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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Social learning and behaviour transmission in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

Dindo, Marietta January 2009 (has links)
The research aims of this thesis are to experimentally investigate how behaviours spread socially, and what factors contribute to the development of group-wide social traditions in capuchins (Cebus apella). Given the apparent convergent evolution between such monkeys and great apes, capuchin traditions are of great interest anthropologically and for a biological and psychological understanding of culture. Several studies have investigated social learning in capuchins, but few have made headway into understanding how it supports the development of traditions either in the wild or in captivity. By experimentally introducing novel foraging behaviours into several captive groups, the studies included in this thesis simulate the development of foraging behaviours so that their spread can be studied from various viewpoints. Five experiments are presented investigating: (1) the chained transmission of foraging behaviours, (2) the role of social facilitation on the rate of individual learning, (3) the fidelity of learning from localised stimulus enhancement & object-movement re-enactment, (4) the quality of individual relationships in the social transmission of novel foraging techniques, and (5) the open diffusion of group-specific foraging behaviours in capuchin monkeys. Together, these experiments explore how traditions may develop, ranging from individual learning to how behaviour patterns may spread socially based on social ties within the group.
42

Social learning in community based natural resource management project (CBNRM) : a case study of Chipembere gardening project in Zimbabwe.

Mukwambo, Robson January 2014 (has links)
This investigation of social learning processes in the Chipembere gardening project was conducted in Rockvale village one in Sebakwe communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. In essence, the study sought to explore how the Chipembere gardening project as a community-based natural resource management initiative (CBNRM), was reflecting and supporting social learning processes of change. It also sought to enrich and deepen an organizational understanding of social learning and to generate ideas and draw recommendations that could be used to strengthen learning in other CBNRM projects. The research was undertaken as a qualitative case study with data generated through semi-structured interviews with individuals and groups. It also included an analysis of project documents and an extended period of participant observation on site and in the gardening activities. Data were indexed and coded for generating analytical memos that were used to extract and represent the scope of social learning interations within the developing project. The study found that within the Chipembere gardening project a wide range of learning interactions were significant in shaping the developing project. Furthermore, these interactions were earmarked as the major drivers of social learning processes within the project. The study concluded that the social learning interactions amongst the gardeners in the Chipembere community garden were instrumental in fostering change that enhanced community livelinhoods and wellbeing.
43

Experimental studies of human social learning and its evolution

Morgan, Thomas J. H. January 2014 (has links)
Human culture is unique in its scope and complexity and is underpinned by the social transmission of information. Successful individuals will use both social and asocial information effectively. Evolutionary theory suggests that social learning should be guided by evolved learning rules that dictate when individuals rely on social information, a literature which I review across Chapters 1 and 2, with the emphasis of chapter 2 being on conformist transmission. In this thesis I present experimental investigations of the existence and adaptive value of several such strategies in both adults (Chapter 3) and young children (Chapter 4). In all cases I find strong evidence for the existence of such biases and show that they act to increase the accuracy of decisions. In particular I show individuals are highly sensitive to even small majorities within a group of demonstrators. The youngest children (age 3) however, show little sensitivity to social information and do not use it effectively. In Chapter 5 I present an investigation into the role of social learning in the evolution of hominin lithic technology. I conclude that even the earliest hominin flaking technology is poorly transmitted through observation alone and so the widespread and longstanding persistence of such tools implies some form of teaching. Furthermore, I conclude that the stable transmission of more complex technologies would likely require teaching, and potentially symbolic communication. I also postulate a co-evolution of stone tools and complex communication and teaching. In Chapter 6 I conclude that the cultural evolutionary approach, focussing on the evolutionary consequences of social information use and treating culture as a system of inheritance partially independent of genes, seems successful in increasing our understanding of the evolution of social learning.
44

The Impact of Social Learning and Social Norms on Auditor Choice

Li, Xudong 08 1900 (has links)
The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the influences of industry dynamic factors (e.g., peer selections) on a client’s subsequent decision to select the type of auditor (e.g., Big N versus non-Big N), following auditor turnover. More specifically, drawing on social norms and social learning theories, I develop testable implications and investigate whether and how industry dynamics have an incremental power in explaining auditor choice beyond traditional firm-specific variables documented in prior research. Using a large sample from years 1988 – 2012, I find that clients are more likely to imitate their industry peers’ prior selections to select the type of their succeeding auditors, consistent with the implications of social learning theory. I also find that clients in industries with stronger industry norms, as measured by a greater proportion of clients audited by Big N auditors in an industry, are more likely to select Big N auditors as their succeeding auditors, consistent with the implications of social norms theory. To my best knowledge, this is the first study to explore the impact of social dynamics measured at the industry level on auditor selection and provide large-sample evidence on the relations between industry dynamics and auditor selection at the firm level. Findings of this study provide insights into the dynamic process of auditor selection in which companies do not make auditor-selection decisions in isolation of one another as often posited in existing literature, contribute to the research on the determinants of auditor choice by incorporating industry dynamics into an agent-principal model, and provide a more comprehensive view of the phenomenon of auditor selection.
45

Can Akers’ Social Structure and Social Learning Theory Explain Delinquent Behaviors Among Turkish Adolescents?

Solakoglu, Ozgur 08 1900 (has links)
The aim of this study was to examine to what extent Social Structure and Social Learning Theory (SSSL) explains delinquent behaviors among Turkish adolescents. While Social Structure and Social Learning (SSSL) Theory have been examined quite frequently in the criminology and sociology literature, the present study is unique as it tests the theory in Turkey, a context with a mixed Islamic and Secular cultural structure. The data originates from a survey conducted in Istanbul in 2008 by the Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis (ICSRA) under the auspices of their Youth in Europe project. The sample includes 2,445 Turkish high school students. The dependent variable includes a 13-item delinquency scale, and the independent variables consist of differential association, costs and rewards of differential reinforcement, definitions, imitation, differential location in the social structure, and differential social location of groups. The statistical analyses were conducted using a negative binomial regression approach. Results demonstrated that differential association (peer delinquency) is positively associated with delinquent behaviors among Turkish adolescents. In addition, there is a significant and positive relationship between norms/beliefs that favor delinquency and delinquent behaviors. Moreover, parental reaction, a measure of differential reinforcement, has a negative impact on delinquency. Imitation variables, which include witnessing an argument and witnessing violence in the family, also appear as significant predictors for delinquency. Gender is the only social structure variable significantly related to delinquent behaviors. Furthermore, results indicated that social learning variables mediated the relationship between social structure and delinquent behaviors. Policy implications and suggestions for further studies are also provided at the end of the dissertation.
46

Evidence-Based Knowledge Versus Negotiated Indicators for Assessment of Ecological Sustainability : The Swedish Forest Stewardship Council Standard as a Case Study

Angelstam, Per, Roberge, Jean-Michel, Axelsson, Robert, Elbakidze, Marine, Bergman, Karl-Olof, Dahlberg, Anders, Degerman, Erik, Eggers, Sönke, Essen, Per-Anders, Hjältén, Joakim, Johansson, Therese, Müller, Jörg, Paltto, Heidi, Snäll, Tord, Solovity, Ihor, Törnblom, Johan January 2013 (has links)
Assessing ecological sustainability involves monitoring of indicators and comparison of their states with performance targets that are deemed sustainable. First, a normative model was developed centered on evidence-based knowledge about (a) forest composition, structure, and function at multiple scales, and (b) performance targets derived by quantifying the habitat amount in naturally dynamic forests, and as required for presence of populations of specialized focal species. Second, we compared the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification standards’ ecological indicators from 1998 and 2010 in Sweden to the normative model using a Specific, Measurable, Accurate, Realistic, and Timebound (SMART) indicator approach. Indicator variables and targets for riparian and aquatic ecosystems were clearly under-represented compared to terrestrial ones. FSC’s ecological indicators expanded over time from composition and structure towards function, and from finer to coarser spatial scales. However, SMART indicators were few. Moreover, they poorly reflected quantitative evidence-based knowledge, a consequence of the fact that forest certification mirrors the outcome of a complex social negotiation process.
47

A systematic review of technology to support adult learning in communities of practice /

Heo, Gyeong Mi, 1971- January 2002 (has links)
This thesis presents a systematic review regarding the way technology supports adult learning in communities of practice. It presents the systematic review procedure that was developed, based on NBS CRD (2001) protocol, from publication sources relevant to the topic. It includes the identification of research from an initial question that is: how does technology support adult learning in communities of practice. In addition, it presents a search strategy, a study quality assessment, a data extraction strategy and a synthesis of findings. Because most of the pertinent research is qualitative, a typology of qualitative research and a critical appraisal checklist for quality assessment were designed and are presented. The results presented have synthesized evidence from studies that meet certain quality criteria and they are discussed in terms of (a) the kinds of technologies applied in communities of practice, and (b) successful features of the technology that seem to contribute to learning.
48

"We'd go crazy without each other!" : En studie om kollegialt lärande på arbetsplatsen

Eriksson, Johanna, Isaksson, Carl January 2015 (has links)
This study means to research the importance and significance of the social and informal learning opportunities offered at a workplace. With Wenger’s theory about social learning and communities of practice as a starting point, this study will create understanding about how teachers at a school comprehend their opportunities for learning within the teacher community. The study is conducted at an independent school in Sweden, and is based on interviews with eight of the teachers employed at the school. The purpose of the study was to research how employees perceive how their social interactions with their colleagues can create learning, and what obstacles they might face along the way. Our results showed that the teachers at this workplace found that most of the learning that took place in their everyday worklife was performed in an informal and social way with lots of helping each other out and social interactions between the colleagues.
49

A Critical Systems Approach to Socio-Ecological Systems: Implications for social learning and governance

McCarthy, Daniel Dennis Patrick 12 December 2006 (has links)
This dissertation builds on work that has applied complex systems thinking to socio-ecological systems as well as on research that explores critical and reflective approaches to planning. A broad, interdisciplinary literature review was undertaken to explore the implications of complex and critical systems thinking and critical social epistemology for environmental management, planning and policy research, governance and social learning. Building on the insights from this review, one of the key contributions of this research is a conceptual framework that explicitly integrates knowledge and learning into an understanding of socio-ecological systems. It is argued that in the highly complex and uncertain realm of environmental policy, planning and governance, we should begin to discuss such systems as socio-ecological-epistemological (SEE) systems. This research addresses the complexity, uncertainty, high decision stakes, power relations and plurality of knowledges involved in the process of social learning in environmental planning and governance. The SEE systems conceptual framework for research and intervention was developed in the form of descriptive (Co-Evolution, Reflexive Uncertainty, Cross-scalar Considerations) and prescriptive (Critical Awareness, Pluralism, Power) principles. Based upon these principles, a critical systems-based approach to planning and policy research was developed and applied to two case studies of innovative, integrated environmental planning and governance: the Oak Ridges Moraine and the Long Point World Biosphere Reserve. A conceptual model for describing and refining the contributions of environmental movement organizations to social learning in the context of environmental governance emerged. The model describes the requirements of social learning as defined along three axes: typology of knowledge; levels of critical reflection; and, a scale axis from individual agent to larger social structures (institutions). Through this work, it is evident that insights from complex and critical systems understanding have influenced thinking in environmental management, planning, governance and social learning. Through the exploratory application of the SEE systems approach to complex environmental planning and governance systems, the SEE systems principles appear to resonate strongly with the experience of environmental movement organizations. In particular, three key findings emerged from the two exploratory, empirical case studies. First, interviewees and workshop attendees in both case study contexts described the importance of various types of knowledge, especially scientific, local technical and governance knowledge in initiating policy change. Second, research participants stressed the importance of understanding the cross-scalar dynamics that affect their ability to influence policy as well as the need to develop policy and governance structures appropriate to the scale of the issue of interest. And finally, the need for individual as well as organizational critical reflection upon policy tools and implementation, policy goals as well as the power differentials embodied in certain policy and governance structures was also highlighted in the qualitative, empirical data generated through interviews and workshops. This research reaffirms the importance of the collaboration and the collective contribution of academic researchers, civil servants and volunteer members of environmental movement organizations to fostering social learning for sustainability in the context of complex SEE systems.
50

A teaching sampler : the educational approaches of the Tall Pines Quilt Guild / Educational approaches of the Tall Pines Quilt Guild

Barry, Elizabeth Ann 12 June 2012 (has links)
This case study used ethnographic data collection tools to focus on the educational models and approaches used by the Tall Pines Quilt Guild (TPQG) in Huntsville, Texas. In this study I strove to explore the transfer of quiltmaking knowledge in a community-based art education organization, a quilt guild, and how those educational methods and models could be adapted to the museum setting. I became a member of the Guild and took on the research role of a participant observer to witness how the TPQG perpetuates the quilting craft for its members. Through observing various Guild events, such as monthly meetings, workshops, and bees I found the members frequently participated in cooperative and collaborative social learning. The rationale for undertaking this study was that there are many publications on how to make quilts, the history of quilt patterns, indexes of quilt patterns, quiltmakers' stories, quilt research, and quilt exhibition catalogues. However, proper documentation of the educational approaches used by women in quilt guilds has not been researched. Quilt guilds provide an environment where adults can learn and expand their knowledge about the quilting craft in the form of lifelong learning. By looking into how the Tall Pines Quilt Guild acts a community-based art education organization, the identified educational models used by quilt guilds could be employed at museums displaying quilt exhibits with potential program models and characteristics to inform the public about quilts, quiltmaking, and quilters. / text

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