Williams, Stacey L.
07 July 1905
No description available.
The impact of minority stress and conceptual complexity on developing a positive gay and lesbian identityAcebo, Victoria Alicia 01 September 2015 (has links)
Contemporary research on gay men and lesbian women features an increased focus on the manifestations of antigay stigma in their lives. In particular, the development of gay and lesbian identity within a cultural context that may be shifting but remains one that includes intolerance, or at best, indifference (Garnets & Kimmel, 1993). Internalization of anti lesbian and gay prejudice has been termed "the most insidious" form of minority stress (Meyer & Dean, 1998). Most models of lesbian and gay identity suggest that these individuals follow a unique trajectory due to their experiences of prejudice and social oppression (Potoczniak, Aldea, & DeBlaere, 2007). One question not typically addressed by these models, however, is how homosexual individuals vary so markedly in their progression through the phases of sexual minority development and/or the degree to which that identity is a positive one. This study was an attempt to explore the relationship between minority stress, cognitive style, and lesbian or gay identity development. 272 adults identifying as a lesbian woman or gay man participated in this study. A measure, The Lesbian and Gay Salient Experiences Questionnaire (LGSE), in order to examine the management of a sexual minority identity and the interactions or experiences related to identifying as a member of this population. Participants' lesbian or gay identity development and their capacity for cognitive complexity were also measured. Results yielded a significant relationship between three of the five scales of the LGSE and negative lesbian or gay identity but there was no relationship between conceptual complexity and negative identity. Significant sex differences were found on both the measure of negative identity and salient experiences with men reported higher levels on both. The relationship between salient experiences and negative identity were also different between men and women. This finding in particular suggests that men and women may not only have a different trajectory in forming their lesbian or gay identity, but that the experiential factors that influence their identity development may also be different. Therefore, further research is suggested in order to investigate whether gay men and lesbian women should be studied separately.
Heterosexist Harassment and Rejection, Emotional Social Support and Perceived Stress in a Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual SampleFritz, Sarah-Mee Hesse 12 1900 (has links)
The minority stress theory suggests LGBs experience greater stress levels due to their sexual minority identities; thus, they are more prone to psychological distress. Poor mental health is linked to internalized homophobia and heterosexism. However, affirmative social support may mitigate the stress response via the buffering hypothesis. My model posits that LGBs are more likely to report perceived stress; however, affirmative social support can mitigate stress. I investigated the relationship between perceived stress and sexual minority identity. I explored the relationship between heterosexism, emotional support and perceived stress and the moderating role of social support in my LGB sample. I conducted a hierarchical linear regression to test my model, which accounted for 29% of the variance in perceived stress. Heterosexism and emotional support were significantly associated with perceived stress. I failed to find a moderating role of emotional support. Limitations, strengths, future research and implications are discussed.
Williams, Stacey L., Fredrick, Emma G.
26 June 2016
Dramatic shift s in U.S. culture surrounding the acceptance of sexual minorities have occurred within the last five years. Yet, sexual minorities experience minority stress associated with a host of negative life outcomes. We focus on two studies (one conducted in 2011/12 and one in 2015) on university campus climate as a source of minority stress. Gauging social climate like a temperature thermometer (0=cool/rejecting-100=warm/accepting), and by attitudes of straight individuals, results of Study 1 showed a moderate campus climate for LGB identity (M = 65) with no variation by self-identification among 1101 straight and 133 sexual minority participants. Attitudes of straight participants predicted minority stress (concealment, anticipated discrimination, perceived public stigma) of sexual minorities. Study 2 was entitled “Campus PRIDE” (Perceptions Related to Identity and Diversity in the Environment). Results from 697 straight and 206 sexual minorities, showed climate varied depending on identity of focus and by self-identification as sexual minority (all t tests p<.05). Findings are discussed in light of methodological differences, backlash to advances in rights, intersections of sexual identity, gender, and race, and the process of getting “buy-in” from university administrators to conduct a university-wide climate survey.
The Role of Self-Compassion in Understanding Minority Stress, Gender Role Stress, and Depression Among LGBTQ+ IndividualsCouch, Chelsey 01 May 2018 (has links)
People who are marginalized based on their sexual orientation or gender identity face heightened risk of negative health and psychological outcomes compared to more privileged populations (Meyer, 1995; Hughes, Szalacha, & McNair, 2010). Previous researchers have suggested that positive coping strategies may be beneficial in reducing the high risks of negative outcomes, such as depression, associated with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT) minority stress (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999, Kertzner, 2001). Moreover, certain sociocultural factors, such as gender role stress (Eisler, 1995; Eisler & Blalock, 1991; Eisler & Skidmore, 1987; Gillespie & Eisler, 1992), may influence LGBTQ+ individuals’ experience of minority stress in unique ways, but gaps in this area of the literature remain. The purpose of this study will be to examine the relationships between gender role stress, LGBTQ+ minority stress, self-compassion, and depression in a sample of LGBTQ+ adults. I will conduct regression analyses and mediation analyses to test the following main hypotheses: (a) Gender role stress will be significantly associated with LGBTQ+ minority stress, (b) LGBTQ+ minority stress will be associated with higher levels of depression symptoms, and (c) self-compassion will fully mediate the relationship between LGBT minority stress and depression.
Sapareto, Elizabeth Alice
01 January 2018
Transgender people, a minority population, are at increased risk for negative health and mental health consequences. Profound societal discrimination and stigmatization lead to systemic institutional barriers and lack of access to health care services. Research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations shows a strong association between minority stress and mental health; however, there is a gap in research for the transgender population. This study, based on theories of minority stress, positive psychology, the biopsychosocial model, and the transgender model, was conducted to clarify this relationship for the transgender population. Four research questions were proposed. A final sample of N = 29 transgender participants completed an online survey with 3 measures of minority stress (internalized transphobia, stigmatization, and prejudice events) and 5 measures of mental health (depression, suicide, anxiety, and substance abuse [drug and alcohol]). It was predicted that each minority stressor would have an independent effect upon each mental health variable, and when the effects of the stressors were combined, each would maintain an independent effect on mental health, so that their combined effect would be greater than their individual effects. Regression analyses indicated, as expected, participants with higher perceived stigma scores had higher suicidal ideation scores. Contrary to expectations, participants with higher internalized transphobia scores had lower scores on suicidal ideation. No other significant predictive relationships were found. The results of this study advocate for social change initiatives by presenting information on a poorly understood minority group for the purpose of promoting a positive effect for institutions, professionals, and transgender clients in the context of health care settings.
Brooks, Byron D., Job, Sarah A., Clark, Emily A., Todd, Emerson A., Williams, Stacey L.
02 July 2020
Sexual minorities are at risk for poorer mental health outcomes due to unique minority stressors. Anticipated stigma and concealment are documented as predictors of worse outcomes among this population; however, limited research has examined how interactions between minority stressors contribute to health outcomes. This study of sexual minorities (n = 147) recruited through social media examined the moderating role of concealment on the relationship between anticipated stigma and psychiatric symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depressive symptoms). Moderation analyses revealed concealment significantly moderated the relationship between anticipated stigma and anxiety symptoms, but not depressive symptoms. Clinically addressing minority stress may reduce psychiatric symptoms.
Translating Online Positive Psychology Interventions to Sexual and Gender Minorities: A Systematic ReviewJob, Sarah A., Williams, Stacey L. 01 January 2020 (has links)
Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) often face worse health outcomes in comparison with their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. Positive psychology interventions (PPIs) have the potential to improve these outcomes. In this article we review 130 articles containing online positive psychology interventions and evaluate them based on effect size, length of follow-up, and sample characteristics. Based on these findings applied to the psychological mediation framework (Hatzenbuehler, 2009), we recommend the following interventions be tested in SGM samples: self-compassion, optimism, love, forgiveness, humor, and spirituality. Future research that tailors existing positive psychology interventions to the lived experiences of SGM individuals could ameliorate health disparities.
Goldbach, Jeremy Thomas
23 October 2012
Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual youth are at increased risk for the use of substances (Moon, Fornili & O’Briant, 2007; Remafedi, 1987), including cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and ecstasy (Bontempo & D’Augelli, 2002; Corliss, Rosario, Wypij, Wylie, Frazier & Austin, 2010). Currently, no interventions exist designed to meet the needs of LGB adolescents (NREPP, 2011), and little theory exists to explain substance use by LG adolescents. To begin the process of developing tailored interventions, this three-study dissertation sought to: (1) explore the perspectives of LGB youth, and identify their perspectives on unique prevention development, (2) systematically review the empirical literature on culturally based risk factors in LGB youth and to identify most relevant salient themes for testing, and (3) explore the relationship between identified minority related stressors and substance use patterns in a large sample of LGB youth. Findings indicate that LGB adolescents have unique cultural experiences not captured in current prevention programming. Additionally, five constructs from minority stress are described, and their relationship to marijuana use is explained. Future research should focus on the development of better measurement instruments for minority stress in LGB adolescents and the exploration of its impact on behavioral health outcomes. / text
Le rôle médiateur du harcèlement dans l'association entre faire partie des minorités sexuelles et la consommation d'alcoolLévesque, Geneviève January 2017 (has links)
Depuis plus d'une dizaine d'années, les différences de consommation d'alcool et de harcèlement entre les individus appartenant aux minorités sexuelles et ceux appartenant aux hétérosexuels sont examinées de plus près (Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West et Boyd, 2010; Katz-Wise et Hyde, 2012; Marshal, Friedman, Stall et Thompson, 2009 ; Mays et Cochran, 2001; McCabe, Hughes, Bostwick, West et Boyd, 2009). Certaines observations supposent que ceux faisant partie des minorités sexuelles consomment plus d’alcool et sont plus harcelées que ceux faisant partie des hétérosexuels (Kerr, Ding et Chaya, 2014; Katz-Wise et Hyde, 2012; Ueno, 2010; Woodford, Krentzman et Gattis, 2012). La minority stress theory peut permettre d'expliquer ces différences (Meyer, 2003). En effet, le fait de vivre dans une société qui normalise les comportements sexuels ainsi que l’hétérosexualité, est un facteur de risque pour les comportements à risque chez les individus faisant partie des minorités sexuelles (Meyer, 2003). Comprendre le rôle médiateur du harcèlement dans l’association entre faire partie des minorités sexuelles et la consommation d’alcool est motivé par l’effet potentiellement médiateur du harcèlement sur les individus faisant partie des minorités sexuelles et sur l’augmentation de la consommation d’alcool (Meyer, 2003; Woodford, Krentzman et Gattis, 2012). Méthodologie L’étude a été conduite auprès de 8 737 participants, selon une méthode d’échantillonnage stratifiée. Il s'agit d'une enquête téléphonique concernant les comportements reliés à la santé. Les participants étaient questionnés sur leur consommation d’alcool, sur leur identité sexuelle, sur leurs comportements sexuels et sur le harcèlement vécu. Des corrélations bivariées et des régressions logistiques binaires ont été réalisées pour répondre aux objectifs de l’étude et pour examiner s’il y a une médiation entre les variables. Résultats Les analyses démontrent que certaines identités sexuelles et certains comportements sexuels sont significativement différents de ceux appartenant aux hétérosexuels ou de ceux ayant des comportements sexuels avec l’autre sexe seulement, pour la consommation d’alcool et pour le harcèlement. Par contre, avoir vécu du harcèlement n’est pas significativement associé à la consommation d’alcool, lorsque contrôler avec l’identité sexuelle ou les comportements sexuels. Cette association est restée non-significative donc, une médiation ne peut être établie. Discussion Généralement, quelques différences et quelques associations peuvent être observées entre les individus appartenant aux minorités sexuelles ou aux hétérosexuels pour la consommation d’alcool et le harcèlement, mais ces différences varient selon l’identité sexuelle, les comportements sexuels et le genre. Le harcèlement, par contre, n’est pas associé avec la probabilité de consommer de l’alcool et, donc, ne peut pas avoir le rôle de médiateur.
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