Torres Mondaca, Nykhita
Maria McCann paints a dark picture of masculinity and its effects in her novel As Meat Loves Salt (2001). The violent Jacob Cullen struggles with his masculinity as he faces the intricacies of religion, sexuality and politics in the midst of the English Civil War where he falls in love with fellow soldier Christopher Ferris. By using R.W. Connell and James Messerschmidt’s framework for the hierarchy of masculinities, I explore masculinities on local, regional and global levels and emphasized femininity in a close reading of McCann’s novel. My aim is not only to analyse the masculinities of the novel but also to use the framework to redefine toxic masculinity in order to make it a useable concept when analysing masculinities in literature. I redefine toxic masculinity because it lacks a clear definition anchored in an established framework used to study masculinity that does not see masculinity as inherently toxic. I believe that anchoring it to Connell and Messerschmidt’s framework will make it a useable concept. Due to the novel’s relationship to the Bible, I will use masculinity studies done on David and Jesus from the Bible to compare and reveal similarities with the masculinities in the novel, how they appear on the local, regional and global levels in the novel and its effects. I draw parallels between the love story in As Meat Loves Salt to the love story of David and Jonathan in the Bible by using queer readings of David and Jonathan in order to explore how masculinity affects the relationships and how the novel uses these two love stories as a study of toxic masculinity and how it relates it to hegemonic masculinity.
”Clint Eastwood med disktrasa” : En narrativ innehållsanalys av läromedel utifrån ett genusperspektivBjörkman, Dawid Leonard January 2016 (has links)
The aim of this study is to examine how the male characters are portrayed in the television series »Livet i bokstavslandet« based on Connels (1995) theory hegemonic »masculinity« and Butlers theory »gender performativity« and examine if the male characters challenge or maintain gender. The study proceed from the following questions: Does the male characters in »Livet i bokstavslandet« challenge or reproduce traditional gender roles? Are the male characters »participant«, »subordinated« or »marginalized« based on Connells hegemonic masculinity theory? A narrative content analysis has been conducted. The theoretical framework of the examination is based on men and masculinities studies, from a post-modern influenced perspective. Butler's concepts of performativity are of importance in this study. The results of shows, in conclusion, that »Livet i bokstavslandet« does neither challenge nor negotiate new gender roles. From a performativity point of view, the conclusion is that the series maintains prevailing gender roles.
Guldkvinnorna visar vägen mot framtiden? : En kvantitativ innehållsanalys av Aftonbladets och Expressens sportbilagor under OS i Pyeongchang 2018.Karlsson, Bror-Emil, Reijs, Caroline January 2018 (has links)
The aim of this study was to examine how the two largest sports tabloids, Aftonbladet and Expressen, in Sweden represented the male and female Swedish athletes during the Olympic games in Pyeongchang 2018. Furthermore, the study examined how many male and female journalists covered the sport sections during the event and whether or not there were any differences between the tabloids. With agenda setting theory and hegemonic masculinity as our theoretical framework we conducted a quantitative content analysis on every news article revolving Swedish Olympic athletes during the Olympic period. The results showed no significant difference between male and female athletes regarding the amount of coverage in the tabloids. However, other findings were made and showed that female athletes more often got associated with their families and partners while male athletes were associated with their coaches. The study also showed that the majority of journalists reporting from the Olympic games were male.
12 June 2014
Although prevalence rates of gay intimate partner violence (IPV) appear to equal heterosexual IPV rates, gay male IPV does not feature strongly in public anti-‐violence messaging. This relative silence appears to hold even within the LGBTI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex) community. This study addresses this silence. In-‐depth qualitative interviews were conducted and a critical discourse analysis informed by Ian Parker’s (1992) perspectives, was used to analyse the results. A review of mainstream and critical discourses of violence show that IPV is usually constructed as an exclusively heterosexual phenomenon and these influenced participants’ constructions. Findings indicated that a range of discourses intersect to produce constructions of gay IPV as ‘not violence’, normative, un-‐ harmful, unintimidating, ‘anti-‐gay’, erotic, cathartic and intimate. All of these formations can result in gay IPV being silenced and it was shown that gay mens’ constructions of IPV were inextricably bound in gendered, power asymmetry. The study demonstrates how particular configurations of discourse are necessary for violence to become intelligible at all. The implications of these findings are discussed and possibilities for important community intervention suggested.
Igram, Sarah E.
01 May 2017
This thesis addresses universities’ image repair strategies when a student athlete is accused of sexual assault and the media’s coverage of these strategies. This is a particularly important issue due to the prevalence of campus sexual assault, as recent studies have shown that one in five women is sexually assaulted in college. Sexual assaults involving college athletes typically receive more media attention due to their high-profile nature. Athletic programs are typically sites of hegemonic masculinity, where men take action to maintain dominance over women. They may do this through misogynistic and homophobic talk or committing violence against women. Athletic departments’ image repair strategies when male athletes are accused of sexual assault also sometimes uphold hegemonic masculinity if their main goal is to maintain the team, which may generate significant revenue for the university. As such, their image repair strategies may allow male athletes to continue to partake in misogynistic practices, including committing violence against women. The media also has been accused of upholding masculine dominance by supporting rape myths or blaming the accuser in sexual assault incidents. This thesis consists of two case studies: the University of Colorado, which faced several allegations of sexual assault by football players in the early 2000’s; and Baylor University, which underwent a similar scandal starting in late 2015. It contains textual analysis of officials’ image repair strategies at both schools and the media’s responses to them. Ultimately, both Colorado and Baylor upheld hegemonic masculinity through their image repair strategies, though Colorado did so on a larger scale. In both instances, journalists were largely critical of their image repair strategies and argued that the strategies were not enough to change the structure of masculine dominance.
11 July 2019
Rape has historically been constructed as a women’s issue and, as such, research has focused on female survivors of sexual assault. Current research on the topic indicates that the construction of female rape is structured by stereotypical gender roles and patriarchal/misogynistic structures. However, there is very little research on male rape. This exploratory thesis seeks to fill this gap by exploring how the meaning of male rape is constructed on Twitter posts that contain the hashtag “MaleRape”. Two thousand ninety-two tweets were collected. The final sample was comprised of 840 tweets and qualitative content analysis was the method used to code and organize the data. Preliminary analysis suggested that the constructions varied significantly by region; accordingly, the data were sorted into the following four regions: North America; Europe; Africa; and Asia. The analysis, rooted in critical feminism, explores how male rape is constructed in each region. The findings indicate that there is some consistency across regions, especially with respect to the ways in which patriarchal assumptions led to the denial of male rape and the silencing of survivors. However, there were interesting differences in the various regions. This thesis addresses the influence of heteronormative constructions and calls for more consideration of cultural differences when studying sexual violence.
Segredos de corpos nus: masculinidades, corpolatria e significados da prostituição entre garotos de programa de luxo / Secrets of naked bodies: masculinity, corpolatry and the meanings of prostituition among luxury male prostitutesSantos, Renato Caio Silva 14 May 2019 (has links)
Introdução - O corpo, em diferentes perspectivas, é concebido como uma fonte de transmissão de mensagens, de maneira que, mais do que enaltecer a matéria, é prestigiado o teor implícito nela, o qual pode ser interconectado com a natureza e a personalidade de seu transmissor. No campo da prostituição, no qual o corpo vale como mercadoria, os garotos de programa filtram, incorporam e reproduzem os desejos dos clientes para então construírem personagens e desenvolverem o prisma teatral da prostituição. A prostituição de luxo é manifestada como um fenômeno ainda pouco explorado em pesquisas e no meio acadêmico, o que lhe confere um caráter emblemático nos estudos de gênero e sexualidade. Objetivo - Compreender os sentidos atribuídos à masculinidade, ao uso do corpo e à prostituição entre garotos de programa de luxo da cidade de São Paulo. Método - Pesquisa qualitativa, mediante entrevistas com 8 garotos de programa de luxo. Foi utilizado um roteiro temático norteador para o levantamento do perfil socioeconômico dos participantes, assim como de relatos acerca da prática profissional e das concepções de masculinidade no campo da prostituição de luxo. Os dados foram transcritos, organizados e analisados por meio de uma aproximação com a análise de conteúdo. Resultados - Os garotos de programa, para se inserirem no mercado erótico de alto padrão, assumem um comportamento no qual encarnam aspectos caricaturais e marcantes da masculinidade hegemônica. Pode-se considerar que é no corpo e pelo corpo que eles demarcam e tornam visíveis aspectos ligados à masculinidade, à virilidade e à potência sexual. Corpos musculosos carregam os aspectos simbólicos inerentes e necessários à esta ocupação e é justamente esse reforço das normas e da performance de gênero que garante, entre outros aspectos, um lugar no mercado de luxo. Para tanto, o uso de anabolizantes é um dos principais recursos para a conquista do corpo considerado como ideal e valorizado economicamente. Observa-se que, dentre os entrevistados, a prostituição é legitimada como fonte de renda e que eles escolheram a entrada no ramo, realizando diferentes tipos de investimentos estéticos para permanecerem, já que consideram que o ganho financeiro obtido dificilmente seria possível por meio de outros empregos do mercado formal. Conclusão - A apropriação de estereótipos ligados à hegemonia pode ser interpretada como uma repetição de normas relacionadas à ideia da dominação masculina. Na busca por esses traços, clientes e profissionais do sexo tendem a reproduzir como ideais, para si mesmos e seus parceiros, os mesmos padrões excludentes aos quais foram submetidos, como uma possível fuga da feminização e de aspectos considerados desvirtuados. / Introduction - The body, in different perspectives, is conceived as a source of message transmission, so that, more than praising the matter, the content implicit in it is honored, which can be interconnected with the nature and the personality of its transmitter. In the prostitution field, where the body counts as merchandise, the male prostitutes filter, incorporate, and reproduce the clients\' desires for them to build characters and develop the theatrical prism of prostitution. Luxury prostitution is manifested as a phenomenon still little explored in research and academic environment, which provides an emblematic character in gender and sexuality studies. Purpose - To understand the meanings attributed to masculinity, the use of the body, and the prostitution among luxury male prostitutes in the city of São Paulo. Method - Qualitative research made by interviews with 8 male prostitutes of high standard . For such, a thematic guide was used to guide and collect data on socioeconomic and cultural profiles of the participants, reports regarding the professional practice, and aspects regarding the purpose. The data were transcribed, organized and analyzed by approximation with the content analysis. Results - In order to be inserted in the high standard erotic market, the male prostitutes assume a behavior in which they embody caricature like and relevant aspects from the hegemonic masculinity. It can be considered that it is in the body and for the body that they mark and make visible aspects related to masculinity, virility and sexual potency. Muscled bodies carry the symbolic aspects inherent and necessary to this occupation and it is precisely this reinforcement of rules and gender performance that guarantees, among other factors, a place in the luxury market. For such, the use of anabolic is one of the main resources for the achievement of the body considered as ideal and economically valued. It is observed that, among the interviewees, the prostitution is legitimized as a source of income and that they chose to enter the industry, performing different types of aesthetic investments to remain in the industry, provided they consider that the financial gain obtained would hardly be possible through other jobs in the formal market. Conclusion - The appropriation of stereotypes linked to hegemony can be interpreted as a repetition of rules related to the idea of male domination. In the search for these features, clients and sex professionals tend to reproduce as ideals, for themselves and their partners, the same excluding patterns to which they have been subjected, as a possible escape from feminization and aspects considered to be distorted.
Följsam eller utmanande : en kvalitativ studie om professionella behandlares arbete med psykisk ohälsa hos män och maskulinitet / Compliant or challenging : a qualitative study of professional practitioners work with mental illness among men and masculinityAsklund Nilsson, Sebastian, Carlsson, Gustav January 2020 (has links)
Men are more likely than women to commit suicide and more reluctant to seek professional help when experiencing any type of mental illness. By interviewing six professionals, working as clinical psychologists or counsellors this study aimed to examine their experiences and attitudes concerning masculinity and mental illness among men. The material was examined through a thematic analysis which resulted in four different themes, each responding to the aim of the study from different angles. All participants strive not to differentiate between clients depending on their sex, yet it is widely held that masculine norms restrain men from seeking help from our current health services. This derives from the notion that traditionally masculine virtues such as stoicism and resilience are not compatible with vulnerability which is commonly associated with mental health services. Thus, there is a widespread attitude that traditional masculine norms should be challenged as a means to support men’s mental health. This study suggests that an excessive challenging approach legitimates the current constitution of mental health services which could restrain health services and other decision-makers responsiveness of men’s preferences and needs. To address the problem of mental illness and high rates of suicide among men, the challenging approach needs to be accompanied with compliance and adjustment after the needs and preferences of men.
Gender has recently begun to receive attention as an important factor in the provision of security. Unfortunately, the consideration of gender is often mistakenly understood to mean a consideration of women and women’s issues, when in reality it pertains to the needs and interests of both men and women. Through an idea analysis, this thesis aims to study the ideas about gender expressed in contemporary security sector reform and local ownership debate. The analysis shows that gender specific violence towards civilian men and boys is repeatedly overlooked in security sector reform policy and debate. It further shows that marginalized men are not being valued as local owners of reform processes due to the ideas about men and women that permeate the debate. The theory of ‘hegemonic masculinity’ reveals how the ideas expressed serve to increase men’s vulnerabilities and further exclude them from the process of reform. The thesis concludes that because civilian men are overlooked in the debate, no substantial ownership can be attained. Because security sector reform is highly reliant on local ownership for legitimacy and sustainability, the thesis further suggests that the entire security sector reform project is compromised by the exclusion of men and boys.
Genus och stereotyper inom reklam : En kritisk diskursanalys av Gillettes reklamfilmer på YouTube / Gender and stereotypes in advertising : A critical discourse analysis of Gillette's commercials on YouTubeLindberg, Emma January 2020 (has links)
Gender and stereotypes in advertising is a critical discourse analysis aimed at studying how femininity and masculinity is portrayed in Gillette and Gillette Venus marketing on YouTube. Both brands have, after the #metoo campaign, opted to approach their marketing from different point of view since their previous advertising has been heavily criticized for endorsing negative gender stereotypes. The theoretical framework consists of commodity feminism, the male gaze, stereotyping and hegemonic masculinity. The material studied were three commercials taken from each brand’s YouTube channel since the change in marketing direction. The videos were posted in 2018-2019. The results show that although both brands have made a change in how they portray femininity and masculinity there are still sizeable differences in how women and men are approached as target groups.
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