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A Critical Systems Approach to Socio-Ecological Systems: Implications for social learning and governanceMcCarthy, Daniel Dennis Patrick 12 December 2006 (has links)
This dissertation builds on work that has applied complex systems thinking to socio-ecological systems as well as on research that explores critical and reflective approaches to planning. A broad, interdisciplinary literature review was undertaken to explore the implications of complex and critical systems thinking and critical social epistemology for environmental management, planning and policy research, governance and social learning. Building on the insights from this review, one of the key contributions of this research is a conceptual framework that explicitly integrates knowledge and learning into an understanding of socio-ecological systems. It is argued that in the highly complex and uncertain realm of environmental policy, planning and governance, we should begin to discuss such systems as socio-ecological-epistemological (SEE) systems. This research addresses the complexity, uncertainty, high decision stakes, power relations and plurality of knowledges involved in the process of social learning in environmental planning and governance. The SEE systems conceptual framework for research and intervention was developed in the form of descriptive (Co-Evolution, Reflexive Uncertainty, Cross-scalar Considerations) and prescriptive (Critical Awareness, Pluralism, Power) principles. Based upon these principles, a critical systems-based approach to planning and policy research was developed and applied to two case studies of innovative, integrated environmental planning and governance: the Oak Ridges Moraine and the Long Point World Biosphere Reserve. A conceptual model for describing and refining the contributions of environmental movement organizations to social learning in the context of environmental governance emerged. The model describes the requirements of social learning as defined along three axes: typology of knowledge; levels of critical reflection; and, a scale axis from individual agent to larger social structures (institutions). Through this work, it is evident that insights from complex and critical systems understanding have influenced thinking in environmental management, planning, governance and social learning. Through the exploratory application of the SEE systems approach to complex environmental planning and governance systems, the SEE systems principles appear to resonate strongly with the experience of environmental movement organizations. In particular, three key findings emerged from the two exploratory, empirical case studies. First, interviewees and workshop attendees in both case study contexts described the importance of various types of knowledge, especially scientific, local technical and governance knowledge in initiating policy change. Second, research participants stressed the importance of understanding the cross-scalar dynamics that affect their ability to influence policy as well as the need to develop policy and governance structures appropriate to the scale of the issue of interest. And finally, the need for individual as well as organizational critical reflection upon policy tools and implementation, policy goals as well as the power differentials embodied in certain policy and governance structures was also highlighted in the qualitative, empirical data generated through interviews and workshops. This research reaffirms the importance of the collaboration and the collective contribution of academic researchers, civil servants and volunteer members of environmental movement organizations to fostering social learning for sustainability in the context of complex SEE systems.
Assessing Informal Social Learning at the Workplace – A Revalidation Case from HealthcareSteurer, Michael, Thalmann, Stefan, Maier, Ronald, Treasure-Jones, Tamsin, Bibby, John, Kerr, Micky 26 October 2015 (has links) (PDF)
This paper explores how informal learning can be assessed in the work environment which bears difficulties, as informal learning is largely invisible and people lack awareness of informal learning. We perform an exploratory case study involving 24 healthcare professionals representing small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in six healthcare networks in the UK. We use the existing revalidation procedure as implemented by the National Health Service (NHS) England to discuss our results. Our results comprise a description of six indicators, three of which can be used to assess informal learning activities and three of which can be used to assess informal learning outcomes. Our findings stress the importance of the social context of informal learning at the workplace. Finally, we discuss the implementation of these indicators to support informal social learning.
Essays on the Economics of Networks Under Incomplete InformationRapanos, Theodoros January 2016 (has links)
Social networks constitute a major channel for the diffusion of information and the formation of attitudes in a society. Introducing a dynamic model of social learning, the first part of this thesis studies the emergence of socially influential individuals and groups, and identifies the characteristics that make them influential. The second part uses a Bayesian network game to analyse the role of social interaction and conformism in the making of decisions whose returns or costs are ex ante uncertain.
Essays on behavioral economics with information orientation. / Social capital and telecom churn : reciprocity in mobile telecom networks / A cognitive model of information aggregation in sequential moves / Social learning and the wisdom of crowd : simultaneous moves in network / Learning in social media : social cues and decision biasesJanuary 2013 (has links)
行为经济学试图分析决策过程对经济行为和结果的影响。我的博士论文由四篇独立的论文组成，运用经济学和心理学的理论视角，研究了个人和群体的决策和行为模式。本论文探讨的问题包括建立社会关系的过程中交互性的影响、队列中的信息外部性、群体决策中较差决定的概率支配、引领型消费者和追随型消费者的不同行为模式等。 / 在题为“社会资本与电信客流失：移动网络中交互性“的第一篇论文中， 我实证检验交互性在发展社会关系中的作用。基于包括网络连接度、社会关系强度、交互性等社会资本要素，我设计了一种预测电信客流失的方法。该算法基于源自用电信服务数据的社会资本度量和服务状态，因此它能较为容易的运用于现实数据库和客关系管理。 / 在题为“一种顺序行为中的信息积累模型“的第二篇论文中，我研究了顺序模式的社会学习过程，提出了一种基于多阶段决策过程的度量信息积累程度和评介信息瀑布稳定性的数学模型。理论结果反映了信息瀑布中行为模式的两个主要特征：信息积累和边际效应递减。 / 在题为“社会学习和群体的智慧：网络中的同步行为“的第三篇论文中，我分析了个人行为通过学习策略在网络中蔓延的现象。这种基于网络的同步学习是通过仿真和数值实验得到了直观的。本研究证明，网络中的同步学习对个体和群体表现有促进作用。同时，其促进的程度是存在阈值的。 / 在题为“社会化媒体中的学习：社会化线索与决策偏差“的第四篇论文中, 我通过分析网络爬虫收集的互联网数据，探讨了社会化媒体中学习策略的影响。这项研究表明，流行性产品的选择中起主导作用的是社会化线索。社会化线索放大了产品之间的销量的差异。此外，我还发现了社会化线索的两种不对称性：（1）社会学习过程中人们对长期变化和短期变化的非对称敏感性；（2）领导型用和追随型用提供好坏口碑的非对称性。这些发现表明，社会线索在决策过程中是存在偏差的。 / Behavioral economics tries to understand the impact of decision process on economic behaviors and outcomes. Utilizing theoretical lenses of psychology and economics, my dissertation, composed of four essays, studies the behavioral pattern of individuals and groups to tell philosophies behind some interesting phenomena, such as reciprocity in developing social relations, information externality in queues, probable dominance of collectively bad decisions, the contradicting behavioral pattern of leaders and followers when facing bad choices, and etc. / In my first essay entitled “Social Capital and Telecom Churn: Reciprocity in Mobile Telecom Networks“, I empirically examine the role of reciprocity in the development of social relations. Based on multiple dimensions of social capital, e.g., network connectivity, social tie strength, internal network ratio, and reciprocity, I develop a method to predict telecom churns. The algorithm is based on social capital derived from historical usage patterns and service status, thus it is easy to be implemented with customer database. / In my second essay entitled “A Model of Information Aggregation in Sequential Moves“, I investigate sequential learning process and propose a mathematical model that measure information aggregation and evaluate the stability of informational cascades with a multi-stage decision process. The results capture two primary behavioral aspect of informational cascade: information aggregation and diminishing sensitivity. / In my third essay entitled “Social Learning and the Wisdom of Crowd: Simultaneous Moves in Network“, I investigate the phenomenon of social contagion through learning strategies among individuals in the network. This network-based simultaneous learning process is simulated via computer programme to seek insights on the effect of simultaneous learning on collective and individual actions. Through numerical experiment, it demonstrats that learning in network can be effective while bad decisions have chance to dominate, and there is a threshold for collective decision quality. / In my forth essay entitled “Learning in Social Media: Social Cues and Decision Biases“, I investigate the effect of learning strategy in the context of social media with internet usage dataset collected by web crawler. This study demonstrates that choices based on social cues dominate for popular products, and it exaggerates the inequality among products. Besides, two types of asymmetries exist for social cues: (1) Asymmetric sensitivity for immediate and accumulative changes in social learning process; and (2) Asymmetric behavioral pattern in providing WOMs for leaders and followers. These findings suggest that social cues may be biased. / Essay 1. Social capital and telecom churn: reciprocity in mobile telecom networks -- essay 2. A cognitive model of information aggregation in sequential moves -- essay 3. Social learning and the wisdom of crowd: simultaneous moves in network -- essay 4. Learning in social media: social cues and decision biases. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Detailed summary in vernacular field only. / Hu, Hao. / Thesis (Ph.D.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2013. / Includes bibliographical references. / Abstracts also in Chinese. / PREFACE --- p.1 / SOCIAL CAPITAL AND TELECOM CHURN: RECIPROCITY IN MOBILE TELECOM NETWORKS --- p.6 / Chapter 1. --- INTRODUCTION --- p.7 / Chapter 2. --- LITERATURE REVIEW --- p.7 / Chapter 2.1. --- Service Continuity and Churn --- p.7 / Chapter 2.2. --- Social Capital in the Network --- p.9 / Chapter 3. --- THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK --- p.11 / Chapter 3.1. --- Network Connectivity --- p.12 / Chapter 3.2. --- Social Tie Strength --- p.12 / Chapter 3.3. --- Internal Network Ratio --- p.13 / Chapter 3.4. --- Reciprocal Social Norm --- p.13 / Chapter 3.5. --- Service Continuity and Churn --- p.14 / Chapter 4. --- EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS --- p.14 / Chapter 4.1. --- Research Setting and Data Collection --- p.14 / Chapter 4.2. --- Variables and Proxies --- p.14 / Chapter 4.3. --- Social Capital and Service Continuity --- p.17 / Chapter 4.4. --- Service Continuity and Churn --- p.20 / Chapter 5. --- PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR TELECOM CHURN --- p.21 / Chapter 5.1. --- Performance Assessment Criteria --- p.21 / Chapter 5.2. --- Bench Mark Model --- p.21 / Chapter 5.3. --- Three-Stage Model --- p.23 / Chapter 6. --- DISCUSSION AND CONCLUDING REMARKS --- p.25 / Chapter 6.1. --- Theoretical Extension --- p.25 / Chapter 6.2. --- Managerial Implication --- p.26 / Chapter APPENDIX I --- MEASUREMENT CLASSIFICATION --- p.27 / Chapter APPENDIX II --- DATA DESCRIPTION --- p.28 / REFERENCES --- p.30 / A COGNITIVE MODEL OF INFORMATION AGGREGATION IN SEQUENTIAL MOVES --- p.32 / Chapter 1. --- INTRODUCTION --- p.33 / Chapter 2. --- THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK --- p.34 / Chapter 2.1. --- Conceptual Background --- p.34 / Chapter 2.2. --- Decision Scenarios --- p.35 / Chapter 2.3. --- Hypothesis --- p.38 / Chapter 3. --- ANALYTICAL MODEL --- p.40 / Chapter 3.1. --- Model Setup --- p.40 / Chapter 3.2. --- Sequential Analysis --- p.41 / Chapter 4. --- NUMERICAL ANALYSIS --- p.43 / Chapter 4.1. --- Margin Analysis --- p.43 / Chapter 4.2. --- Product Complexity --- p.44 / Chapter 4.3. --- Information Revealing --- p.46 / Chapter 5. --- CONCLUSION --- p.47 / Chapter References --- p.48 / SOCIAL LEARNING AND THE WISDOM OF CROWD: SIMULTANEOUS MOVES IN NETWORK --- p.50 / Chapter 1. --- INTRODUCTION --- p.51 / Chapter 2. --- THE PARADIGM OF A NESTED WORLD --- p.52 / Chapter 2.1. --- Bounded Rationality and Social Learning --- p.53 / Chapter 2.2. --- Social Learning and Conformity tendency --- p.54 / Chapter 2.3. --- Summary - Judgment and Collective Behavior --- p.55 / Chapter 3. --- THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK --- p.56 / Chapter 3.1. --- Primary Investigation --- p.57 / Chapter 3.2. --- Secondary Investigation --- p.61 / Chapter 4. --- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY --- p.62 / Chapter 4.1. --- Construct Measures --- p.62 / Chapter 4.2. --- Computational Model --- p.64 / Chapter 4.3. --- Numerical Experiment --- p.67 / Chapter 4.4. --- Pattern Analysis --- p.68 / Chapter 5. --- CONCLUSION --- p.73 / Chapter 6. --- IMPLICATION --- p.74 / REFERENCES --- p.75 / LEARNING IN SOCIAL MEDIA: SOCIAL CUES AND DECISION BIASES --- p.78 / Chapter 1. --- INTRODUCTION --- p.79 / Chapter 2. --- RESEARCH BACKGROUNDS --- p.81 / Chapter 2.1. --- Social Cues and Choices --- p.81 / Chapter 2.2. --- Decision Biases of Social Cues --- p.82 / Chapter 3. --- HYPOTHESES --- p.83 / Chapter 3.1. --- Comparative Impact of Social Cues --- p.84 / Chapter 3.2. --- Reference Dependence in Social Learning --- p.85 / Chapter 3.3. --- WOM Driven by Leaders Confirmatory Bias and Followers Regret --- p.86 / Chapter 4. --- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY --- p.87 / Chapter 4.1. --- Data Summary --- p.88 / Chapter 4.2. --- Empirical Analysis --- p.89 / Chapter 5. --- DISCUSSION AND CONCLUDING REMARKS --- p.94 / REFERENCES --- p.95
Studies on social learning and on motivated beliefs : theory and evidenceMa, Mingye January 2018 (has links)
This thesis contains four chapters presenting theory and empirical evidence for two distinct aspects of human behaviour: social learning and motivated beliefs. I develop a simple theory to revisit the classical social learning models by challenging the assumption of freely available information. My model suggests that when it is costly to acquire information, social learning (herding) is prevalent, and people do not have incentives to acquire private information (e.g. to form their own judgements). Classical information cascade models suggest that although herding is observed, information aggregation is still possible with communication channels (e.g. a survey); however, my model indicates that information aggregation is unattainable because people in the herd do not acquire private information. We then test my model in a laboratory and find that, as predicted, subjects can learn from others successfully. Also, individual heterogeneity exists in: there are herd animals biased against private information, lone wolves who are biased toward it and subjects who behave optimally. In aggregate, there is no overall bias for or against private information. We also document a new cognitive bias involved in processing social information. Individual characteristics, especially the cognitive ability, seems to be a very good indicator of subjects' behaviour. Subjects with higher cognitive scores choose optimal information more frequently and follow information more frequently. Overconfidence can be driven by the consumption motive (e.g. savouring future payoff/self-image) and the instrumental motive (e.g. being optimistic about the outcome of effort for motivation). I develop a simple model incorporating these two motives and suggest that individuals hold a dynamic pattern of overconfidence. Then I conduct an online field experiment with students to test the theory. The experimental findings indicate that students are likely to adopt overconfident beliefs as a commitment device to deal with their self-control problem. However, I do not find evidence for the consumption motive of overconfidence.
Why Kids Are 'Lovin' It': A Q Methodology Analysis of the Appeal of McDonald'sRivera, Erica Nelson 01 June 2016 (has links)
The dramatic rise in childhood obesity is a major concern nationwide. Unprecedented media exposure, drastically decreased time spent interacting as a family, and the consumption of calorie-dense foods are all heated topics of discussion with ties to weight gain. In this research, possible associations are examined between media, social groups and a favorite fast-food restaurant among children: McDonald's. Q methodology was used to analyze the various factors that draw children to McDonald's. With a theoretical background in social learning theory, this study had 29 children rank-order 30 photographs depicting elements of the McDonald's experience. Pictures included the most and least popular food items, social events like birthday parties and eating with family, physical aspects of McDonald's, such as the Playplace and dining area, famous McDonald's characters and celebrities, promotional events and giveaways, like the monopoly game, food coupons and Happy Meal toys. The participants then took part in an interview. Results of the study resemble existing research into what motivates children to go to McDonald's, including the food and Playplace. However, this study also reveals three new factors contributing to the restaurant's popularity for kids: their need to be with friends and family, frequenting the restaurant as a sort of comfortable rite or tradition, and the fame with which McDonald's is associated. The findings suggest the importance of social education about food habits from parents, in spite of an increased dependence on media and peers for information.
Natural Disaster Films: A Social Learning and Perceived Realism PerspectiveSeipel, Melissa 01 May 2017 (has links)
This study investigates the relationship between social learning and perceived realism in the context of an entertainment media text, the 2015 movie San Andreas. As a fictional natural disaster movie, this film depicts several safety and survival techniques that could potentially be observed and adopted by audience members should they face a similar situation (i.e. major earthquake). While the majority of these techniques align with professionally recommended behaviors, a few are misleading. This study investigates the perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions different groups of audience members hold concerning the behaviors they observed in the film. Participants were grouped by geologically-based knowledge levels and levels of perceived realism. While the findings of this study reveal minimal differences based on knowledge and perceived realism, results clearly show that the film triggered high levels of curiosity and thinking about earthquakes and earthquake safety across the board. Furthermore, all audience members appeared to be persuaded on both a conscious and even more so on a subconscious level to behave as the characters in the film did, assuming the consequences of those actions were positive. These findings suggest that entertainment media texts can be a powerful educational and persuasive tool.
Strategies to Improve Employee Engagement in the Hospitality IndustryTaylor, Carolyn Yvette 01 January 2019 (has links)
More than 50% of the workforce in the United States is disengaged, costing U.S. organizations almost $355 billion annually. Engaged employees improve customer satisfaction, perform effectively, and are committed to organizational goals. Guided by Kahn's personal engagement theory, the purpose of this multiple case study was to explore strategies business leaders in the hospitality industry used to improve employee engagement for increased productivity. A purposive sample of 1 business leader each from 6 organizations in South Korea shared their experiences with the phenomenon of employee engagement. Data were collected through face-to-face semi structured interviews and by reviewing company position descriptions and human resource policies. Yin's data analysis method revealed prevalent themes of communication, recognition and rewards, and work environment. Leaders influence employee engagement through open communication, providing rewards or recognition as performance incentives, and creating a psychologically safe work environment. Implications of this study for social change include decreased physical and mental health costs for employees and organizations. Improving employee engagement in the hospitality industry can reduce absenteeism and increase organizational profitability, sustainability, and participation in community and social programs.
Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement as a Variant of Concern for the Teacher and CounselorKingston, Neldon DeVere 01 May 1967 (has links)
Rotter's (1954, 1960, 1964) social learning theory suggests that a reinforcement acts to strengthen an expectancy. These expectancies may differ from situation to situation; however, it is postulated (Rotter, 1960) that they bear a direct relationship to the potential occurrence of a behavior. Furthermore, "...it is presumed that the relationship between goal preference (reinforcement value) and behavior can be determined only by introducing the concept of the individual's expectancy, on the basis of past history, that the given behavior will actually lead to a satisfying outcome rather than to punishment, failure, or, more generally, to negative reinforcement." (Rotter, 1960, p. 305) An outgrowth of this idea is the current research regarding internal versus external control of reinforcement. Basically, this centers on two general hypotheses. 1. That if a reinforcement is seen to be controlled by the individual, it will strengthen the expectancy and that if it fails to occur from this behavior, it will weaken the expectancy. 2. That if the reinforcement is seen to be under the control of external factors, i. e. luck, fate, or powerful others, the expectancy will neither increase as much by the reinforcement occurring, nor decrease as much by its nonoccurrence Recent research suggests that internal versus external control (1-E) of reinforcement is a personality variant, as well as an important variant in learning and extinction. This, combined with recent refinement of 1-E measurement tools, would seem to bring this postulate into the realm of educational concern. The purpose of this report is a review of the I-E literature in an attempt to determine what, if any, implications research of I-E has for education. Rotter defines internal control and external control in the following manner. "When a reinforcement is perceived by the subject as following some action of his own but not being contingent upon his action, then, in our culture, it is typically perceived as the result of luck, chance, fate, as under the control of powerful others, or as unpredictable because of the great complexity of the forces surrounding him. When the event is interpreted in this way by an individual, we have labeled this a belief in external control. If the person perceives that the event is contigent upon his own behavior or his own relatively perm anent characteristics, we have termed this a belief in internal control." (Rotter, 1966, p. 1) Crowne and Liverant (1963), Battle and Rotter (1963), Gore and Rotter (1963), Phares (1965), Lefcourt and Ladwig (1965), and Strickland (1965) are all in agreement with this definition and this report will approach internal versus external (I-E) control as Rotter (1966) has defined it. Often in discussions in the research, the phrase skill-chance is used in place of internal control and external control. Any usage of these words in this report will follow the Rotter (1966) definition of internal and external control (I-E).
Evidence-Based Knowledge Versus Negotiated Indicators for Assessment of Ecological Sustainability : The Swedish Forest Stewardship Council Standard as a Case StudyAngelstam, Per, Roberge, Jean-Michel, Axelsson, Robert, Elbakidze, Marine, Bergman, Karl-Olof, Dahlberg, Anders, Degerman, Erik, Eggers, Sönke, Essen, Per-Anders, Hjältén, Joakim, Johansson, Therese, Müller, Jörg, Paltto, Heidi, Snäll, Tord, Solovity, Ihor, Törnblom, Johan January 2013 (has links)
Assessing ecological sustainability involves monitoring of indicators and comparison of their states with performance targets that are deemed sustainable. First, a normative model was developed centered on evidence-based knowledge about (a) forest composition, structure, and function at multiple scales, and (b) performance targets derived by quantifying the habitat amount in naturally dynamic forests, and as required for presence of populations of specialized focal species. Second, we compared the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification standards’ ecological indicators from 1998 and 2010 in Sweden to the normative model using a Specific, Measurable, Accurate, Realistic, and Timebound (SMART) indicator approach. Indicator variables and targets for riparian and aquatic ecosystems were clearly under-represented compared to terrestrial ones. FSC’s ecological indicators expanded over time from composition and structure towards function, and from finer to coarser spatial scales. However, SMART indicators were few. Moreover, they poorly reflected quantitative evidence-based knowledge, a consequence of the fact that forest certification mirrors the outcome of a complex social negotiation process.
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