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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Spin Current Detection and Current Induced Magnetic Moment Switching in Magnetic Multilayers

Wen, Yan 28 June 2020 (has links)
In the past two decades, the interest in materials with strong spin-orbit coupling has attracted substantial attention because of the novel physical mechanisms they display and their potential for applications. The interface displaying large spin-orbit coupling has been recognized as a powerful platform to investigate the spin transport in ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and non-magnetic materials, as well as their interfaces. Besides its rich physics, the related applications are also worth studying. The current-induced spin-orbit-torque arising from angular momentum transfer from the lattice to the spin system has substantial potential in recent state-of-art spin-orbit torque magnetic random access memory. In this dissertation, we have been interested in better understanding and characterizing the spin-orbit torque and spin Hall transport in various heterostructures of interest. We used the second harmonic method to determine the magnitude of the spin currents generation and transmission in Cu-Au alloy and Ir-Mn compound, respectively. We also characterized the device performance in selected heterostructures displaying either perpendicular MgO-based tunnel magnetoresistance or unusual surface states. Finally, we used these properties to approach spin-orbit torque magnetic random access memory through designing, fabricating, and characterizing the devices that focused on current-induced spin-orbit-torque magnetization switching.

Magnetoresistance and Fermi Surface of Copper Single Crystals Containing Dislocations

Bian, Qiuping 08 1900 (has links)
<p> The galvanomagnetic properties and shape of the Fermi surface of copper single crystals containing different density of dislocations have been studied experimentally and theoretically through magnetoresistivity measurement and using effective medium theory respectively. </p> <p> In experiments, two crystallographic orientations of copper single crystal samples with tensile axis parallel to < 100 > and < 541 > have been plastically strained to various stress levels to introduce different density Nd of dislocations. The experimental data of angle and field-dependent magnetoresistivity measured at temperature T = 2K and in the magnetic filed up to 9 Tesla show that dislocations influence substantially the galvanomagnetic properties of copper crystal samples in the open, extended and closed orbit crystallographic orientations. The results reveal that the pure samples with resistivity ratio RR equal to or larger than 151 show quadratic dependence of transverse magnetoresistivity as a function of the magnetic field in the open-orbit orientation, which changes to linear variation of magnetoresistivity with magnetic fields in highly deformed samples with RR smaller than 138. A quadratic dependence of transverse magnetoresistivity as a function of the magnetic field is significantly suppressed as the density of dislocations increases. The magnetoresistivity decrease with the increase of the density of dislocations was also observed in the closed-orbit crystallographic orientation. Such effect is independent upon the type of dislocations introduced to the crystal lattice.</p> <p> Measurements of the de Hass-van Alphen effect in plastically deformed copper single crystals have been carried out with torque magnetometer and AC susceptibility options of Quantum Design PPMS-9 system. The oscillation frequencies for the extremal orbits normal to the principal crystallographic directions are obtained through Fourier transform of torque versus inversed field characteristics. By comparing these frequencies with the analogous frequencies obtained for undeformed copper crystals, the changes in the cross-sectional area of the Fermi surface corresponding to the extremal orbits are obtained and the shape of the dislocation-distorted Fermi surface is postulated based on measurements performed.</p> <p> The effective-medium approximation and Green's function method are applied to model the magnetoresistivity data and to gain insight into the fundamental material properties responsible for the observed magnetoresistivity behavior. The effective magnetoresistivity calculated using a self-consistent method shows a good agreement with the experimental results.</p> / Thesis / Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

P-type thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery system: P-type Mg<sub>2</sub>Sn<sub>1-x</sub>Si<sub>x</sub> and Pb<sub>1-x-y</sub>Eu<sub>x</sub>Se:Na<sub>y</sub>

Kim, Sunphil 10 October 2014 (has links)
No description available.

The Study of the Colossal Magnetoresistance Tunneling

Wu, Tsung-Chan 27 July 2002 (has links)
We imitated the sandwich structure of TMR(Tunneling Magnetoresistance) to apply to CMR(Colossal Magnetoresistance) material . We choose one of the Colossal Magnetoresistance material La0.67Sr0.33MnO3(113) to be the Ferromagnetic(FM) layers as top and bottom layer in sandwich structure and use La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 ¡P SrO(214) to be middle layer which have Antiferromagnetic(AFM) property to form FM-AFM-FM structure. The FM and AFM layer can match their lattice in interface joint. What its purpose is to use this structure to enhance SPT (Spin Polarization Tunneling) effect and let spintronics can periodical spin-flip in supper lattice structure of antiferromagnetic. Upon this compose we try to show increase the LFMR (Low Field Magnetoresistance) by use CMR. The experiment result shows maybe the film structure damage occurred in our made TMR tunneling device process (ex. Ion etching process), so we should improvement the process to get the exactly experiment data. Additional, due to the alignment of the moment of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 is unstable, the back and forth hysteresis loop can¡¦t overlap, So that afterwards we can use the more stable material La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 which have more stable moment.

Magnetic anisotropies and exchange bias in ultrathin cobalt layers for the tunnel anisotropic magnetoresistance / Anisotropie magnétique et couplage d'échange dans des couches ultramince de cobalt pour la magnétorésistance tunnel anisotrope

Ferraro, Filippo Jacopo 14 December 2015 (has links)
Dans le cadre de l’étude des phénomènes magnétiques et de la spintronique qui sont présents aux échelles nanoscopiques nous avons étudié différents aspects des structures asymétriques de Pt/Co/AlOx. L’un des objectifs de cette thèse est le contrôle de l’oxydation et des propriétés magnétiques de ces multicouches. Nous avons combiné les mesures de structures (réflexion de Rayon-X), transports (Effet Hall anormal), et magnétiques (VSM-SQUID) afin de déterminer les rôles des effets magnétiques et d’interfaces. Un objectif était d’analyser le rôle de quelques monocouches (MCs) de CoO (qui peut se former lors de la sur oxydation de l’Al) sur les propriétés de la multicouche. Nous avons utilisé une technique de déposition avec un gradient d’épaisseur pour contrôler l’oxydation à l’échelle nanométrique. Nous avons établis que quelques monocouches (MCs) de CoO a un impact sur l’anisotropie de a multicouche. Pour approfondir l’effet de la couche de CoO, nous avons construit des bicouches ultrafines de Co(0.6nm)/CoO(0.6nm). Nous avons effectué des mesures refroidi sur champ sur ce système et trouvé un fort effet de couplage d'échange. Ces résultats indiquent que la couche CoO garde une forte anisotropie même en dans la limite des monocouches et permet de réfuter certains modèles sur l’effet d’échange bias et indique que les couches, couramment négligé, de CoO doivent être prises en considération dans le bilan énergétiques du système. Nous avons construits un appareil de mesure perpendiculaire de la magnétorésistance tunnel anisotrope (TAMR) à partir de la structure Pt/Co/AlOx. La TAMR est un effet de spintronique relativement récent dans lequel la rotation d’aimantation dans une électrode magnétique (combiné avec un couplage spin-orbite) peut entrainer un changement de la probabilité de l’effet tunnel, ce qui se manifeste comme un effet de magnétorésistance. Nous avons démontré qu’un contrôle précis de l’état d’oxydation est essentiel pour l’effet TAMR. La forte anisotropie magnétique induite nous permet d’atteindre des valeurs de TAMR plus grande comparée à celle des structures Pt/Co/AlOx. / In the context of studying magnetic and spintronics phenomena occurring at the nanoscale, we investigated several aspects of Pt/Co/AlOx asymmetric structures. One of the objectives of this thesis was the control of the oxidation and the tailoring of the magnetic properties of these multilayers. We combined structural (X-Ray Reflectivity), transport (Anomalous Hall Effect) and magnetic measurements (VSM-SQUID), to study the interplay of magnetic and interfacial effects. One objective was to analyze the role that few monolayers (MLs) of CoO (which can form when overoxidizing the Al layer), could have on the properties of the stack. We used a wedge deposition techniques to control the oxidation on a subnanometer scale. We established that few MLs of CoO largely affect the total anisotropy of the stack. To further investigate the impact of the CoO, we engineered ultrathin Co(0.6nm)/CoO(0.6nm) bilayers. We performed field cooled measurements on this system and we found a large exchange bias anisotropy. These results indicate that the CoO keeps a large anisotropy even in the ML regime, help to rule out some of the models proposed to explain the exchange bias effect and imply that the usually neglected CoO presence must be considered in the energy balance of the system. We build perpendicular Tunneling Anisotropic MagnetoResistance (TAMR) devices based on the Pt/Co/AlOx structure. The TAMR is a relatively new spintronics effect in which the rotation of the magnetization in a single magnetic electrode (combined with the Spin-Orbit Coupling) can cause a change of the tunnel probability, which manifests as a magnetoresistance effect. We demonstrated that a careful control of the interface oxidation is crucial for the TAMR effect. The large induced magnetic anisotropy allowed us to achieve enhanced TAMR values compared to similar Pt/Co/AlOx structures.

Magneto-transport Study of 3D Topological Insulator Bi2Te3 And GaAs/AlGaAs 2D Electron System

Wang, Zhuo 08 August 2017 (has links)
Magneto-transport study on high mobility electron systems in both 2D- and 3D- case has attracted intense attention in past decades. This thesis focuses on the magnetoresistance behavior in 3D topological insulator Bi2Te3 and GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron system at low magnetic field range 0.4T the first drop at T~3.4K to tndium superconductor and considered the second drop at lower temperature as the proximity effect that occurred near the interface between these two materials. On the other hand, GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, as a III-V semiconductor family, has been extensively studied for exploring many interesting phenomena due to the extremely high electron mobility up to 10^7 cm^2/Vs. In this thesis, two interesting phenomena are present and discussed in a GaAs/AlGaAs system, which are the electron heating induced tunable giant magnetoresistance study and phase inversion in Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation study, respectively. By applying elevated supplementary dc current bias, we found a tunable giant magnetoresistance phenomenon which is progressively changed from positive to giant negative magnetoresistance. The observed giant magnetoresistance is successfully simulated with a two-term Drude model at all different dc biases, I_{dc}, and temperature, T. In addition, as increasing the dc current bias, a phase inversion behavior was observed in Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation, which was further demonstrated by the simulation with an exponential damped cosine function. This thesis also presents an ongoing project, which is the observation and fabrication of 2D layered materials. The studied 2D layered materials includes graphene, biron nitride, Molybdenum disulfide, etc. At the end, a future work about fabrication of the 2D layered materials devices as well as the suggestion about the measurement are discussed.

Magnetoresistance in Permalloy/GaMnAs Circular Microstructures

Guenther, Justin 15 August 2014 (has links)
No description available.

Integrated Micro-Origami Sensorics

Becker, Christian 16 May 2024 (has links)
This work presents the successful development of micro-origami sensorics by 3D self-assembling and reconfiguring in space integrated thin-film magnetic sensors, which rely on anisotropic (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR). Stimuli responsive polymeric materials able to reshape into mesoscale 3D “Swiss-roll” and polygonal architectures accomplish a strain driven parallel spatial realignment of magnetic sensors from the in-plane state. High performance 3D magnetic vector angular encoders demonstrates the successful realization of complex sensor configurations. The proposed concepts rely on parallel wafer scale processes, which allow for a monolithic fabrication of 3D sensor arrays and pave the way towards active sensory matrix circuits. As a proof of this concept, magneto-resistive Wheatstone bridge sensors are developed and integrated in the self-assembling platform at predefined rigid regions and integrated with an active matrix backplane circuit. This circuit, based on a-IGZO TFT technology, is specially designed for the operation with the Wheatstone bridge differential sensors and optimized to be compatible with the micro-origami self-folding technology. Such an active sensory matrix system with integrated 3D self-assembled pixels is called Integrated Micro-Origami Sensors or in short IMOS. IMOS is capable for static and dynamic mapping of magnetic fields enabling spatiotemporal mapping of artificial magnetic hair arrays embedded in an elastic skin layer. The presented results offer a fresh strategy for large area integration of microscale 3D electronic devices with various vector functionalities in active matrix circuits, which are of great interest in novel robotics, bioelectronics and diagnostic systems.

Formation and characterization of pulsed laser ablated magnetoresistive material

Nsengiyumva, Schadrack 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2002. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this investigation the formation of thin film manganites and their electrical characteristics is studied. In order to see the effect of oxidation states on magneto-resistivity, 80% of Mn is replaced by Fe. Pulsed laser deposition (3 J/cm2), carried out in oxygen partial pressures ranging from 0.01 mbar to 1.00 mbar was used to fabricate the thin films from two target compositions, namely La2CaMn2.94Feo.0609 and La2CaMno.6Fe2.409. Films were deposited on Si< 100 >, MgO< 100 >, SrTi03< 100 > and LaAl03< 100 > single crystal substrates. Samples were characterized by RBS, AFM, SEM, and XRD. Electrical measurements were also carried out. One of the main characterization techniques in this investigation is Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). It has been shown that RBS is a very powerful characterization technique when used in conjunction with the RUMP simulation program. The effect of various parameters can be determined beforehand by RUMP simulation of the thin film structures to be investigated. Simulation shows that RBS is an excellent characterization tool for determining film thickness and stoichiometry. The role of oxygen uptake in La2CaMn3_xFexOg was investigated as the oxidation states of elements in manganite materials have a large effect on their magnetoresistive properties. The height of the La signal can be used as a measure of the oxygen content. RBS spectra of films deposited on single crystal silicon substrates at different ambient pressures show that the fit between simulated and measured RBS spectra improves with higher oxygen pressures, thereby indicating better quality manganite material. The RBS spectra also show that the films have good stoichiometry. Atomic force microscopy was used to determine the roughness of the thin films. The annealed film (average roughness 4.5 nm) shows a surface smoother than the non-annealed film (average roughness 5.3 nm). SEM measurements show that in the case of samples having a high Fe content, the crystallite size varies between about 0.04 11m and 0.10 11m, while for samples with high manganese content, the crystallinity varies between 0.03 jJ,m and 0.06jLm. Manganites were analyzed using Bragg-Brentano (28) X-ray diffraction. Measurements show that manganite films cannot be grown epitaxially on Si< 100 > and MgO< 100 > single crystals due to a large lattice mismatch. In the case of SrTi03 and LaAl03 several reflections and sharp peaks from the film can be seen, indicating reasonable epitaxial growth. SEM measurements of the samples however show polycrystallinity. Complete epitaxy has thus not occurred, but many grains have an epitaxial orientation. Resistance versus temperature (the room temperature to about 100 K) in zero magnetic field was measured for a La2CaMno.06Fe2.409 thin film and maximum resistance corresponding to about 108 K was found. At higher temperatures the resistance decreases as temperature increases. The manganite thin film therefore shows semiconductor behaviour. Resistance measurements carried out at different magnetic fields (0 - 1 T) show a small positive magnetoresistance of 0.83 %. Usually the magnetoresistance phenomenon is measured at higher magnetic fields and this could be the reason for our low value as well as the fact that the iron content could be too high. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie ondersoek is die formasie en karakterisering van dunlagie manganiete ondersoek. Om die effek van oksidasie-toestand op magnetoresistiwiteit te bepaal, is 80% van die Mn verplaas deur Fe. Pulseerde laser deposissie(3 J/cm2), is uitgevoer by 'n parsiële suurstof druk tussen 0.10 en 1.00 mbar deur gebruik te maak van La2Ca Mn2.94Feo.o609 en La2CaMno.6Fe2.409 teiken skywe. Dunlagies was gedeponeer op Si<IOO>, MgO<IOO>, SrTi03<100> en LaAl03<100> enkelkristal substrate. Die dunlagies is daarna ge-karakteriseer met behulp van Rutherford terugverstrooing (RBS), atoom krag mikroskopie(AFM), skandeer elektronmikroskopie (SEM) en xstraal diffraksie(XRD). Elektriese metings is ook uitgevoer. Een van die hoof tegnieke wat gebruik is in hierdie ondersoek is Rutherford terugverstrooing (RBS) van 2 Mev alfa-deeltjies. In hierdie navorsing is aangetoon dat RBS saam met spektra simulasie(RUMP), 'n besondere kragtige metode is om die stoichiometrie en dikte van manganiet lagies te bepaal. Die rol van die opname van suurstof in die dunlagies was ondersoek, aangesien die oksidasie toestand van manganiet lagies 'n groot effek het op hulle magnetoresistiwiteit. Die hoogte van die La sein is gebruik as 'n maatstaf van suurstof inhoud. RBS spektra van dunlagies gevorm op enkelkristal silikon substrate by verskillende parsiële suurstof drukke wys dat die passing tussen gemete en gesimuleerde spektra verbeter by hoër suurstof drukke, wat beter kwaliteit manganiet materiaal aandui. Die RBS spektra het ook aangetoon dat die stoichiometrie van die lagies uitstekend is. Atoom krag mikroskopie(AFM) is gebruik om die grofheid van die oppervlaktes van die dunlagies te bepaal. Lagies wat by 750 grade celsius uitgegloei is ( gemiddelde gladheid van 4.5 nm) was gladder as films wat nie na ablasie uitgegloei is nie (gemiddelde gladheid van 5.3 nm). SEM metings toon ook dat dunlagies met 'n hoë Fe inhoud 'n kristalliet deursnit het van 0.04 tot 0.10 mikrometer en die met 'n hoë mangaan inhoud 'n poli-kristalliniteit het van tussen 0.03 en 0.06 mikrometer het. Bragg-Brentano(twee-theta) X-straal diffraksie meting wys dat manganiet films nie epitaksieël op Si<IOO> en MgO<IOO> enkelkristal substrate gevorm kan word nie, weens 'n groot verskil in die kristal-rooster parameters. SEM metings van die monsters wys polikristalliniteit. Algehele epitaksie het dus nie plaasgevind nie, maar verskeie kristalliete het 'n epitaksiële orientasie. Weerstand metings is gemaak by temperature so laag as 100 Kelvin vir La2CaMno.o6Fe2.409dunlagies en 'n maksimum weerstand is by 108 Kelvin gevind. By hoër temperature het die weerstand afgeneem soos die temperatuur toeneem, wat halfgeleier gedrag aandui. Weerstand metings by verskillende magneetvelde (0 tot I Tesla) wys 'n klein magnetoresistiwiteits effek van 0.83%. Gewoonlik word magnetoresistiwiteit gemeet by hoë magneet velde (ongeveer 6 Tesla). Dit, sowel as die hoë Fe samestelling van die monsters kan die rede wees vir die lae magnetoresistiwiteit wat waargeneem word.

Spin-transfer-torque effect in ferromagnets and antiferromagnets

Wei, Zhen 27 May 2010 (has links)
Spintronics in metallic multilayers, composed of ferromagnetic (F) and non-magnetic (N) metals, grew out of two complementary discoveries. The first, Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), refers to a change in multilayer resistance when the relative orientation of magnetic moments in adjacent F-layers is altered by an applied magnetic field. The second, Spin-Transfer-Torque (STT), involves a change in the relative orientation of F-layer moments by an electrical current. This novel physical phenomenon offers unprecedented spatial and temporal control over the magnetic state of a ferromagnet and has tremendous potential in a broad range of technologies, including magnetic memory and recording. Because of its small size (<10nm), point contact is a very efficient probe of electrical transport properties in extremely small sample volumes yet inaccessible with other techniques. We have observed the point-contact excitations in magnetic multilayers at room temperature and extended the capabilities of our point-contact technique to include the sensitivity to wavelengths of the current-induced spin waves. Recently MacDonald and coworkers have predicted that similar to ferromagnetic multilayers, the magnetic state of an antiferromagnetic (AFM) system can affect its transport properties and result in antiferromagnetic analogue of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) = AGMR; while high enough electrical current density can affect the magnetic state of the system via spin-transfer-torque effect. We show that a high density dc current injected from a point contact into an exchange-biased spin valve (EBSV) can systematically change the exchange bias, increasing or decreasing it depending on the current direction. This is the first evidence for current-induced effects on magnetic moments in antiferromagnetic (FeMn or IrMn) metals. We searched for AGMR in multilayers containing different combinations of AFM=FeMn and F=CoFe layers. At low currents, no magnetoresistance (MR) was observed in any samples suggesting that no AGMR is present in these samples. In samples containing F-layers, high current densities sometimes produced a small positive MR – largest resistance at high fields. For a given contact resistance, this MR was usually larger for thicker F-layers, and for a given current, it was usually larger for larger contact resistances (smaller contacts). We tentatively attribute this positive MR to suppression at high currents of spin accumulation induced around and within the F-layers. / text

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