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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The mitral valve : an experimental study with reference to problems in the design and testing of a mobile prosthesis for the surgical correction of mitral insufficiency.

McKenzie, Malcolm Bett 15 May 2017 (has links)
No description available.
2

A study of thrombo-embolic complications following total mitral valve replacement with the University of Cape Town lenticular mitral prosthesis

Barnard, Marius Stephanus 02 May 2017 (has links)
No description available.
3

Advantage of a More Central Incision onto Left Atrium by Using Ultrasonic Scalpel

SONG, MIN-HO 02 1900 (has links)
No description available.
4

Comparison of effectiveness the radiofrequency modified maze procedure and mitral valve surgery using transseptal or septal-superior approaches the for the treatment of atrial fibrillation / Modifikuotos radiodažninės labirinto procedūros ir mitralinio vožtuvo ydos korekcijos, atliekamos per tarpprieširdinės pertvaros ir viršutinį pertvaros pjūvius efektyvumo palyginimas gydant prieširdžių virpėjimą

Jurkuvėnas, Paulius 04 February 2010 (has links)
The purpose of this scientific work was to evaluate safety and efficacy of treatment of atrial fibrillation using monopolar radiofrequency ablation electrodes in patients who undergo mitral valve surgical correction using incisions of atrial septum (trans-septal and superior septal approaches). More than 80% of the patients are free of atrial fibrillation one year after the operation and 76% of these patients do not use anti-arrhythmic drugs. During the final visit of follow-up it was recorded that 71.5% of the patients remained free of atrial fibrillation and flutter. The maze procedure increases duration of cardiopulmonary by-pas for 16 ± 3 min, only. The baseline and surgical correction data in groups of patients of trans-septal and superior septal approaches did not differ. The method of mitral valve correction (implantation of mitral valve prosthesis or plasty of the valve) had no statistically significant influence on the results of atrial fibrillation treatment. The factors influencing the efficacy of the treatment include higher class of heart failure and larger longitudinal measurement of the left atrium found on echoscopy using M-mode. Combined therapy of secondary atrial tachycardia and atypical atrial flutter (by means of anti-arrhythmic drugs, trans-oesophageal stimulation and per-catheter ablation) enables to improve the results of maze procedure. The superior septal approach should be used in complicated operations as using this incision it is more convenient... [to full text] / Šio mokslinio darbo tikslas buvo įvertinti efektyvumą bei saugumą gydant prieširdžių virpėjimą, naudojant elektrofiziologinius RD abliacijos unipolinius elektrodinius kateterius pacientams, kuriems mitralinio vožtuvo ydą koreguojančios operacijos atliekamos per prieširdžių pertvaros(tarprieširdinės ir viršutinio pertvaros) pjūvius. Atlikus šią operaciją – po 1 metų >80% pacientų neturi prieširdžių virpėjimo/plazdėjimo, iš jų 76% nevartoja antiaritminių vaistų. Galutinio sekimo metu fiksuota, kad išliko 71,5% pacientų be prieširdžių virpėjimo ir plazdėjimo. Labirinto procedūra prailgina tik 16 ± 3 min dirbtinės kraujotakos laiką. Išeities ir operacinių parametrų atžvilgiu tarprieširdinės ir viršutinio pertvaros pjūvių grupės nesiskyrė. Mitralinio vožtuvo ydos korekcijos pobūdis – protezavimas ar plastika - statistiškai patikimai neturėjo PV gydymo rezultams. Gydymo efektyvumui įtakos turi: didesnė širdies nepakankamumo funkcinė klasė ir kairiojo prieširdžio išilginis dydis nustatytas echoskopiškai M - režimu. Pooperacinių antrinių prieširdinių tachikardijų ir atipinių prieširdžių plazdėjimo kombinuota (taikant antiaritminius vaistus, perstemplinę stimuliaciją ir perkateterinę radiodažnuminę abliacija) terapija leidžia pagerinti labirinto procedūros rezultatus. Viršutinis pertvaros pjūvis naudotinas sudėtingose operacijose, taip galima lengviau apžiūrėti mitralinį vožtuvą ir koreguoti mitralinę ydą.
5

Früh- und Langzeitergebnisse der linksatrialen Vorhofflimmerablation mittels endokardialer Kryoablation begleitend zur minimal-invasiven Mitralklappenoperation

Simon, Anne 23 July 2015 (has links) (PDF)
In der hier vorliegenden Arbeit sollen die Ergebnisse einer endokardialen Kryoablation in Kombination mit einer minimal-invasiven Mitralklappenoperation bezogen auf unterschiedliche Vorhofflimmerformen ausgewertet werden. Hierzu wurden prospektiv gesammelte Daten von 732 Patienten analysiert, die zwischen 2002 und 2009 eine minimal-invasive Mitralklappenoperation mit zusätzlicher Kryoablation zur Behandlung von Vorhofflimmern (VHF) am Herzzentrum Leipzig erhielten. Insgesamt 84% der Patienten erhielten vor der Krankenhausentlassung ein 24-Stunden-Langzeit-EKG. Während jährlicher Telefongespräche wurden die Folgemedikation sowie die klinischen Symptome der Patienten abgefragt und einmalig die Lebensqualität mittels des SF-12 Fragebogens und des AFSS-Fragebogens evaluiert. Zur Beurteilung des Herzrhythmus wurde das letzte vorliegende EKG oder sofern vorhanden, ein 24h-LZ-EKG vom Hausarzt oder zuweisenden Kardiologen ausgewertet. Die Gesamtmortalität im Krankenhaus lag bei 1,5% ohne einen Unterschied zwischen Patienten mit paroxysmalem und lang-persistierendem VHF. Bedeutende Risikofaktoren für Hospitalsterblichkeit waren ein fortgeschrittenes Alter, eine präoperative Ejektionsfraktion von weniger als 50%, ein höherer CHADS2-Score sowie Angina-pectoris-Beschwerden. Das Gesamtüberleben tendierte nach einem, drei sowie fünf Jahren bei Patienten mit lang-persistierendem VHF zu schlechteren Ergebnissen (93,8%/91,4/86,1%) verglichen mit Patienten, welche ein paroxysmales VHF hatten (96,6%/93,6%/90,7%). Nach 12 Monaten waren 90,8±1,1% der gesamten Patientenkohorte frei von einem erneuten VHF, nach drei Jahren 72,5% und nach fünf Jahren 48,9%. Auch hier zeigten die Patienten mit einem lang-persistierenden VHF nach 5 Jahren schlechtere Ergebnisse (60,2% vs. 43%). In der hier präsentierten Studie konnten als bedeutende Risikofaktoren für ein Wiederauftreten von VHF im Langzeitverlauf ein präoperativ erhöhter Kreatininwert und grenzwertig signifikant ein VHF im Langzeit-EKG vor Krankenhausentlassung dargestellt werden. Die Rate an kardialen und zerebralen Komplikationen (MACCE) in der Langzeitbeobachtung war mit 26,3% in beiden Patientengruppen ähnlich und auch vergleichbar mit den Ergebnissen anderer Zentren bzw. Studien. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass Patienten mit einem stabilen SR in der Nachbeobachtung eine wesentlich niedrigere MACCE-Rate aufwiesen (38,0% vs. 20,9%). Die Schlaganfallrate insgesamt lag sehr niedrig (1,9%), wobei auch hier die Patienten mit einem stabilen SR deutlich besser abschnitten (3,9% vs. 1,0%). Die Lebensqualität und die subjektiven Beschwerden durch das VHF waren bei beiden Patientengruppen (paroxysmal vs. lang persistierend) vergleichbar. Auch hier zeigte sich, dass Patienten mit erfolgreicher Wiederherstellung des SR einen deutlichen Gewinn an Lebensqualität aufwiesen. Insgesamt waren die Morbidität und Mortalität nach einem minimal-invasiven Mitralklappeneingriff niedrig. Diese Studie unterstützt die Hypothese, dass die Kryoablation eine sichere und effektive Methode ist, VHF bei Patienten während einer Mitralklappenoperation simultan zu abladieren. Da die Mitralklappenchirurgie allein mit nur einer geringen Rate an Konversionen in den SR verbunden ist und die endokardiale Kryoablation ein sicheres Verfahren darstellt, sollte diese Option bei jedem VHF-Patienten, der sich einer Mitralklappenoperation unterzieht, erwogen werden.
6

Time-course changes in the echocardiographic parameters and NT-proBNP levels in patients with severe mitral regurgitation undergoing valve replacement.

Prakaschandra, D. R. January 2007 (has links)
Conventional echocardiographic parameters are currently used in determining the timing for surgery in patients with mitral regurgitation. Since brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) rises in response to ventricular muscle stretch, and is to detect early heart failure, we hypothesized that BNP would be activated in patients with regurgitant valvular heart disease and concomitant left ventricular dilatation. Aim/Objectives: We therefore studied the pattern of changes in NT-pro BNP in patients with chronic severe rheumatic mitral regurgitation who were undergoing mitral valve replacement and compared this with the newer modality of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Setting: Patients submitted to surgery were prospectively evaluated over 8 months at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Department of Cardiology. Controls were obtained from the outpatients' follow-up clinic. Methods: Simultaneous quantification of the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR), left ventricular (LV) end systolic volume (ESV), left atrial (LA) volume and Doppler filling ratios (mitral (E)/annulus (Ea)) were performed at baseline in all patients and was repeated at 1-week and at the six-week follow-up visit in surgical patients. Results: Both groups were similar for age and gender and echo-Doppler parameters in all patients preoperatively except LA size (p< 0.01) and volume (p<0.004) which were more elevated in the surgical group. Mean NT-pro BNP levels were markedly elevated preoperatively (262 pmolll) in all surgical cases compared to controls (57 pmol/l; p=0.0001). NT-pro BNP levels increased further at one week post surgery (395 pmol/l) and subsided at the six week follow-up visit (94 pmol/I). These changes were accompanied by significant reduction in LA (p= 0.003) and LV chamber dimensions (EDD = 0.004) with an increase in the ejection fraction from 42% at one week to 52 % at six weeks. Four patients had abnormally elevated NT-pro BNP levels (>53pmol/l) at the 6-week follow-up visit. A ROC curve was constructed for all variables to separate surgical cases from controls. The area under the curve was highest for NT-pro BNP (sensitivity= 96%, specificity 45 %). Conclusion: 1. There was a significant difference in the left atrial chamber size and volume, as well as Em/Ea (TDI) and NT-proBNP levels preoperatively between the two groups. The lack of a significant difference in the LV parameters between surgical and control groups suggest an almost total reliance on symptoms in deciding the timing of surgery which was reflected by markedly elevated NT-pro BNP in all surgical patients. 2. Postoperatively, there was a significant reduction in LA and LV dimensions. 3. The high false positivity rate for NT-pro BNP suggests that the test is most likely reflecting early LV decompensation in the less symptomatic control patients who rightly need surgery. 4. Tissue Doppler indices had similar sensitivity but low specificity compared to NT-proBNP. 5. Serial estimations of NT-pro BNP may prove useful in selecting patients for surgery. / Thesis (M.Med.Sc.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, 2007.
7

Früh- und Langzeitergebnisse der linksatrialen Vorhofflimmerablation mittels endokardialer Kryoablation begleitend zur minimal-invasiven Mitralklappenoperation

Simon, Anne 30 June 2015 (has links)
In der hier vorliegenden Arbeit sollen die Ergebnisse einer endokardialen Kryoablation in Kombination mit einer minimal-invasiven Mitralklappenoperation bezogen auf unterschiedliche Vorhofflimmerformen ausgewertet werden. Hierzu wurden prospektiv gesammelte Daten von 732 Patienten analysiert, die zwischen 2002 und 2009 eine minimal-invasive Mitralklappenoperation mit zusätzlicher Kryoablation zur Behandlung von Vorhofflimmern (VHF) am Herzzentrum Leipzig erhielten. Insgesamt 84% der Patienten erhielten vor der Krankenhausentlassung ein 24-Stunden-Langzeit-EKG. Während jährlicher Telefongespräche wurden die Folgemedikation sowie die klinischen Symptome der Patienten abgefragt und einmalig die Lebensqualität mittels des SF-12 Fragebogens und des AFSS-Fragebogens evaluiert. Zur Beurteilung des Herzrhythmus wurde das letzte vorliegende EKG oder sofern vorhanden, ein 24h-LZ-EKG vom Hausarzt oder zuweisenden Kardiologen ausgewertet. Die Gesamtmortalität im Krankenhaus lag bei 1,5% ohne einen Unterschied zwischen Patienten mit paroxysmalem und lang-persistierendem VHF. Bedeutende Risikofaktoren für Hospitalsterblichkeit waren ein fortgeschrittenes Alter, eine präoperative Ejektionsfraktion von weniger als 50%, ein höherer CHADS2-Score sowie Angina-pectoris-Beschwerden. Das Gesamtüberleben tendierte nach einem, drei sowie fünf Jahren bei Patienten mit lang-persistierendem VHF zu schlechteren Ergebnissen (93,8%/91,4/86,1%) verglichen mit Patienten, welche ein paroxysmales VHF hatten (96,6%/93,6%/90,7%). Nach 12 Monaten waren 90,8±1,1% der gesamten Patientenkohorte frei von einem erneuten VHF, nach drei Jahren 72,5% und nach fünf Jahren 48,9%. Auch hier zeigten die Patienten mit einem lang-persistierenden VHF nach 5 Jahren schlechtere Ergebnisse (60,2% vs. 43%). In der hier präsentierten Studie konnten als bedeutende Risikofaktoren für ein Wiederauftreten von VHF im Langzeitverlauf ein präoperativ erhöhter Kreatininwert und grenzwertig signifikant ein VHF im Langzeit-EKG vor Krankenhausentlassung dargestellt werden. Die Rate an kardialen und zerebralen Komplikationen (MACCE) in der Langzeitbeobachtung war mit 26,3% in beiden Patientengruppen ähnlich und auch vergleichbar mit den Ergebnissen anderer Zentren bzw. Studien. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass Patienten mit einem stabilen SR in der Nachbeobachtung eine wesentlich niedrigere MACCE-Rate aufwiesen (38,0% vs. 20,9%). Die Schlaganfallrate insgesamt lag sehr niedrig (1,9%), wobei auch hier die Patienten mit einem stabilen SR deutlich besser abschnitten (3,9% vs. 1,0%). Die Lebensqualität und die subjektiven Beschwerden durch das VHF waren bei beiden Patientengruppen (paroxysmal vs. lang persistierend) vergleichbar. Auch hier zeigte sich, dass Patienten mit erfolgreicher Wiederherstellung des SR einen deutlichen Gewinn an Lebensqualität aufwiesen. Insgesamt waren die Morbidität und Mortalität nach einem minimal-invasiven Mitralklappeneingriff niedrig. Diese Studie unterstützt die Hypothese, dass die Kryoablation eine sichere und effektive Methode ist, VHF bei Patienten während einer Mitralklappenoperation simultan zu abladieren. Da die Mitralklappenchirurgie allein mit nur einer geringen Rate an Konversionen in den SR verbunden ist und die endokardiale Kryoablation ein sicheres Verfahren darstellt, sollte diese Option bei jedem VHF-Patienten, der sich einer Mitralklappenoperation unterzieht, erwogen werden.
8

Closed mitral valvotomy in pregnancy

Vosloo, S M 31 March 2017 (has links)
Heart disease remains the most important non-obstetric cause of maternal mortality and morbidity during pregnancy, despite its low incidence of less than 1%. This is due to the decline in the number of deaths from haemorrhage, infection and toxemia. In addition, a striking change in the pattern of proportional distribution of organic heart disease in pregnant women is being noted, with a decrease in chronic rheumatic lesions and an increase in congenital cardiac disease. In the Third World rheumatic mitral valve disease remains a most important condition during pregnancy. It is currently rarely seen in Europe and the United States. Mitral stenosis is the most commonly encountered rheumatic heart lesion that complicates pregnancy. The normal circulatory changes during pregnancy aggravate this lesion as the reduced, fixed valve area obstructs blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle, causing pulmonary congestion and oedema. Careful and regular follow up of these patients is essential, and surgery is indicated if optimal medical management fails. Cardiac surgery duting pregnancy represents a risk to both the foetus and the mother. For most procedures extracorporeal circulation and heparinization are necessary and adds to the · adverse effects of the operation. Closed mitral valvotomy, however, is an excellent low risk operative procedure in patients with tight mitral stenosis without causing undue harm to the foetus. Cuttler described the first attempted surgery of the mitral valve in 1923 and since then the procedure has been improved to benefit many patients with tight mitral stenosis. The first reports of closed mitral valvotomy during pregnancy were in 1952. Al though a more precise valvotomy can be obtained with an open procedure, the closed operation avoids the risks of extracorporeal circulation, particularly detrimental to the foetus. This report is a review of the Groote Schuur Hospital experience of patients with mitral stenosis requiring closed mitral valvotomy during pregnancy since 1965. The aims of the study are to analyse the outcome of the pregnancy, the effects of valvotomy during pregnancy on both the mother and the foetus, and the outcome regarding restenosis of the mitral valve.
9

Mechanics of the mitral valve after surgical repair-an in vitro study

Padala, Sai Muralidhar 06 April 2010 (has links)
Mitral valve disease is widely prevalent among pediatric and adult population across the world, and it encompasses a spectrum of lesions which include congenital valve defects, degenerative valve lesions, and valve dysfunction due to secondary pathologies. Though replacement of the diseased mitral valves with artificial heart valves has been the standard of care until early 1990's, current trends have veered towards complete surgical repair. These trends are encouraging, but current repair techniques are plagued with lack of durability and high rates of failure within 10 years after repair. With increasing number of patients receiving mitral valve repair, there is now an immediate need to understand the mechanisms of repair failure, and assess the role of several clinical risk factors on valve repair. In this thesis, an in vitro pulsatile left heart simulator was developed to mimic the congenital and adult mitral valve pathological morphologies in normal porcine valves, and simulate the pathological valve hemodynamics and mechanics. Different surgical repair techniques were used to correct the valve lesions, and the post repair valve hemodynamics, mechanics and geometry were assessed using quantitative measurement techniques. The extent to which each repair restores physiological valve function and mechanics was assessed, and the impact of different pathological risk factors on repair failure mechanisms was investigated. It is expected that the knowledge from this thesis would play an important role in the evolution of mitral valve surgical repair, and guide the development of more effective and long-lasting heart valve repair technologies.
10

Prótese valvar mitral : 20 anos de seguimento de uma amostra de pacientes operados no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

Ribeiro, Angela Henrique Silva January 2013 (has links)
Este estudo avalia mortalidade, reoperação e eventos hemorrágicos em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar mitral utilizando substituto biológico ou mecânico. O delineamento do estudo foi do tipo coorte histórica. Entre todos os registros, foram selecionados 352 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar mitral entre 1990 e 2008, que tiveram seguimento mínimo de 5 e máximo de 23 anos. Para avaliar o tempo de sobrevida, a probabilidade de reoperação e de eventos hemorrágicos, foi utilizada a curva de Kaplan-Meier. Foi aplicado, para comparar as curvas entre os grupos, o teste qui-quadrado de Log-rank. A análise multivariada de Regressão de Cox foi utilizada para identificar preditores independentes de mortalidade, reoperação e eventos hemorrágicos. A sobrevivência em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 87,7%, 74,2%, 69,3% e 69,3% e, para substituto biológico, foi de 87,6%, 71,0%, 64,2%, e 56,6%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre a mortalidade entre os dois grupos (p=0,38). Na análise multivariada, os fatores associados com o óbito foram: idade, eventos hemorrágicos e insuficiência renal. A probabilidade de permanecer livre de reoperação em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 94,4%, 92,7%, 92,7% e 92,7% e, para bioprótese, foi de 95,9%, 86,4%, 81,2% e 76,5%, respectivamente (p=0.073), com uma incidência significativamente maior de reoperação para bioprótese (p=0,008). Os fatores associados com reoperação foram: sexo masculino, diâmetro da prótese e endocardite. A probabilidade de permanecer livre de eventos hemorrágicos em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 95,0%, 91,0%, 89,6% e 89,6% e, para bioprótese, foi de 96,9%, 94,0%, 94,0% e 94,0%, respectivamente (p=0,267). Os fatores associados com eventos hemorrágicos foram: IMC (índice de massa corporal) superior à 30 kg/m2, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tempo de ventilação mecânica na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo superior a 30 dias e presença insuficiência mitral. Os autores concluíram que: 1) a mortalidade foi estatisticamente semelhante entre os dois grupos no seguimento; 2) houve tendência maior à reoperação no grupo com bioprótese; 3) após 10 anos de seguimento, a probabilidade de permanecer livre de reoperação não mudou para pacientes com substitutos valvares mecânicos; 4) a probabilidade de permanecer livre de eventos hemorrágicos não mudou após 10 anos de seguimento para portadores de biopróteses; 5) as características basais dos pacientes foram os maiores determinantes de mortalidade tardia após a cirurgia; 6) o tipo de prótese não foi fator preditor independente associado a nenhum dos desfechos avaliados na análise multivariada. / This study assessed mortality, reoperation and bleeding events in patients who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery with a biological or mechanical substitute. This was a historical cohort study. In total, 352 inpatients clinical health records who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery between 1990 and 2008 with 5 to 23 years of follow-up were selected. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to evaluate the survival time, the probability of reoperation and bleeding events. A log-rank chi-square test was applied to compare the curves between groups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of mortality, reoperation and bleeding events. The 5, 10, 15 and 20 year survival rates after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 87.7%, 74.2%, 69.3% and 69.3%, respectively, while the survival rates after surgery with a biological substitute were 87.6%, 71.0%, 64.2% and 56.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups (p = 0.38). In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with death were age, bleeding events and renal failure. The probabilities of being free of reoperation at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 94.4%, 92.7%, 92.7% and 92.7%, respectively, while after surgery with a bioprosthesis, they were 95.9%, 86.4%, 81.2% and 76.5%, respectively (p = 0.073); therefore, there was a significantly higher incidence of reoperation for patients receiving a bioprosthesis (p = 0.008). The factors associated with reoperation were male gender, diameter of the prosthesis and endocarditis. The probabilities of remaining free of bleeding events at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 95.0%, 91.0%, 89.6% and 89.6, respectively, while after surgery with a bioprosthesis, they were 96.9%, 94.0%, 94.0% and 94.0%, respectively (p = 0.267). The factors associated with bleeding events were BMI (body mass index) greater than 30 kg/m2, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mechanical ventilation at an Intensive Care Unit for longer than 30 days and mitral regurgitation. The authors concluded that: 1) mortality during follow-up was statistically similar in both groups; 2) there was a greater tendency to reoperation in the bioprosthesis group; 3) the probability of survival free from reoperation did not change for patients with mechanical valves after 10 years’ follow-up; 4) the probability of survival free from bleeding events did not change after 10 years’ follow-up for bioprostheses patients; 5) patients’ baseline characteristics were the greatest determinants of late mortality after mitral valve replacement surgery; 6) the type of prosthesis fitted was not an independent predictive factor of any of the outcomes analyzed in the multivariate analysis.

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