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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Transgenerational patterns of substance abuse

20 October 2008 (has links)
M.A. / Patterns of substance abuse within the family is a widespread phenomenon that occurs through generations. Although various factors can be a symptom of a dysfunctional family, the dynamics that maintain the transgenerational patterns of substance abuse are of great interest. The family in which the abuse of alcohol is repetitive through generations, is seen as a dysfunctional family system. It appears that a circular pattern exists in the family that maintains the alcohol abuse. Although the family as a whole has an influence on individual members, these individual members enter their families with their own preconceived mind maps of past experiences that also have a great influence on the family dynamics. Family dynamics are seen as those factors that impact either positively or negatively on the family and its individual members. The alcoholic parent and adult child of the alcoholic parent are the subjects of concern in this study because it is assumed that parental inputs have been the most influential in the respondent’s lives. A qualitative method of research was implemented to describe this explorative study and was decided on because it describes the phenomenon of transgenerational patterns of alcohol abuse from the viewpoint of the respondent. The aim of this research study was to determine the dynamics that contribute to transgenerational patterns of alcohol abuse, with specific reference to the respondent’s family history of alcohol abuse, their co-dependency (alcohol abuse) and the maintenance of these dynamics throughout generations. These dynamics will be explained in terms of the Living Systems Theory and the Object Relations Theory. These theories form the theoretical foundation from which these dynamics were explained. From these theories a strategy of data-gathering was developed with specific focus on the genogram, family tree and general questions. A focused sampling method was implemented in this research study, and the research units consisted of five respondents with families that have a history of alcohol abuse. Data-gathering was done through phenomenological and semi-structured interviews. The interviews were audiotaped and fieldnotes were made, although limited and only to confirm some of the findings of the research study. The data was analysed according to a specific strategy. Preliminary coding was done by using the audiotapes (transcriptions) and fieldnotes. After the preliminary coding was completed, these categories were used to derive central themes from the findings and all the categories were then divided under one or several of these themes. These central themes were compared with existing literature in order to confirm the findings of this research study and to enhance the trustworthiness. From the study, certain recommendations with regard to methodology and content were made. / Dr. E. Oliphant
2

Chemical dependency etiology and treatment among African-American males : a critical clinically applied anthropological perspective

Randall, Theodore W. January 1996 (has links)
Chemical dependency as it pertains to African-American males is examined through the theoretical perspectives of critical medical anthropology and clinically applied anthropology, the synthesis of the two referred to as critical clinically applied anthropology. The major etiological models and theories of chemical dependency are reviewed as are the contemporary chemical dependency treatment services.The critical clinically applied anthropological perspective examines chemical dependency and its treatment at four levels: 1) the macrosocial, 2) intermediate, 3) the microsocial, and 4) the individual. Additional variables concerning chemical dependency such as societal or large scale, institutional, local/environmental, organizational, and small scale factors are addressed as well. The above levels of analysis and independent variables indicate that racism, in the form of economic, political, and cultural oppression is a significant etiological factor concerning AfricanAmerican male chemical dependency. It is suggested that in order to provide more effective chemical dependency treatment, racial oppression must be addressed in the treatment setting. / Department of Anthropology
3

Stability and change: addressing the symptom of substance dependency

Pietersen, Marika 30 June 2005 (has links)
The aim of this study is to demonstrate how the complementary concepts of stability and change could manifest during the therapeutic process, specifically with clients showing the symptom of dependency. The study is guided by a literature study on systems/cybernetic theory with a focus on the cybernetic complementarity of stability and change. A brief description is provided of the symptom of dependency from a more traditional lineal perspective as well as a non-lineal (systemic) perspective. A single case study is utilized to describe how both stability and change could manifest in the therapeutic process. From this description the relevance and usefulness of addressing both stability and change during the therapeutic process emerge and are outlined. / Social Work / M. A. (Social Science Mental Health)
4

Stability and change: addressing the symptom of substance dependency

Pietersen, Marika 30 June 2005 (has links)
The aim of this study is to demonstrate how the complementary concepts of stability and change could manifest during the therapeutic process, specifically with clients showing the symptom of dependency. The study is guided by a literature study on systems/cybernetic theory with a focus on the cybernetic complementarity of stability and change. A brief description is provided of the symptom of dependency from a more traditional lineal perspective as well as a non-lineal (systemic) perspective. A single case study is utilized to describe how both stability and change could manifest in the therapeutic process. From this description the relevance and usefulness of addressing both stability and change during the therapeutic process emerge and are outlined. / Social Work / M. A. (Social Science Mental Health)
5

Peri-adolescent Alcohol Consumption Enhances the Reinforcing and Stimulatory Properties of Ethanol within the Adult Mesolimbic Dopamine System in Alcohol Preferring P Rats

Toalston, Jamie E. 07 August 2012 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Research in the alcohol preferring (P) rat has indicated that peri-adolescent alcohol (EtOH) consumption enhances the acquisition of oral operant EtOH self-administration, inhibits the extinction of responding for EtOH, augments EtOH-seeking behaviors, and increases relative reward value of EtOH during adulthood. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine if these adult effects of peri-adolescent EtOH intake could be observed using an Intracranial Self-Administration (ICSA) model. It was hypothesized that an increased sensitivity to the rewarding actions of EtOH would be manifested in peri-adolescent-EtOH-exposed subjects compared to naive subjects when the opportunity to self-administer EtOH to the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) is available in adulthood. The pVTA is a primary site for EtOH’s reinforcing and rewarding properties in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. Experiment 2 was a dose-response examination of the effects of EtOH administered to the pVTA on downstream DA efflux in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) via a joint Microinjection-Microdialysis (MicroMicro) procedure. Male P rats were given 24-h free-choice exposure to 15% volume/volume EtOH from postnatal day (PD) 30 to PD 60, or remained experimentally naive, with ad lib food and water. By the end of the periadolescent exposure period, average consumption was 7.3 g/kg/day of EtOH. After PD 75, periadolescent-EtOH-exposed and naïve rats were either implanted with an injector guide cannula aimed at the right pVTA for ICSA (Experiment 1), or two cannulae, one aimed at the right pVTA (injector) and one at the ipsilateral AcbSh (microdialysis) for MicroMicro (Experiment 2). Following one week of recovery from surgery, ICSA subjects were placed in standard two-lever (active and inactive) operant chambers. Test sessions were 60 min in duration and occurred every other day for a total of 7 sessions. Rats were randomly assigned to one of 5 groups (n=4-9/group) that self-infused (FR1 schedule) either aCSF (vehicle, 0 mg%), 50, 75, 100, or 150 mg% EtOH during 4 sessions, aCSF only for sessions 5 and 6 (extinction), and the initial concentration again for session 7 (reinstatement). MicroMicro subjects received six days of recovery from surgery, probe implantation the day before testing, and then continuous microdialysis for DA with 15 min microdialysis samples collected before, during, and then two hrs after 10-min pulse microinjection of either aCSF (vehicle, 0 mg%), 50, 75, 100, or 150 mg% EtOH. Neither EtOH-exposed nor naive groups of P rats self-infused the aCSF or 50 mg% EtOH concentration. While the naive group did not self-infuse the 75 or 100 mg% EtOH concentrations, the peri-adolescent EtOH-exposed group of P rats did readily discriminate the active lever from the inactive lever at these concentrations. Both groups self-infused the 150 mg% EtOH concentration. Pulse microinjections of EtOH during the MicroMicro procedure revealed that 75 and 100 mg% concentrations of EtOH increased downstream DA in the AcbSh of EtOH-exposed, but not naïve, subjects. 150 mg% EtOH increased downstream DA in both adolescent treatment groups. Overall, the results indicate that consumption of EtOH by P rats during peri-adolescence increases the reinforcing properties of EtOH in the pVTA in adulthood. The results also indicate that there were differential effects of peri-adolescent EtOH exposure on DA efflux in the AcbSh. This provides evidence that peri-adolescent EtOH-exposure produces long-lasting alterations in neural circuitry involved in EtOH-reinforcement, during adulthood.
6

Drinking Rhythms in Alcohol Preferring Mice

Matson, Liana M. 29 August 2012 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Multiple lines of High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-h daily access over a four-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. Drinking rhythms and corresponding blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP1 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of a reverse 12:12 light dark cycle. In another cohort of cHAP mice, the same procedure was used to assess bi-hourly ethanol intake, and blood samples were taken across the day to look at the pattern of accumulation in these mice. Finally, considering the high level of intake by cHAP mice, we were interested in assessing whether metabolic and functional tolerance develop following chronic free-choice access, which were assessed using 2.0 and 1.75 g/kg challenge doses of 20% ethanol, respectively. cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 + 18.09 and 217.9 + 25.02 mg/dl at 7-8 hours following lights off, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). In the cHAP cohort, mean BECs were 112.47 + 19.91 at 2 hours after lights off, 189.00 + 27.40 at 6 hours after lights off, 193.80 + 29.66 at 10 hours after lights off, and 89.68 + 22.19 at 2 hours after lights on. Further, following 3 weeks of ethanol access, cHAP mice had a faster rate of ethanol metabolism and fewer hind slips than water-only exposed mice (ps < .05). In conclusion, the excessive free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines, as well as the pattern of sustained high BECs in cHAP mice, challenge the notion that rodents will not reliably and voluntarily sustain ethanol intake at pharmacologically relevant levels. These results suggest that the highest drinking HAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that has been observed in alcohol-dependent individuals. Further, we observed that cHAP mice develop both metabolic and functional tolerance to the ataxic effects of ethanol following 3 weeks of free-choice access. Together, these findings support HAP mice as translational rodent model of alcoholism, and provide rationale for exploration of the predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral, and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure.
7

Effects of Prazosin Treatment on Ethanol- and Sucrose-Seeking and Intake in P Rats

Verplaetse, Terril Lee 20 September 2012 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Background: Previous studies show that prazosin, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, decreases alcohol drinking in animal models of alcohol use and dependence and in alcohol-dependent men. These studies extended previous findings by using a paradigm that allows for separate assessment of prazosin on motivation to seek versus consume ethanol or sucrose in selectively bred rats given acute or chronic prazosin treatment. Methods: Alcohol-preferring P rats were trained to complete an operant response that resulted in access to either 2% (Exp. 1) or 1% (Exp.2) sucrose or 10% ethanol. In Experiment 1, a 4-week consummatory testing phase consisted of rats bar-pressing to “pay” a specified amount up front to gain access to unlimited ethanol (or sucrose) for a 20-minute period. A 4-week appetitive testing phase examined how much the rats would bar-press for ethanol in an extinction session when no reinforcer could be obtained. In Experiment 2, during testing, the response requirement was dropped to a 1 and daily session cycles of drug (3 weeks/ 14 sessions from Tues to Fri) or vehicle (2 weeks/ 9 sessions from Tues to Fri) treatment were alternated per drug dose for a total of 3 drug doses (3 cycles) per rat. After each drug cycle, a single non-reinforced extinction session was conducted with no drug ‘on board’ and no reinforcer access. On test days, rats were given IP injections of either vehicle or one of three doses of prazosin (Exp 1: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg/kg; Exp 2: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg; balanced design; -30 min). Results: In Experiment 1, prazosin significantly decreased ethanol-seeking at all doses tested. The highest dose decreased ethanol intake and increased the latency to first lever-press and first lick. Sucrose-seeking and intake were decreased by the same doses of prazosin. In Experiment 2, prazosin significantly decreased reinforcer-seeking at the lowest and highest doses while ethanol intake was not decreased by prazosin. Conversely, sucrose-seeking was decreased at the highest dose of prazosin tested while sucrose consumption was decreased by all doses. Latency to lever-press for sucrose was increased by the lowest dose of prazosin compared to vehicle. Conclusions: These findings extend previous research and indicate that prazosin decreases motivation to seek ethanol and sucrose. The specificity of prazosin on different behaviors and over different reinforcers suggests that these findings are not due to prazosin-induced motor-impairment or malaise. These data suggest that prazosin may work by decreasing the reinforcing properties of reinforcers in general.
8

Achieving pharmacologically relevant IV alcohol self-administration in the rat

Windisch, Kyle Allyson 27 September 2012 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Alcohol consumption produces a complex array of effects that can be divided into two types: the explicit pharmacological effects of ethanol (which can be quite separate temporally from time of intake) and the more temporally “relevant” effects (primarily olfactory and taste) that bridge the time from intake to the onset of the pharmacological effects. Dissociating these effects is essential to untangling the neurologic underpinnings of alcohol abuse and dependence. Intravenous self-administration of ethanol allows for controlled and precise dosing, bypasses first order absorption kinetics allowing for a faster onset of pharmacologic effects, and eliminates the confounding “non-pharmacological” effects associated with oral consumption. Intravenous self-administration of ethanol has been reliably demonstrated in both mouse and human experimental models; however, consistent intravenous self-administration of pharmacologically relevant levels of ethanol remains elusive in the rat. Previous work has demonstrated reliable elevated intravenous ethanol self administration using a compound reinforcer of oral sucrose and intravenous ethanol. The present study sought to elucidate the role of each component of this reinforcer complex using a multiple schedule study design. Male P rats had free access to both food and water during all intravenous self-administration sessions and all testing was performed in conjunction with the onset of the dark cycle. Once animals achieved stable operant responding on both levers for an orally delivered 1% sucrose solution (1S) on a FR4 schedule, surgery was conducted to implant an indwelling jugular catheter. Animals were habituated to the attachment of infusion apparatus and received twice daily sessions for four days to condition each lever to its associated schedule. Animals were then trained to respond on a multiple FR4-FR4 schedule composed of alternating 2.5 minute components. During one component only oral 1S was presented, while in the second component a compound reinforcer of oral 1S + IV 20% ethanol was presented (25 mg/kg/injection). Both levers were extended into the chamber during the session, with the active lever/schedule alternating as the session progressed across components. Average ethanol intake was 0.47 ± 0.04 g/kg. A significant increase in sucrose only reinforcers and sucrose lever error responding was found suggesting that sucrose not ethanol is responsible for driving overall responding. The current findings suggest that the existing intravenous ethanol self-administration methodology remains aversive in the rat.
9

Towards an integral metatheory of addiction

Du Plessis, Guy Pierre 11 1900 (has links)
Addiction is one of the most significant problems facing contemporary society. Consequently many scholars, institutions and clinicians have sought to understand this complex phenomenon, as is evident in the abundance of etiological models of addiction in existence today. A literature review pointed that there is little consensus regarding the nature and etiopathogenesis of addiction, and integrative models have not yet been able to provide the sought-after integration. In addressing this problem, this study offers a theoretical analysis of the paradigmatic and meta-paradigmatic suitability of Integral Theory in the design of an integrated metatheory of addiction. The data consisted of the most prominent etiological theories and models of addiction. The study focused on several essential features constituting the architectonic of any metatheory that attempts to provide conceptual scaffolding for the construction of a comprehensive metatheory of addiction. The criteria for the construction of a metatheory were conceptual integration, ontological span, ontological depth, empirical validity and internal consistency. Integral Theory was critically assessed in terms of each of the abovementioned criteria. The study suggests that Integral Theory is eminently suitable as a philosophical foundation for the development of an integrated metatheory of addiction. / Psychology / M.A. (Psychology)
10

Towards an integral metatheory of addiction

Du Plessis, Guy Pierre 11 1900 (has links)
Addiction is one of the most significant problems facing contemporary society. Consequently many scholars, institutions and clinicians have sought to understand this complex phenomenon, as is evident in the abundance of etiological models of addiction in existence today. A literature review pointed that there is little consensus regarding the nature and etiopathogenesis of addiction, and integrative models have not yet been able to provide the sought-after integration. In addressing this problem, this study offers a theoretical analysis of the paradigmatic and meta-paradigmatic suitability of Integral Theory in the design of an integrated metatheory of addiction. The data consisted of the most prominent etiological theories and models of addiction. The study focused on several essential features constituting the architectonic of any metatheory that attempts to provide conceptual scaffolding for the construction of a comprehensive metatheory of addiction. The criteria for the construction of a metatheory were conceptual integration, ontological span, ontological depth, empirical validity and internal consistency. Integral Theory was critically assessed in terms of each of the abovementioned criteria. The study suggests that Integral Theory is eminently suitable as a philosophical foundation for the development of an integrated metatheory of addiction. / Psychology / M. A. (Psychology)

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