• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 3
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 8
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

An assessment of the equitability of farm program payments

Higgins, Lindsey Marie 16 August 2006 (has links)
With increased pressures on today’s Federal Budget, there may be funding cuts on agriculture programs. These cuts would certainly bring about increased concern as to which programs and which crops take the biggest cut. A straight cut across the board will likely affect each commodity group uniquely, thus creating a need to evaluate the current distribution of funding and the relative benefits associated with this distribution. The equitable distribution of farm program payments has been an ongoing concern and publications have been written attempting to answer the question of which commodity is receiving more than their “fair share.” This thesis will use the measures used in prior publications that have been updated to reflect current farm bill visions. Additionally, this research uses a consistent data set over a long enough time period so that comparisons between program crops can be made. Equitability in relation to farm program payments is extremely difficult to measure as there are so many different factors to take into consideration. Thus, it would be expected that the answer does not resolve itself with one ratio. Ultimately, the results of this research show that depending upon which tool you choose, the relative levels of support may change. For example, rice receives the most support per pound of program production on average, relative to the other eight crops, yet receives the second lowest level of target price relative to total variable costs. The underlying causes for this variability of results are described in the research though investigation of trends in the market prices for these specific crops and the understanding of what each ratio is actually measuring. By reviewing the results, a clearer picture of which crops are getting greatest support begins to emerge, yet the outcome is still subject to much debate as there is no single “tell-all” ratio. The whole picture needs to be taken into consideration. This research provides a reference and attempts to present the whole picture, providing a consistent and complete reference for policy makers to refer to as this debate increases.
2

Věkové složení populace plotice obecné (Rutilus rutilus) a jelce tlouště (Leuciscus cephalus) v řece Blanici. / The age sructure of the roach (Rutilus rutilus) population and the chevin (Leuciscus cephalus) population in the Blanice river

BLÁHA, Josef January 2008 (has links)
The Blanice river has its spring in the Šumava Protected Landscape Reserve near Zlatá at an altitude of 972 m a.s.l. and empties in the Otava river near Putim at an altitude of 362 a.s.l. The size of its catchment area is 860,5 km2, the watercourse is 93,3 km and the flow rate at the confluence is 4,23 m3.s-1. The upper reaches of the Blanice has a typical submontane, trout character, which is disturbed by the Husinec reservoir (the water area is 68 ha, maximal depth 25,5 m). The lower two thirds of the river run through an array of ponds in the region of Vodňany and Protivín. This area is intensively cultivated by agricultural activities. These two factors play the major role the fact that the lower part of the river is strongly eutrophicated. This is also supported by the abundance survey, according to which the most abundant species are roach (Rutilus rutilus) and chub (Leuciscus cephalus). The survey was made at 9 localities encompassing the main biotope types in the longitudinal profile of the lower part of the Blanice in the region of Vodňany and Protivín. The harvests were carried out within a 50-meter section, always in the upstream direction towards the place that kept the fish from escape (a small weir, a knickpoint). The most abundant species {--} Rutilus rutilus and Leuciscus cephalus {--} were evaluated from the viewpoint of the age distribution of the population.
3

AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DO MEIO AQUÁTICO UTILIZANDO UM ÍNDICE BASEADO NA ASSEMBLEIA DE PEIXES, ALTO RIO PARANÁ, GOIÁS, BRASIL CENTRAL

Alves, Wagner Coelho 21 March 2011 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-10T10:44:14Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 WAGNER COELHO ALVES.pdf: 1909173 bytes, checksum: 7df355ea1f5d1631055296a76b52f600 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-03-21 / The purpose of this work is to evaluate the quality of water evironment of the hydrographic basin of river Piracanjuba, river Meia Ponte stream Santa Maria. Appendages of alto Paraná river basin, making used index based in fishes developed by Fialho (2009). For that then it was considered 14 describes: Globals ( Diversity simpson s rate e equitability), taxonomic (abundance and rich resourse of the species of those families Callichthyidae, Genere Incertae Sedis in Characidae (GISC), Curimatidae and Gymnotidae and trofic group of detritivory and abundance of Sternopygidae family and the rich specie of the Heptapteridae family. In this work the sampling was maden on the dry weater (from may to September of 2009). In 27 sampling sites 14 afluents streams of river Piracanjuba, 7 afluentes of river Meia Ponte and 6 of stream Santa Maria the collect icthyofauna it was maden by the electrofishing method. Witch in on single passing in on part of 100 m located amount and others low waters. The results show that 27 stream reaches only the sampling sites P03, P11, and P21 had a bigger escores value but it was not considered as preserved as IBP protocol prosposed by Fialho (2009). For other wise 10 sampling sites (P01,P07,P08,P09,P12,P16,P18,P19,P22 and P25) showed values igual 0, then it is considered with higher degree of anthropogenic desarrengement. With tthis comes with the conclusion all the sampling site are anthropogenic that can be explained by the intense cattle raising activity in that place. / Este trabalho tem como objetivo, avaliar a qualidade do meio aquático das bacias hidrográficas dos rios Piracanjuba, Meia Ponte e ribeirão Santa Maria, pertencentes à bacia do alto rio Paraná, utilizando um índice baseado em peixes, desenvolvido por Fialho (2009). Para isso, foram considerados 14 descritores, assim distribuídos: globais (Índice de diversidade de Simpson, Equitabilidade), taxonômicos (abundâncias e riqueza de espécies das famílias Callichthyidae, Genere Incertae Sedis in Characidae (GISC), Curimatidae e Gymnotidae e do grupo trófico dos detritívoros; abundância da família Sternopygidae e a riqueza de espécies da família Heptapteridae). Neste trabalho, as coletas foram realizadas no período de estiagem (maio a setembro de 2009), em 27 pontos amostrais, sendo 14 riachos afluentes do rio Piracanjuba, sete afluentes do rio Meia Ponte e seis do ribeirão Santa Maria. A coleta da ictiofauna foi realizada pelo método da pesca elétrica com uma única passada em um trecho de 100 m, localizados a montante e outro na jusante. Os resultados mostraram que dos 27 pontos amostrais, apenas os pontos P03, P11 e P21 tiveram maiores valores dos escores, mas não foram classificados como preservados, conforme protocolo do IBP, proposto por Fialho (2009). Por outro lado, dez pontos (P01, P07, P08, P09, P12, P16, P18, P19, P22, P25) apresentaram valores iguais a zero, sendo assim considerados com maior grau de perturbação antrópica. Com isso, conclui-se que todos os pontos amostrais são antropizados, o que pode ser explicado pela intensa atividade agropecuária da região.
4

Ζητήματα δικαιοσύνης σε προβλήματα κατανομής αγαθών και επιμερισμού κόστους

Κυροπούλου, Μαρία 27 July 2010 (has links)
Το πρόβλημα της δίκαιης κατανομής είναι ένα πολύ σημαντικό πρόβλημα που έχει ανακύψει στον τομέα της επιστήμης των υπολογιστών και όχι μόνο. Κάποιες από τις μορφές που έχει εμφανιστεί είναι π.χ. στην κατανομή πόρων σε δίκτυα υπολογιστών, στο διακανονισμό συνόρων σε διεθνείς διαφωνίες, στο οικογενειακό δίκαιο και ως πρόβλημα της μείωσης των εκπομπών αερίων του θερμοκηπίου. Θεωρούμε προβλήματα αναθέσεων στα οποία ένα σύνολο αγαθών είτε αγγαρειών πρέπει να ανατεθεί σε κάποιους παίκτες. Κάθε παίκτης έχει μία συνάρτηση κέρδους (κόστους) που δείχνει πόσο εκτιμά κάθε αγαθό (αγγαρεία, αντίστοιχα) και το κέρδος (κόστος) του παίκτη για κάθε πιθανό σύνολο αντικειμένων προκύπτει αθροιστικά. Στόχος του προβλήματος είναι, φυσικά, η αποδοτικότητα και η δικαιοσύνη της ανάθεσης, περιορισμοί όμως, όπως η εγωιστική συμπεριφορά των παικτών οδηγούν σε πολύ ενδιαφέρουσες παραλλαγές του προβλήματος. Το πρώτο αποτέλεσμα της εργασίας προκύπτει από τη μελέτη του προβλήματος ανάθεσης ενός συνόλου αδιαίρετων αγαθών σε παίκτες όταν μας ενδιαφέρει να μην υπάρχει μεγάλη ζήλεια μεταξύ των παικτών. Αδιαίρετα λέγονται τα αντικείμενα που δεν μπορούν να κοπούν σε κομμάτια και πρέπει να ανατεθούν ακέραια σε κάποιο παίκτη, ενώ ζήλεια, διαισθητικά, είναι η προτίμηση που έχει κάποιος παίκτης για το σύνολο αγαθών που ανατέθηκαν σε κάποιον άλλον σε σχέση με τα αγαθά που ανατέθηκαν στον ίδιο. Όπως έχουμε αναφέρει, στην πράξη οι παίκτες έχουν εγωιστική συμπεριφορά, υπό την έννοια ότι προσπαθούν να μεγιστοποιήσουν το κέρδος τους. Για αυτό το λόγο, μπορεί να αναφέρουν εσφαλμένες συναρτήσεις κέρδους για να πετύχουν μία καλύτερη ανάθεση. Ως ειλικρινής χαρακτηρίζεται ένας μηχανισμός ανάθεσης ο οποίος εγγυάται ότι η ανάθεση των αντικειμένων βασίζεται στις σωστές συναρτήσεις κέρδους των παικτών. Υπό μία έννοια, ένας ειλικρινής μηχανισμός ανάθεσης αναγκάζει τους παίκτες να πουν την αλήθεια για τις συναρτήσεις κέρδους τους, ή αλλιώς, εγγυάται πως το κέρδος ενός παίκτη από την ανάθεση που βασίζεται σε εσφαλμένη συνάρτηση κέρδους δεν είναι μεγαλύτερο από το κέρδος που θα είχε αν η ανάθεση είχε βασιστεί στην πραγματική συνάρτηση κέρδους του, δεδομένου του ότι οι υπόλοιποι παίκτες λένε την αλήθεια. Παρουσιάζουμε μία απλή απόδειξη ότι ειλικρινείς ντετερμινιστικοί μηχανισμοί ανάθεσης δεν ελαχιστοποιούν τη ζήλεια, χαρακτηρίζοντας τέτοιους μηχανισμούς για δύο παίκτες και δύο αντικείμενα. Συγκεκριμένα, στην απόδειξη μας φαίνεται ότι για κάθε τέτοιο ειλικρινή μηχανισμό υπάρχουν στιγμιότυπα για τα οποία η ζήλεια σχεδόν μεγιστοποιείται. Επίσης, παρουσιάζουμε μία ανάλυση για ομοιόμορφα τυχαίες αναθέσεις οι οποίες είναι ειλικρινείς μηχανισμοί κατά μέσο όρο. Τα αποτελέσματα αυτά απλοποιούν και βελτιώνουν προηγούμενα αποτελέσματα των Lipton, Markakis, Mossel και Saberi. Συγκεκριμένα, δείχνουμε ότι η ζήλεια φράσσεται εκ των άνω από την ποσότητα O(a√(m ln n)) με μεγάλη πιθανότητα, όπου a είναι το μέγιστο κέρδος για κάθε αντικείμενο για κάθε παίκτη, n είναι ο αριθμός των παικτών και m ο αριθμός των αντικειμένων. Για την περίπτωση που το κέρδος κάθε παίκτη στο σύνολο των αντικειμένων είναι 1, το φράγμα γίνεται O(√(a ln n)). Στη συνέχεια μελετούμε την επίπτωση της δικαιοσύνης στην αποδοτικότητα των αναθέσεων. Στα ακόλουθα θα θεωρούμε ότι όντως είναι γνωστές οι πραγματικές συναρτήσεις κέρδους των παικτών. Επίσης, θεωρούμε και αναθέσεις αγγαρειών εκτός από αγαθών, καθώς επίσης και αναθέσεις διαιρετών εκτός από αδιαίρετων αντικειμένων. Ασχολούμαστε με τρείς διαφορετικές έννοιες δικαιοσύνης ανάμεσα στους παίκτες, συγκεκριμένα την αναλογικότητα, τη μη ύπαρξη ζήλειας και την ισοτιμία για αναθέσεις διαιρετών και αδιαίρετων αγαθών και αγγαρειών. Γενικά, μία ανάθεση αντικειμένων σε n παίκτες είναι αναλογική εάν σε κάθε παίκτη δίνεται η εντύπωση ότι παίρνει ένα σύνολο αντικειμένων “καλύτερο” από ποσοστό 1/n του συνόλου των αντικειμένων προς ανάθεση. Μία ανάθεση είναι χωρίς-ζήλεια εάν κάε παίκτης προτιμά όσα του έχουν ανατεθεί σε σύγκριση με το τι έχει πάρει οποιοσδήποτε άλλος παίκτης, ενώ μία ανάθεση είναι ισότιμη όταν όλοι οι παίκτες είναι εξ'ίσου ικανοποιημένοι με αυτά που τους έχουν ανατεθεί. Τέλος, μία ανάθεση είναι βέλτιστη εάν μεγιστοποιεί το κέρδος (ελαχιστοποιεί το κόστος, αντίστοιχα) του συνόλου των παικτών, δηλ. κάθε αντικείμενο ανατίθεται σε εκείνον τον παίκτη που το εκτιμά περισσότερο (του κοστίζει λιγότερο, αντίστοιχα). Παρουσιάζουμε μία σειρά αποτελεσμάτων για το κόστος της δικαιοσύνης όσον αφορά σε κάθε μία από τις τρείς έννοιες δικαιοσύνης που αναφέρθηκαν παραπάνω, πάνω σε διαιρετά και αδιαίρετα αντικείμενα αγαθών και αγγαρειών και ποσοτικοποιούμε την απώλεια αποδοτικότητας σε δίκαιες αναθέσεις σε σύγκριση με τις βέλτιστες. Παρουσιάζουμε άνω και κάτω φράγματα για κάθε περίπτωση, τα περισσότερα από τα οποία είτε συμπίπτουν είτε απέχουν κατά σταθερούς πολλαπλασιαστικούς παράγοντες. / Fair division (or fair allocation) dates back to the ancient times and has found applications such as border settlement in international disputes, greenhouse gas emissions reduction, allocation of mineral riches in the ocean bed, inheritance, divorces, etc. In the era of the Internet, it appears regularly in distributed resource allocation and cost sharing in communication networks. We consider allocation problems in which a set of goods or chores has to be allocated among several players. Each player has a utility (disutility) function indicating the happiness (regret) of the player if she is allocated the particular good (chore, respectively); this function is non-negative and additive. The objective of the problem is the efficiency and the fairness of the allocation, but restrictions like the selfish nature of the players lead to very interesting variants of the problem. Our first result stems from the study of the problem where a set of indivisible items has to be allocated to some players and where allocations in which no player envies the bundle of items allocated to the other players too much are considered. Indivisibility implies that an item cannot be broken into parts and must be allocated to a single player, and envy, intuitively implies the preference of a player for the bundle of items allocated to another player compared to that of the items allocated to her. As we stated above, in practice, players are usually selfish in the sense that they aim to increase their benefit, i.e., their total utility on the bundle of items the algorithm allocates to them. In order to do so, they may report false valuations of items to the algorithm (i.e., different than their true utilities). Truthful allocation functions guarantee that the allocation is based on the true utilities of the players. In a sense, a truthful allocation function motivates the players to be truthful, or, put differently, guarantees that the benefit obtained by a player when reporting false valuations on the items is not greater than the benefit she would have obtained by telling the truth, given that the rest of the players are truthful. We present a simple proof that deterministic truthful allocations do not minimize envy by characterizing the truthful mechanisms for two players and two items. Our proof actually shows that for any truthful allocation function, there are instances in which the envy is almost maximized. We also present an improved analysis of uniformly random allocations of m items over n players, which are truthful in expectation. We show that the envy is at most O(a√(mln n)) with high probability, where a is the maximum utility per item over all players and items. For the case where the sum of utilities of each player is 1, we prove a bound of O(√(aln n)). This improves the previous bound of O(√a n^{1/2+e}) for any e>0. We also study the impact of fairness on the efficiency of allocations. For this part of the paper, we assume that the true utility functions of the players are public knowledge. We consider both goods and chores, as well as divisible and indivisible items. Furthermore, we consider three different notions of fairness, namely proportionality, envy-freeness, and equitability. Informally, an allocation among n players is proportional if each player has the impression that she gets a better share than a fraction of 1/n of the items to be allocated. An allocation is envy-free if no player envies some other player, whereas an allocation is equitable when all players are equally happy with their shares. Finally, an allocation is optimal when it maximizes the total utility (minimizes the total disutility, respectively) of the set of players, i.e., each item is allocated to the player that values it the most (costs her the least). We present a series of results on the price of fairness under the three aforementioned different notions of fairness, for the cases of divisible and indivisible goods and chores, and quantify the efficiency loss in fair allocations compared to optimal ones. We present upper and lower bounds on each case, most of which are either exact or tight within constant factors.
5

DINÂMICA VEGETACIONAL E DIVERSIDADE FLORÍSTICA EM ÁREAS DE VEGETAÇÃO CAMPESTRE, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL / VEGETATION DYNAMICS AND FLORISTIC DIVERSITY OF GRASSLANDS AT RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

Goulart, Carolina Gomes 26 September 2014 (has links)
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior / The Pampa biome encompasses heterogeneous ecosystems, because of the great number of kinds of soils and the variations in altitude and also in the climate, and such characteristics are directly reflected in the floristic composition of the different vegetal communities. The knowledge of such diversity and the comprehension of the dynamics in this vegetation along with the practices of conservationist management result in a better use of the natural resources of the native meadow areas. This study aimed to assess those vegetation dynamics in an experimental area of natural meadow managed with different grazing methods, at Embrapa CPPSUL, Bagé, RS and concomitantly assess the floristic diversity of areas of native meadows submitted to fertilization and grazing methods in Unidades Experimentais Participativas in the Alto Camaquã area, RS, Brasil. In the study of the vegetation dynamics in the experimental area at Embrapa CPPSUL, the estimates of the species composition and their respective biomasses have followed the field proceedings of the BOTANAL method, with some adaptations. In order to generate hypotheses about the effects of the treatments (continuous and controlled grazing), multivariate analyzes have been used for the data about the species dynamics and functional types. The diversity and uniformity of species have been quantified through the indices of Shannon and equitability. There weren t evidences of meaningful differences among the factors: grazing, time and interaction grazing x time. There weren t also meaningful differences between rotary and continuous methods of grazing. The most frequent families in the survey in the studied areas of the Alto Camaquã area were, respectively: Poaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, and Fabaceae. Considering the fertilizing factor, there weren t differences among the different kinds of fertilization. The areas that are kept under continuous grazing show less diversity in comparison with the ones with rotary grazing. / O Bioma Pampa apresenta ecossistemas heterogêneos, devido ao grande número de tipos de solos e as variações tanto de altitude como de clima, e estas características refletem diretamente na diversidade da composição florística das diferentes comunidades vegetais. O conhecimento dessa diversidade e a compreensão da dinâmica dessa vegetação aliadas a práticas de manejos conservacionistas, resultam em um melhor aproveitamento dos recursos naturais das áreas de campos nativos. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a dinâmica vegetacional de uma área experimental de pastagem natural manejada com diferentes métodos de pastoreio, na EMBRAPA CPPSUL, Bagé, RS e concomitantemente avaliar a diversidade florística de áreas de campo nativo submetidas a adubação e métodos de pastoreio em Unidades Experimentais Participativas na região do Alto Camaquã, RS, Brasil. No estudo de dinâmica vegetacional da área experimental da EMBRAPA CPPSUL, as estimativas da composição de espécies e suas respectivas biomassas seguiram os procedimentos de campo do método BOTANAL, com algumas adaptações. Visando gerar hipóteses sobre os efeitos dos tratamentos (pastoreio contínuo e controlado), foram utilizadas análises multivariadas para os dados de dinâmica de espécies e tipos funcionais. A diversidade e uniformidade de espécies foram quantificadas através dos índices de Shannon e de equitabilidade. Não foram evidenciadas diferenças significativas entre os fatores: pastejo, tempo e para a interação pastejo x tempo. Entre os métodos de pastoreio rotativo e contínuo também não há diferença significativa. As famílias mais frequentes no levantamento das áreas estudadas da região do Alto Camaquã foram respectivamente: Poaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae e Fabaceae respectivamente. Considerando o fator adubação, não houve diferenças entre os diferentes tipos de adubação. As áreas de campo que são mantidas sob pastoreio contínuo apresentam menor diversidade frente as áreas com pastoreio rotativo.
6

Okraje polních cest jako zdroj biodiverzity (případová studie na epigeických broucích) / Road side verges in agricultural landscape and their biodiversity - epigeic beetles

JELÍNEK, Jan January 2017 (has links)
The species diversity, aktivity, equitability and human impact were studied using epigeic beetle communities on transect whest field field trip and alfaalfa field. The materiál was collected by pitfall traps during the period Juni-September 20016 in cadastr of the town Písek in the Southern Bohemia. 38 species and 567 individuals were kept together. Activita of beetles differs in studied plots. The highest aktivity was found on fields and the lowest in field trip. Index of human impact was very similar on studied plots wheat 2,5, field trip 12, rape 0). I tis clear that alll studied are strongly impacted by human acticity. The frequency of relic species were (Dragons and Ground beetles) 20% only on all studied plots 80,00%. The adaptible species absent on field cultures and was found on field trip only. 6 species of adaptible (stenotopic) species were found on field trip only, but their aktivity were very low. The equitability of communities in filed plots was very low (2,331 2,474). The highest equitabilty was found on field trip (3,04). The ordination of commuties indicate the close similarity. The species diversaity is very similar in all communities on studied plots. We recommend the change of sowing management and the lower agrotechnic interference in studied locality. We recommend to enhance the plots of biocorridors and biocenters. The stuided field trip plays a role for the increse of the biodiversity of epigeic beetles, which are important for the reduction of pest organisms in agricultural landscape.
7

A perda de grupos funcionais em comunidades virtuais: efeito das intera??es entre esp?cies e grupos funcionais

Britto, Igor Galv?o de 27 August 2012 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-12-17T14:33:06Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 IgorGB_DISSERT.pdf: 695705 bytes, checksum: 0611f2165b1e05afa1e64ceaedeacebb (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012-08-27 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior / High levels of local, regional, and global extinctions has progressively simplified communities in terms of both species and ecosystem functioning. Theoretical models demonstrated that the degree of functional redundancy determines the rates of functional group loss in response to species extinctions. Here, we improve the theoretical predictions by incorporating in the model interactions between species and between functional groups. In this study, we tested the effect of different scenarios of interspecific interactions and effects between functional groups on the resistance to loss of community functional groups. Virtual communities have been built with different distribution patterns of species in functional groups, both with high and low evenness. A matrix A was created to represent the net effect of interspecific interactions among all species, representing nesting patterns, modularity, sensitive species, and dominant species. Moreover, a second matrix B was created to represent the interactions between functional groups, also exhibiting different patterns. The extinction probability of each species was calculated based on community species richness and by the intensity of the interspecific interactions that act upon it and group to which it belongs. In the model, successive extinctions decrease the community species richness, the degree of functional redundancy and, consequently, the number of functional groups that remain in the system. For each scenario of functional redundancy, A, and B, we ran 1000 simulations to generate an average functional extinction curve. Different model assumptions were able to generate remarkable variation on functional extinction curves. More extreme variations occurred when the matrix A and B caused a higher heterogeneity in the species extinction probability. Scenarios with sensitive species, positive or negative, showed a greater variation than the scenarios with dominant species. Nested interactions showed greater variation than scenarios where the interactions were in modules. Communities with maximal functional evenness can only be destabilized by the interactions between species and functional groups. In contrast, communities with low functional evenness can have its resistance either increased or decreased by the interactions. The concentration of positive interactions in low redundancy groups or negative interactions in high redundancy groups was able to decrease the functional extinction rates. In contrast, the concentration of negative interactions in low redundancy groups or positive interactions in high redundancy groups was able to increase the functional extinction rates. This model shows results that are relevant for species priorization in ecosystem conservation and restoration / Os n?veis elevados de extin??es locais, regionais e globais t?m simplificado progressivamente comunidades em termos de esp?cies e funcionamento do ecossistema. Modelos te?ricos demonstraram que o grau de redund?ncia funcional determina as taxas de perda de grupos funcionais ? medida que as comunidades sofrem extin??o de esp?cies. Aqui n?s aprimoramos as predi??es te?ricas pela incorpora??o no modelo de intera??es entre esp?cies e entre grupos funcionais. Neste estudo, testamos o efeito de diferentes cen?rios de intera??es interespec?ficas e de efeitos entre grupos funcionais sobre a resist?ncia das comunidades ? perda de grupos funcionais. Comunidades virtuais foram constru?das com diferentes padr?es de distribui??o de esp?cies nos grupos funcionais, tanto com alta quanto com baixa equitabilidade. Uma matriz A foi criada para representar o efeito l?quido das intera??es interespec?ficas entre todas as esp?cies, representando padr?es de aninhamento, modularidade, esp?cies sens?veis ou dominantes. Al?m disto, uma segunda matriz B foi criada para representar as intera??es entre grupos funcionais, tendo tamb?m diferentes padr?es. A probabilidade de extin??o de cada esp?cie foi calculada com base na riqueza de esp?cie da comunidade e pela intensidade das intera??es interespec?ficas que atuam sobre ela e sobre o grupo funcional ao qual ela pertence. No modelo, extin??es de esp?cies sucessivas diminuem a riqueza da comunidade, o grau de redund?ncia funcional e consequentemente o n?mero de grupos funcionais que permanecem no sistema. Para cada cen?rio de redund?ncia funcional, A e B, n?s rodamos 1000 simula??es para gerar uma curva de extin??o funcional m?dia. Diferentes suposi??es do modelo foram capazes de gerar varia??es not?veis nas curvas de extin??o funcional. Varia??es mais extremas ocorreram quando as matrizes A e B definem um efeito diferencial acentuado na probabilidade de extin??o das esp?cies dos grupos funcionais. Cen?rios com esp?cies sens?veis, positivas ou negativas, apresentaram uma maior varia??o que os cen?rios com esp?cies dominantes. Intera??es aninhadas apresentaram maior varia??o do que cen?rios em que as intera??es s?o modulares. Comunidades com redund?ncia funcional m?xima podem somente ser fragilizadas pelas intera??es entre esp?cies e grupos funcionais. Em contraste, comunidades com baixa riqueza funcional pode ter sua resist?ncia aumentada ou diminu?da pelas intera??es. A concentra??o de intera??es positivas in grupos de baixa redund?ncia ou intera??es negativas em grupos de alta redund?ncia foi capaz de diminuir as taxas de extin??o funcional. Em contraste, a concentra??o de intera??es negativas em grupos de baixa redund?ncia ou de intera??es positivas em grupos de alta redund?ncia foi capaz de aumentar as taxas de extin??o funcional. Este modelo apresenta resultados relevantes para prioriza??o de esp?cies em trabalhos de conserva??o e restaura??o dos ecossistemas
8

Students' Perceptions About Knowledge

Colonies, Jason S. 07 August 2023 (has links)
No description available.

Page generated in 0.0629 seconds