, Infliximab (IFX). No entanto, pouco se sabe como o bloqueio do TNF afeta a resposta do hospedeiro quando ocorre uma nova quebra da homeostase intestinal, durante a recidiva da doença. Neste estudo, avaliamos os efeitos tardios do tratamento com IFX na colite experimental com um novo desafio de disbiose. Camundongos tratados com IFX tiveram remissão da colite. No entanto, o tratamento não protegeu contra a recidiva da doença, o que resultou no aumento de células mononucleares circulantes e diminuição de neutrófilos, em contraste com a redução da atividade de macrófagos e aumento da infiltrado de neutrófilos no cólon após o desafio. Esses animais também apresentaram diminuição da barreira linfocitária epitelial e aumento de linfócitos na lâmina própria do cólon, que também continha elevado número de células dendríticas inflamatórias CD11b+CD11c+CD103-. O tratamento da colite com IFX seguido de um desafio de microbiota levou à redução de linfócitos TCD4, TCD8 e ?? intraepiteliais, com acúmulo de células T ativadas, memória residentes e efetoras na lâmina própria, em comparação com o número reduzido desses linfócitos na ausência de tratamento com IFX. Além disso, o bloqueio do TNF reduziu a expressão de IL-1? e IL-6 e aumentou a expressão de CYP11B1, uma enzima esteroidogênica responsável pela produção de cortisol anti-inflamatório. Porém o desafio antigênico elevou significativamente a expressão de IL-13, mas reduziu a expressão das enzimas esteroidogênicas, CYP11A1 e CYP11B1O. O mais interessante é que a permeabilidade intestinal foi aumentada, assim como a atividade de proliferação das células nos linfonodos mesentéricos. Esses dados sugerem que, embora o IFX possa controlar a inflamação na colite aguda, seus efeitos tardios comprometem a capacidade do hospedeiro de lidar com um novo desafio, como uma disbiose intestinal que ocorre durante a recaída da doença / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn\'s disease, are the result of a dysregulated immune response in the intestine of genetically susceptible individuals presenting with intestinal dysbiosis. These diseases are usually treated with monoclonal antibodies, such as anti-TNF, Infliximab (IFX). However, little is known about how TNF blockade affects host response when a new break in intestinal homeostasis occurs during relapse of the disease. In this study, we evaluated the late effects of IFX treatment in experimental colitis with a new challenge of dysbiosis. Mice treated with IFX had remission of colitis. However, the treatment did not protect against disease recurrence, which resulted in increased circulating mononuclear cells and decreased neutrophils, in contrast to reduced macrophage activity and increased neutrophil infiltrate in the colon after challenge. These animals also had a decrease in the lymphocyte epithelial barrier and increased lymphocytes in the lamina propria of the colon, which also contained a high number of inflammatory dendritic cells CD11b+CD11c+CD103-. Treatment of IFX colitis followed by a microbiota challenge led to reduction of intraepithelial TCD4, TCD8 and ?? lymphocytes with accumulation of activated T cells, resident and effector memory in the lamina propria, compared to the reduced number of these lymphocytes in the absence of treatment with IFX. In addition, TNF blockade reduced IL-1? and IL-6 expression and increased expression of CYP11B1, a steroidogenic enzyme responsible for the production of anti-inflammatory cortisol. However, antigen challenge significantly elevated IL-13 expression, but reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes, CYP11A1 and CYP11B1. Interestingly, the intestinal permeability was increased, as was the proliferation activity of the cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. These data suggest that although IFX can control inflammation in acute colitis, its late effects compromise the host\'s ability to cope with a new challenge, such as intestinal dysbiosis that occurs during relapse of the disease
7

Propriedades adesivas e quimiotáticas dos neutrófilos de pacientes com artrite reumatoide e a influência de diferentes medicações / Chemotactic and adhesive properties of neutrophils from rheumatoid arthritis patients and influence of different treatments

Dominical, Venina Marcela 08 March 2010 (has links)
Orientadores: Nicola Amanda Conran Zorzetto, Fernando Ferreira Costa / Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-16T20:35:21Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Dominical_VeninaMarcela_M.pdf: 1517777 bytes, checksum: 002cdb44469c81ccafe110267d001ff0 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2010 / Resumo: A artrite reumatoide (AR) é uma doença inflamatória crônica, autoimune e sistêmica, caracterizada por ser uma poliartrite simétrica, acometendo preferencialmente os punhos, mãos e pés. O processo patológico que explique a AR ainda permanece desconhecido. A indução da resposta imune, característica da doença, resulta de uma inflamação nas articulações através da infiltração de células inflamatórias que são recrutadas para o tecido sinovial, onde elas aderem às células endoteliais e transmigram através da subcamada sinovial, formando complexos que produzirão citocinas inflamatórias, contribuindo para a hiperplasia da camada sinovial e estimulando a produção de mais citocinas e enzimas capazes de degradar a matriz óssea, provocando a destruição das articulações afetadas. No líquido sinovial, os neutrófilos são o principal tipo celular, atraídos para as articulações inflamadas por quimioatraentes como LTB4, C5a, IL-8 e TGF-?, e expostos a uma variedade de citocinas locais pró-inflamatórias como IL-1?, TNF-?, GM-CSF, IL-6 e IL-18. Estudos demonstraram que os neutrófilos têm papel indutor na geração de inflamação e esforços visando compreender os mecanismos exercidos pelos neutrófilos nesta doença podem ser um ponto chave para intervenções farmacológicas, promovendo a melhora dos sintomas e gravidade da doença. Diante disso, este estudo objetivou avaliar as propriedades adesivas e quimiotáticas de neutrófilos de pacientes com AR (com atividade e em remissão da doença) e verificar a influência das diferentes medicações utilizadas atualmente no tratamento da AR quanto a estas propriedades. Cento e vinte e três pacientes com artrite reumatoide em estado ativo ou de remissão da doença foram inclusos no estudo e divididos em três grupos: pacientes não tratados com drogas direcionadas para a AR (AR nt), pacientes tratados com drogas modificadoras da doença (AR dm) e pacientes tratados com agentes biológicos (AR ab); os indivíduos sem a doença foram nossos controles (Con). Os neutrófilos foram separados do sangue periférico e realizados ensaios de adesão estática e de quimiotaxia celular, ambos in vitro. Foi verificada a expressão gênica e de superfície de algumas proteínas envolvidas no processo adesivo. Além disso, foram quantificadas no soro e líquido sinovial destes pacientes, quimiocinas envolvidas no recrutamento de neutrófilos e a L-selectina - molécula de adesão expressa em leucócitos. Os neutrófilos da circulação periférica de pacientes com AR em atividade da doença não apresentaram alterações quanto às propriedades adesivas em relação a indivíduos saudáveis. Ainda, neutrófilos de pacientes em terapia com agentes biológicos apresentaram aumento das propriedades migratórias comparados a pacientes AR sem tratamento. Interessantemente, os neutrófilos de pacientes com AR em remissão da doença apresentaram redução da capacidade adesiva e migratória dos neutrófilos quando na ausência de estímulo por IL-8. Apesar disso, não observamos diferenças quanto à adesão e à migração destes neutrófilos quando estimulados por esta citocina. O líquido sinovial de pacientes com AR em atividade da doença possui alto potencial quimiotático frente a neutrófilos e foram encontrados níveis elevados de IL-8 e ENA-78 tanto neste fluído, como também no sangue periférico. Há aumento da expressão gênica de L-selectina em neutrófilos de pacientes com AR em atividade da doença, mas curiosamente, não encontramos diferenças quanto à expressão desta molécula na superfície dos neutrófilos ou a sua presença no soro. Em destaque, observamos redução significativa de expressão na superfície neutrofílica de L-selectina e LFA-1 em pacientes em remissão da doença. Esses resultados sugerem que a remissão do quadro inflamatório da AR parece estar associada a alterações significantes nas principais quimiocinas atraentes de neutrófilos na circulação destes indivíduos e que são acompanhadas por modificações funcionais dos neutrófilos. Especulamos se estas características podem participar na melhora do quadro clínico em pacientes com artrite reumatoide / Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is autoimmune and systemic, and characterized by a symmetric polyarthritis, affecting mainly the wrists, hands and feet. The pathological process that explains RA remains unknown. The induction of an immune response, characteristic of the disease, results from an inflammation of the joints through the infiltration of inflammatory cells that are recruited to the synovial tissue, where they adhere to endothelial cells and transmigrate through the synovial sublayer, forming complexes that produce inflammatory cytokines. These complexes induce hyperplasia of the synovial layer and stimulate the further production of cytokines and enzymes, leading to the degradation of the bone matrix, and resulting in the destruction of affected joints. In the synovial fluid, neutrophils are the main cell type and are attracted to the inflamed joints by chemoattractants, such as LTB4, C5a, IL-8 and TGF-?, and exposed to a variety of local pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1?, TNF -?, GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-18. Studies have shown that neutrophils play a role in inducing the generation of inflammation, and efforts to understand the mechanisms deployed by neutrophils in this disease may be a key point for the development of pharmacological interventions to ameliorate symptoms and disease severity. Thus, this study evaluated the chemotactic and adhesive properties of neutrophils in patients with RA and the influence of different drugs, currently used in the treatment of this pathology, on these properties. One hundred and twenty-three patients with active RA or in disease remission were enrolled and divided into three groups; patients not treated with drugs specifically for RA (AR nt), patients treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (AR dm) and patients treated with biological agents (AR ab); healthy individuals were used as controls (Con). Neutrophils were separated from peripheral blood and static adhesion assays and cell chemotaxis assays were performed in vitro. We verified the gene and surface expression of some proteins involved in the adhesive process. Moreover, chemokines involved in the recruitment of neutrophils and L-selectin, a cellular adhesion molecule expressed in leukocytes, were quantified in the serum and synovial fluid of these patients. Neutrophils from the peripheral blood of RA patients with active disease demonstrated no difference in adhesive properties, compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, patients on therapy with biological agents had increased migratory properties, compared to patients without specific RA treatment. Interestingly, neutrophils from RA patients in remission of disease presented reduced adhesive and migratory capacity in the absence of stimulus. Nevertheless, no differences were observed in these properties with IL-8 stimulus. The synovial fluid of RA patients with active disease has a high chemotactic potential for neutrophils and presented significantly higher levels of IL-8 and ENA-78 in this fluid, as well as in the peripheral blood. An increased gene expression of L-selectin in RA patients with active disease was observed, but interestingly, we found no differences in surface expression or presence in the serum of this molecule. Of note, a significant decrease in the surface expression of neutrophil L-selectin and LFA-1 was observed in patients in remission of disease. Results suggest that the remission of the RA inflammatory state appears to be associated with significant alterations in major neutrophil-attracting chemokines in the circulation of individuals, contributing possibly, to neutrophils function alteration in these individuals and the consequent amelioration of the disease / Mestrado / Biologia Estrutural, Celular, Molecular e do Desenvolvimento / Mestre em Fisiopatologia Médica
8

Doença de Crohn = efeito de um concentrado de proteínas do soro de leite bovino enriquecido com tgf-ß na nutrição e inflamação de pacientes sob terapia com imunossupressor / Crohn's disease : effect of a concentrated whey protein enriched with TGF-ß in nutrition and inflammation in patients under immunosupressive therapy

Davanço, Taciana 17 August 2018 (has links)
Orientadores: Elizete Aparecida Lomazi da Costa Pinto, Maria Marluce dos Santos Vilela / Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-17T21:25:30Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Davanco_Taciana_D.pdf: 2427326 bytes, checksum: 95e80c1ee79f6b95668f4d4d893d1a87 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011 / Resumo: A Doença de Crohn (DC) e uma desordem inflamatória intestinal crônica, com evidencia de inflamação transmural granulomatosa da mucosa. Ha aumento da permeabilidade intestinal, redução da atividade do sistema muco ciliar, alterações nas junções epiteliais, deficiência de oligoelementos ate desnutrição grave. A etiopatogenia permanece e desconhecida, mas ha hipóteses sobre a genética da doença e alterações da regulação da resposta imune da mucosa para a microbiota intestinal. O diagnostico e estabelecido pelos sintomas e sinais, imagens da endoscopia e radiologia, e histologia do tecido intestinal. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar o efeito de um concentrado de proteínas de soro de leite bovino enriquecido com TGF-? sobre a inflamação e o estado nutricional dos pacientes com DC sob terapia com azatioprina sozinha ou combinada com anti-TNF? (infliximab). O desenho do estudo e prospectivo e de intervenção via oral por dezesseis semanas com um concentrado de proteínas do soro de leite enriquecido com TGF-?. Foram realizadas analises de composição centesimal, grau de hidrolise, solubilidade e determinação total de aminoácidos do suplemento da proteína do soro de leite bovino. A ingestão alimentar e estado nutricional foram avaliados antes e apos a intervenção. Para avaliação sensorial do suplemento foi aplicado teste de aceitação utilizando escala hedônica facial de 9 pontos. A inflamação foi avaliada antes, durante e apos a intervenção, através da medida do índice de atividade da doença e da dosagem do sistema oxidante H2O2 pelos granulócitos e antioxidante enzimatico da Glutationa eritrocitaria (GSH). O grupo total de pacientes com doença de Crohn apresentou, em sua maioria, consumo adequado de carboidratos e lipídeos, e o consumo de proteína foi superior ao recomendado em mais da metade dos pacientes. Constatou-se inadequação na ingestão de vitaminas A, C, D, E, fibras, cálcio, folato, ferro e zinco. A ingestão de proteínas do soro de leite resultou em melhora da composição corporal dos pacientes. A avaliação sensorial mostrou que cerca de 30% dos indivíduos gostaram do suplemento com relação a todos os atributos avaliados, já metade deles não gostaram e 20% o classificaram como "mais ou menos". A avaliação clinica pelo Índice de atividade da Doença de Crohn (IADC), mostrou que a suplementação nutricional no grupo de pacientes sob terapia combinada Azatioprina e Infliximab reduziu significativamente o IADC revelado pela melhora dos sintomas clínicos dos pacientes. O grupo de pacientes que apresentava a DC com sintomas mais leves estava sob terapia com AZA sozinha e mostrou produção de GSH similar ao controle saudável. No entanto, o grupo sob terapia combinada AZA + anti- TNF-? (Infliximab) apresentou valores de GSH significativamente mais elevados do que o controle saudável antes (p=0,023) e apos a suplementação (p<0,01). Do mesmo modo, valores significativamente mais altos de GSH no grupo da terapia combinada antes (p=0,048) e apos a suplementação foi observado quando comparado ao grupo AZA. Os valores mais elevados de GSH no grupo de terapia combinada podem ser interpretados como efeito dessa terapia, combinada, uma vez que não se observou diferença significativa quando se comparou os valores de GSH antes e apos receber a suplementação. " Em relação a produção basal de H2O2, o grupo de pacientes sob terapia com AZA sozinha mostrou resultados similares ao controle saudável, enquanto o grupo sob terapia combinada mostrou valores inferiores significativos (p<0,01) em relação ao controle saudável. A capacidade máxima de produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio não apresentou diferença significativa entre o controle saudável e os pacientes em uso de imunossupressores. Como também não foi observada diferença significativa entre H2O2 antes e apos a suplementação. Esses resultados demonstram, pela primeira vez, que a terapia combinada na DC reduz de modo acentuado a geração de espécies reativas do oxigênio por granulócitos e, o aumento de GSH encontrado nesses pacientes, reforça seu relevante papel no equilíbrio do balanço H2O2 (oxidante) versus GSH (antioxidante). Com resultados de H2O2 tão baixos e de GSH mais elevados no grupo de pacientes sob terapia combinada, o suplemento oferecido a esses pacientes pode ser metabolizado e aproveitado de modo a ter impacto na melhora no IADC e na composição corporal. O grupo sob terapia combinada, mas não suplementado, não apresentou melhora do IADC nem do índice de massa corporal. Esses resultados são muito relevantes uma vez que os pacientes ao iniciarem a terapia combinada apresentavam doença de moderada para grave e ao receberem o suplemento já se encontravam com o IADC ?150. Nessa fase, o suplemento teve sua contribuição porque não havia mais desequilíbrio no sistema oxidante versus antioxidante. Alem disso, o curto período de 16 semanas de suplementação com o concentrado de proteína do soro de leite enriquecido com TGF- ? foi suficiente para promover melhoras no IADC e no Índice de massa corporal. Concluímos que o suplemento tem grande potencial para ser comercializado e auxiliar na melhoria da clinica de indivíduos com doença de Crohn. Entretanto, para encorajar a suplementação com o concentrado de soro de leite enriquecido com TGF- ? de modo regular e fundamental melhorar a qualidade sensorial do produto / Abstract: Crohn's disease (AD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder, with evidence of transmural granulomatous inflammation of the mucosa. There is increased intestinal permeability, reduced the activity of the ciliary mucus, changes in epithelial junctions, and trace element deficiency to severe malnutrition. The etiopathogenesis remains an enigma, but there are hypotheses about the genetics of disease and changes in regulation of the mucosal immune response to intestinal microbiota. The diagnosis is established by the symptoms and signs, endoscopy and radiology images, and histology of the intestinal tissue. The objective of this research was to investigate the role of a protein concentrate of whey enriched with TGF-? on inflammation and nutritional status of patients with Crohn's disease under treatment with azathioprine alone or combined with anti-TNF (infliximab). The study design is prospective and intervention orally for sixteen weeks with a protein concentrate of whey enriched with TGF-?. Were analyzed for chemical composition, degree of hydrolysis, solubility and total amino acid determination of protein supplementation of whey. Dietary intake and nutritional status were evaluated before and after intervention. To supplement the sensory evaluation test was applied for acceptance facial hedonic scale of 9 points. Inflammation was assessed before, during and after the intervention by measuring the index of disease activity and dosage of the oxidant system H2O2 by granulocytes and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme glutathione (GSH). The total group of patients with Crohn's disease had, in most cases, adequate intake of carbohydrates and lipids, and protein consumption was higher than recommended in more than half of patients. It was found inadequate intake of vitamins A, C, D, E, fiber, calcium, folate, iron and zinc. Protein intake of whey resulted in improved body composition of patients. The sensory evaluation showed that about 30% of individuals liked the supplement with respect to all attributes, since half of them did not like and 20% classified it as "more or less". The clinical activity index for Crohn's disease (CDAI), showed that nutritional supplementation in patients under azathioprine and infliximab combination therapy significantly reduced the IADC revealed by the improvement of clinical symptoms of patients. The group of patients who presented with the DC milder symptoms were being treated with AZA alone and showed production of GSH similar to healthy control. However, the AZA group under combined therapy + anti-TNF-? (infliximab) had GSH values significantly higher than healthy controls before (p = 0.023) and after supplementation (p <0.01). Similarly, significantly higher values of GSH in the combined therapy group before (p = 0.048) and after supplementation was observed when compared to the AZA group. Highest levels of GSH in the combined therapy group can be interpreted as an effect of this therapy, combined, since there was no significant difference when comparing the values before and after receiving GSH supplementation. "In relation to the basal production of H2O2, the group of patients on AZA therapy alone showed similar results to healthy control, while the group under combined therapy showed significant lower values (p <0.01) compared to healthy control. The ability Maximum production of reactive oxygen species showed no significant difference between healthy control and patients using immunosuppressive drugs. Nor was no significant difference between H2O2 before and after supplementation. These results demonstrate for the first time that therapy combined in DC markedly reduces the generation of reactive oxygen species by granulocytes and the increase of GSH found in these patients, strengthen its important role in balancing the balance sheet H2O2 (oxidative) versus GSH (antioxidant). With results of H2O2 as low GSH and higher in the group of patients on combination therapy, the supplement offered to these patients could be metabolized and used in order to have an impact on improvement in CDAI and body composition. The group under combined therapy, but not supplementation, showed no improvement in the CDAI or the body mass index. These results are very relevant since patients starting combination therapy had moderate to severe disease and to receive the supplement has met with the CDAI ? 150. At this stage, the supplement had its contribution because there was an imbalance in oxidant versus antioxidant system. Moreover, the short period of 16 weeks of supplementation with protein concentrate of whey enriched with TGF-? was sufficient to promote improvements in CDAI and Score body mass. We conclude that the supplement has great potential to be commercialized and help to improve the clinic from individuals with Crohn's disease. However, to encourage supplementation with the concentrate of whey enriched with TGF-? on a regular basis is essential to improve the sensory quality of the product / Doutorado / Saude da Criança e do Adolescente / Doutor em Saude da Criança e do Adolescente
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Facteurs immunologiques et génétiques impliqués dans la variabilité de la pharmacocinétique des anticorps thérapeutiques / Immunologic and genetic factors involved in pharmacokinetic variability of therapeutic antibodies

Magdelaine, Charlotte 05 March 2010 (has links)
Pas de résumé fourni. / No summary available.
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Effects of Resistance Training on Insulin Sensitivity and Markers of Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Remicade

Gates, Donald L. January 2009 (has links)
INTRODUCTION Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease of chronic inflammation in the joints and organs. RA patients exhibit 4-fold increased incidence of CVD, increased prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and increased mortality. Aerobic and resistance training (RT) programs have been suggested for the management of RA symptoms and reduction of comorbidities, including insulin resistance. Exercise has been shown by recent evidence to be safe and beneficial in RA patients. RT has been documented to improve inflammation and insulin sensitivity. The present study was undertaken to examine the impact of a sixteen week intensive training regimen on disease status, body composition, markers of inflammation and indicators of insulin resistance in RA patients undergoing infliximab therapy, a potent RA treatment.METHODS30 RA patients were randomized into exercise (EX) or control (C) groups. EX patients underwent a 16-week supervised, intensive, progressive and individualized resistance training regimen. Participants were monitored by professional fitness trainers during all exercise sessions. Subjects were assessed prior to and after intervention. Assessments included disease status, strength and functional testing, anthropometrical and body composition analysis, analysis of markers of inflammation and assessment of insulin sensitivity.RESULTS EX subjects significantly increased in strength and functional ability without worsening of disease state, and increased lean mass from baseline. Fat mass was significantly reduced in EX. Glucose and resistin levels increased significantly following EX intervention. Mean IR was unchanged, but EX subjects with elevated IR did show improvement following training. Regression analysis indicates duration of infliximab therapy to be correlated with improved insulin sensitivity.CONCLUSIONS RA patients taking infliximab tolerated an intensive resistance training program. Participants increased strength and lean mass while decreasing fat mass and displayed improved functional capacity. Disease status was not worsened by the regimen. Though the mean measure of IR did not improve, those patients with the most adverse scores did show improvement following the intervention. Furthermore, regression analysis indicates that infliximab treatment duration was linked to reduced IR. In conclusion, resistance training improved strength and functional ability in RA patients taking infliximab without disease degradation, and may help reduce IR in those patients with elevated resistance.

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