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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Water quality investigations of the River Lea (NE London)

Patroncini, Deborah January 2013 (has links)
The Lea Navigation in the north-east of London, a canalised reach of the River Lea, is affected by episodes of very low levels of dissolved oxygen. The problem was detected by the Environment Agency in the stretch from the confluence with Pymmes Brook (which receives the final effluent of Deephams sewage treatment works) to the Olympic area (Marshgate Lane, Stratford). In this project, possible causes and sources of the poor water quality in the Lea Navigation have been investigated using a multi-parameter approach. A study of physico-chemical parameters, obtained from Environment Agency automated monitoring stations, gave a clear picture of the poor river water quality at three sites in this reach. River water ecotoxicity to the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was determined by algal growth inhibition tests, following the OECD guidelines. Moreover, a novel protocol was developed which involved the use of E. coli biosensors (CellSense) operating at a lower potential than the standard protocol and using pre-concentrated river water samples. This protocol is promising and it has the potential to be a useful tool to determine the toxicity of contaminants at environmental concentrations. Furthermore, the developed protocol is a rapid, easy to perform bioassay, with potential application in achieving the aims of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). In addition to the data from the Environment Agency automatic monitoring stations and the laboratory-based tests, two in situ monitoring approaches were performed: 1) a detailed spatial seasonal monitoring of physico-chemical parameters of river water at twenty-three sites, and 2) algal growth inhibition tests, with algae entrapped in alginate beads, at seven monitoring stations. Results showed chronic pollution, and identified polar compounds in the river water and high bacterial concentrations as possible causes of low dissolved oxygen levels. This study confirmed the negative impact of Deephams STW (throughout Pymmes Brook) on the water quality of the Lea Navigation. However, there was evidence of other sources of pollution, in particular Stonebridge Brook was identified as uncontrolled source of pollution and untreated wastewater. Other possible sources include Old Moselle Brook, diffuse pollution from surface runoff, boat discharges and other undetected misconnections. Finally, in the light of the WFD, this project provides a case study on the investigation of river water quality, providing evidence that the multiparameter approach is reliable, and low cost approach for the monitoring of freshwater bodies.

The search for equity

Lee, Tim January 1995 (has links)
No description available.

Abiotic stress in plants: Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins

Amara, Imen 12 July 2012 (has links)
In order to improve our understanding on LEA proteins and their molecular functions in drought tolerance, the present work analyzes in the first place, the composition of LEA subproteomes from Arabidopsis seeds and maize embryos; second, three maize embryo LEA proteins from groups 1, 2, and 3 are analyzed in order to detect functional differences among them and finally, transgenic maize plants over-expressing group 5 “rab28” lea gene are characterized. The following results are presented: - Chapter 1. Proteomic approach to analyze the composition of LEA subproteomes from Arabidopsis seeds by mass spectrometry. The main objective was the development and isolation method to obtain enriched LEA populations from Arabidopsis seeds. LEA subproteomes were obtained using an extraction procedure that combines heat stability and acid solubility of LEA proteins. To identify the protein content, we followed two approaches: first, a classical 1D (SDSPAGE) gel-based procedure associated with MS analysis using an electrospray ionization source coupled on-line to liquid chromatography (LC-ESI-MSMS) and second, a gel-free protocol associated with an off-line HPLC and analysis via matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (LC-MALDI-MSMS). - Chapter 2. Proteomic analysis of LEA proteins accumulated in maize mature seeds. Identification of LEA protein content by mass spectrometry and selection of three LEA proteins, Emb564, Rab17 and Mlg3, as representatives of groups 1, 2 and 3 for further study. Comparative functional analysis covering different aspects of maize Emb564, Rab17 and Mlg3 proteins, posttranslational modifications, subcellular localization and their properties in in-vitro and in- vivo assays. - Chapter 3. Characterization of transgenic maize plants expressing maize group 5 rab28 LEA gene under the ubiquitin promoter. Evaluation of Rab28 transcripts and protein levels, phenotype and stress tolerance traits of transgenic plants under drought stress. Investigation of the subcellular localization of transgenic and wild-type Rab28 protein using immunocytochemical approaches. / Las proteínas LEA, originalmente fueron descritas en las semillas de algodón; se acumulan en grandes cantidades en estructuras tolerantes a la desecación (semillas, polen) y en tejidos vegetativos sometidos a estrés abiótico, sequía, salinidad y frío. También se hallan en organismos anidrobióticos, en plantas de resurrección, algunos invertebrados y microorganismos. La presencia de proteínas LEA se correlaciona con la adquisición de tolerancia a la desecación. Desde un principio se les atribuyó un papel en las respuestas de las plantas en la adaptación al estrés (revisado en Bartels and Salamini 2001, Tunnacliffe 2007, Shih et al. 2010, Tunnacliffe 2010, Hand et al. 2011). Las proteínas LEA se clasifican en diversos grupos en función de dominios y secuencias de aminoácidos específicos (Wise 2010, Batagglia et al 2008, Bies-Ethève et al 2008). Los grupos 1, 2 y 3 son los más relevantes ya que abarcan la mayoría de las proteínas de la familia LEA. Una característica general de estas proteínas es su elevada hidrofilicidad, alto contenido de aminoácidos cargados y su falta de estructura en estado hidratado. A pesar de encontrarse mayoritariamente en forma de “random coil”, algunas adquieren un cierto grado de estructura durante la deshidratación o en la presencia de agentes promotores de α-hélices (Shih et al. 2010, Hand et al. 2011). A nivel celular se han hallado en todas las localizaciones, citosol, núcleo, nucleolo, mitocondria, cloroplasto, vacuola, retículo endoplásmico, peroxisoma y membrana plasmática, donde se supone ejercen su función protectora frente al estrés (Tunnacliffe and Wise 2007, Hundertmark and Hincha 2008). En relación a las modificaciones post-traduccionales, algunas se hallan fosforiladas (Jiang and Wang 2004; Plana et al. 1991, Heyen et al. 2002, Rohrig et al. 2006). Los efectos protectores de las varias proteínas LEA se han demostrado mediante ensayos in vitro y en aproximaciones transgénicas que han dado lugar a fenotipos resistentes a la sequía, sal y frío. Por lo general, se considera que estas proteínas contribuyen a la protección y a la estabilización de macromoléculas y estructuras celulares en las respuestas de adaptación al estrés en plantas; sin embargo, sus funciones específicas aún no han sido esclarecidas. A nivel molecular se ha propuesto que las funciones de las proteínas LEA pueden ser variadas: estabilización y renaturalización de proteínas, mantenimiento de membranas, en combinación, o no, con azúcares, tampones de hidratación (substitución de moléculas de agua), afinidad por iones y función antioxidante (Tunnacliffe and Wise 2007, Shih et al. 2010, Batagglia et al. 2008). Para finalizar, diremos que los objetivos principales de esta tesis consisten en ampliar los conocimientos sobre las proteínas LEA y sus funciones relativas a la tolerancia a la sequía. Los resultados están presentados en forma de capítulos.

A novel framework for the analysis of low factor of safety slopes in the highly plastic clays of the Canadian Prairies.

2014 September 1900 (has links)
The most common way to analyze slope stability is to employ limit equilibrium (LE) theory and obtain a factor of safety (FOS). Methods of LE analysis balance the forces, and/or moments that are driving and resisting slope movement. Generally, in geotechnical engineering practice, a slope that plays host to an important structure is designed with a minimum factor of safety (FOS) of 1.5 and slope movement is monitored throughout the structure’s serviceable life. No further analysis of slope stability is completed until failure occurs when a back analysis is undertaken for the design of remedial measures. This thesis builds on current methods to demonstrate a framework for analysis that can be followed to analyze the state of a slope throughout its serviceable life. The two bridges at North Battleford, Saskatchewan (Battlefords bridges) were used as case studies for this work. In 1967, the older of the two bridges experienced a slope failure at its south abutment immediately prior to its opening to the public. The failure was remediated reactively by means of subsurface drainage, a toe berm, and river training that included diversion/spur dikes to reduce scour at the landslide toe. Since remediation, there has been no other catastrophic failure at either bridge but slow movement continues in the south abutment slope. Laboratory data and field observations from the onsite inclinometers were provided by Clifton Associates Ltd. (CAL) and Saskatchewan Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure (SMHI). The following methodology was followed to develop a framework of analysis for low FOS slopes: 1. Synthesis of data collected during previous investigations at the Battlefords bridges; 2. Detailed site characterization using existing research and terrain analysis; 3. Back analysis of the critical section through original failure using traditional limit equilibrium methods to calibrate the soil strength properties; 4. Application of the calibrated soil strength properties to the original failure after remediation; 5. Estimation of unknown soil properties using instrumentation at the site. 6. Create a model of the new bridge south abutment with the calibrated strength properties from steps 4 & 5 using the finite element method (FEM). 7. Confirmation of the mechanism of failure and assessment of the shear strain and mobilized shear strength; and, 8. Comparison of the results of FEM and LEM models and relationship between factor of safety and mobilized shear strength. The framework presented in this thesis presents a method of modeling the instability of a slope. In the absence of triaxial testing data, it presents a range of mobilized shear strengths along the shear plane.

Utveckling av verktyg för jämförelse av kundanpassade och platsspecifika enskilda avloppssystem : Development of a comparative tool for custom-made and site-specific on-site sewage systems

Uggla, Annika January 2012 (has links)
REFERAT Övergödning är ett högst reellt hot mot många av Sveriges sjöar och vattendrag och inte minst mot Östersjön. Utsläpp av ej tillräckligt renat avloppsvatten och läckage av näringsämnen från jordbruksmarker är problem som länderna kring Östersjön måste lösa. Sverige arbetar både nationellt och internationellt med att förbättra Östersjöns ekologiska status. Riksdagen har satt upp flera miljökvalitetsmål som bland annat tydliggör att Sverige måste minska tillförseln av näringsämnen till sjöar och vattendrag. Orsaken är att dessa föroreningar är en bidragande orsak till övergödning. Det här har resulterat i en ökad ansträngning från kommunerna att åtgärda diffusa utsläpp som enskilda avlopp. Ett enskilt avlopp antas vara en avloppsanläggning med en lokal hantering av hushållsavloppsvatten och är inte kopplat till ett regionalt ledningsnät och reningsverk. Avloppsvatten från hushåll består av BDT-vatten, vatten från bad, disk och tvätt, samt vatten från toalett. Avloppsvatten innehåller näringsämnen såsom fosfor och kväve samt organiskt material och bakterier. Om utloppsvattnet når recipienter utan att tillräcklig rening finns risk för övergödning och smittspridning. För att skydda grund- och ytvatten föreslår Naturvårdsverket att krav ställs på reduktion av näringsämnen och organiskt material för att det enskilda avloppet ska bli godkänt av kommunen. Sverige har uppskattningsvis en miljon enskilda avlopp varav nästan hälften bedöms vara undermåliga och i behov av att göras om. Det kan vara svårt för fastighetsägare att överblicka de krav som ställs och de många olika alternativ som finns för att anlägga eller göra om en avloppsanläggning. Ett verktyg som hanterar produkter och typlösningar för enskilda avlopp har tagits fram. Verktyget benämns LEA vilket står för Lösningar för Enskilda Avlopp och har utvecklats i Microsoft Excel®. LEA genererar och presenterar lösningsförslag utifrån plats- och kundspecifika parametrar vilka matas in i verktyget. Jämförelse kan göras mellan de föreslagna lösningsalternativen med avseende på olika parametrar, som exempelvis reduktionsgrad, utsläpp av näringsämnen och organiskt material, möjlighet till lokalt kretslopp och kostnad. LEA förväntas användas av sakkunnig och syftar till att effektivisera utredningar av enskilda avloppsanläggningar. Att användaren kontinuerligt uppdaterar och kompletterar databasen är centralt för verktygets fortsatta funktion och tillförlitlighet. / ABSTRACT Eutrophication is a serious threat to many of Sweden's lakes and streams, and in particular to the Baltic Sea. Discharge of inadequately treated waste water and leaching of nutrients from agricultural lands are problems that the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea have to find a solution to. Sweden strives both nationally and internationally towards improving the ecological status of the Baltic Sea. The government has decided upon several Environmental Quality Objectives that sets out that Sweden must reduce the emissions of nutrients to the sea, lakes and streams. This is of great importance as these are contributing factors to eutrophication. This has initiated the Swedish municipalities to investigate diffuse discharges such as small scale on-site sewage systems. An on-site sewage system is assumed to locally treat domestic waste water and is not connected to a waste water treatment plant. Domestic waste water includes greywater, which is the effluent from kitchen and bathroom, and most often also water from toilet use. The waste water contains nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen as well as organic matter and bacteria. If the waste water reaches the receiving waters without adequate treatment this is associated with a risk of eutrophication and contamination. The Swedish EPA has recommended reduction levels to be reached for organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus. The municipalities are recommended to require these levels to be met for the on-site sewage system to be approved. Sweden has approximately one million on-site sewage systems of which nearly 50% is considered substandard and in need of upgrading. It may be difficult for property owners to overview the requirements as well as the large number of products and options available to construct or modify an on-site sewage system. A program, LEA, which handles products for household sewage systems, has been developed in Microsoft Excel®. The tool generates suggestions of different sewage systems depending on customer and site-specific parameters. Comparisons are made between the proposed solutions with respect to various parameters which include reduction efficiency, effluent emissions, on-site recycling and cost. The user of LEA can update and supplement the database, which is central to the tool's continued function and reliability. LEA is expected to be used by experts and aims to enhance investigations in the choice of on-site sewage systems.

Mecanismos de tolerância à dessecação em sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. E Annona glabra L.

De-Pieri-Oliveira, Mariana de Fátima January 2019 (has links)
Orientador: Gisela Ferreira / Resumo: Para que as plantas conseguissem conquistar o ambiente terrestre, foi necessário desenvolver habilidades que as tornassem capazes de sobreviver aos desafios de seu habitat, dentre as quais estão o desenvolvimento de mecanismos de tolerância à dessecação das sementes. Espécies que habitam locais com grande disponibilidade de água tendem a produzir sementes recalcitrantes e por outro lado, as espécies que habitam locais secos, como os Cerrados, tendem a produzir sementes ortodoxas, conseguindo tolerar períodos de seca sem acumular danos que prejudiquem a germinação. Dentre os sistemas que atuam no mecanismo de tolerância à dessecação estão a atividade de enzimas antioxidantes, o acúmulo de açúcares e a atividade das proteínas da embriogênese tardia (LEA). A família Annonaceae possui espécies inseridas em habitats contrastantes, como a Annona crassiflora, oriunda do Cerrado e a Annona glabra, oriunda de manguezais o que as torna interessantes para avaliar se suas sementes apresentam diferentes respostas frente à tolerância à dessecação. Para alcançar esse objetivo, sementes das duas espécies foram coletadas e avaliadas após submissão a diferentes níveis de secagem (teor inicial de água, 20%, 10% e 5%) e secagem seguida de reidratação. Foram realizados testes de germinabilidade, quantificação enzimática (superóxido dismutase (SOD) (EC, peroxidase (POD) (EC e catalase (CAT) (EC; de açúcares (frutose, galactose, glicose, manose, sacarose e trealose); ... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: In order for plants to conquer the terrestrial environment, it was necessary to develop skills that would enable them to survive the challenges of their habitat, including the development of seed desiccation tolerance mechanisms. Species that inhabit places with high water availability tend to produce recalcitrant seeds and, on the other hand, species that inhabit dry places, such as Cerrados, tend to produce orthodox seeds, being able to tolerate periods of drought without accumulating germinating damage. Systems that act on the desiccation tolerance mechanism include antioxidant enzyme activity, sugar accumulation, and late embryogenesis (LEA) protein activity. The Annonaceae family has species in contrasting habitats, such as Annona crassiflora, from the Cerrado and Annona glabra, from mangroves, which makes them interesting to evaluate if their seeds have different responses to desiccation tolerance. To achieve this goal, seeds of both species were collected and evaluated after submission to different drying levels (initial water content, 20%, 10% and 5%) and drying followed by rehydration. Germinability, enzymatic quantification (superoxide dismutase (SOD) (EC, peroxidase (POD) (EC and catalase (CAT) (EC tests were performed; sugars (fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, sucrose and trehalose); determination of LEA proteins and lipoperoxide content. The results showed that A. crassiflora seeds were able to tolerate drying up to 10% water co... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Mestre

Physical education and special educational needs with special reference to individuals with physical disabilities : a comparative study of policy implementation in Taiwan and England

Chen, Ming-Yao January 2007 (has links)
Physical education (PE) for pupils with special educational needs (SEN) is an important contemporary issue for primary teachers and other practitioners. In particular, how they are to include pupils with SEN in their classroom activity is a processing concern. This study is concerned essentially with how policy influences the ability of teachers to deal with SEN' pupils in PE. It explores the relationships between education policy on SEN and its implementation within PE when SEN pupils are placed in mainstream school settings. The main aims of this thesis are to explore how 'equality' and 'inclusion' are expressed in legislation, for example the National Curriculum in England and the Grade 1- 9 Curriculum Guidelines in Taiwan, and how teachers, local education authority (LEA) Advisors, pupils with physical disability and their parents interpret policy and engage in practice for SEN. The findings of the study are intended to provide guidance on education policy needed to promote 'inclusion' and connect SEN policy and its implementation within PE. This thesis develops and utilizes a theoretical model to illustrate the 'flow' of policy from government to schools. This framework has followed Bernstein's (1990) assertion that knowledge is produced and reproduced at different sites of practice and that 'discourses' are recontextualized in each. Qualitative research methods were used to explore these relationships. The research fields were located in the Midlands in England and in the North of Taiwan and investigate LEAs and primary schools. The research employed interviews, documentary analysis and observation to explore policy and its implementation for SEN pupils from not only a 'macro' but also a 'micro' perspective. Accordingly, this thesis has explored the relationships between teachers, the learning support assistants (LSA), pupils with physical disability and their activities in PE classrooms in order to throw light on processes of inclusion within PE and the difficulties associated with policy implementation for pupils with physical disability. The findings suggest that the implementation of SEN policy within PE was driven by ideals of inclusion and attempted to achieve equality. However, SEN policy and its implementation was rendered difficult by the production and reproduction of particular understandings of inclusion, and inadequate provision (training and resource) for teachers to deal with SEN pupils in PE. Compared with teachers in England, PE teachers in Taiwan seemed to be more 'able' to include SEN pupils in PE as they were less regulated by National Curriculum texts.

Molecular properties of disordered plant dehydrins : Membrane interaction and function in stress

Eriksson, Sylvia January 2016 (has links)
Dehydrins are intrinsically disordered plant stress-proteins. Repetitively in their sequence are some highly conserved stretches of 7-17 residues, the so called K-, S-, Y- and lysine rich segments. This thesis aims to give insight into the possible role dehydrins have in the stressed plant cell with main focus on membrane interaction and protection. The work includes four recombinant dehydrins from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana: Cor47 (SK3), Lti29 (SK3), Lti30 (K6) and Rab18 (Y2SK2). Initially, we mimicked crowded cellular environment in vitro to verify that dehydrins are truly disordered proteins. Thereafter, the proposal that the compulsory K-segment determines membrane binding was tested. Experiments show that only Lti30 and Rab18 bind, whereas Cor47 and Lti29 does not. As Lti30 and Rab18 binds they assembles vesicles into clusters in vitro, a feature used to characterize the interaction. From this it was shown that membrane binding of Lti30 is electrostatic and determined by global as well as local charges. Protonation of histidine pairs flanking the K-segments works as an on/off-binding switch. By NMR studies it was shown that the K-segments form a dynamic α-helix upon binding, so called disorder-to-order behaviour. Also, dehydrins electrostatic interaction with lipids can be further tuned by posttranslational phosphorylation or coordination of calcium and zinc ions. Finally, specific binding of Rab18 to inositol lipids, mainly PI(4,5)P2, is reported. The interaction is mainly coordinated by two arginines neighboring one of the K-segments. In conclusion, the K-segments are indeed involved in the binding of dehydrins to membrane but only in combination with extensions (Lti30) or modified (Rab18). / <p>At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript. Paper 5: Manuscript.</p>

Entre souci d'insertion professionnelle et désir d'épanouissement intellectuel : la trajectoire des étudiants d'AES et de LEA

Lefeuvre, Sonia 11 March 2009 (has links) (PDF)
L'objet de ce travail porte sur l'analyse de deux processus conjoints : la démocratisation et la professionnalisation de l'université française. Le choix s'est spécifiquement porté sur l'étude des filières AES (Administration Economique et Sociale) et LEA (Langues Etrangères Appliquées). Elles ont en effet la particularité d'être à vocation professionnalisante et universitaires, donc non sélectives. Parallèlement, elles accueillent plus souvent que dans d'autres filières, des garçons et des filles issus des catégories sociales populaires. Deux terrains d'enquête ont été abordés : l'histoire de la construction d'AES et de LEA, à travers les témoignages de ses initiateurs, et l'analyse des trajectoires d'étudiants inscrits en AES et en LEA, à travers les récits de vie. Plus généralement, la question de la professionnalisation de l'université met en exergue les finalités de l'enseignement et les positions politiques se trouvent confrontées autour de la question du rôle de l'école.

Figura ecclesiae Lea und Rachel in Luthers Genesispredigten /

Hiebsch, Sabine, January 1900 (has links)
Proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam. / Met lit. opg. - Met samenvatting in het Nederlands.

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