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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The BLINK REFLEX: Comparative Electrophysiologic Study in the domestic species

Añor Torres, Sònia 23 October 2002 (has links)
La prueba electrofisiólogica del reflejo palpebral y la evaluación de los potenciales musculares inducidos mediante estimulación eléctrica del nervio facial se estudiaron en 21 caballos adultos de varias razas y en 15 perros adultos de raza Beagle. Todos los animales del estudio fueron sedados para las pruebas, utilizando detomidina en los caballos y medetomidina en los perros. La prueba del reflejo palpebral se realizó antes y después de bloquear el nervio supraorbitario izquierdo y el nervio auriculopalpebral (caballos) o facial (perros) derecho. Ambos bloqueos nerviosos se realizaron mediante inyecciones de lidocaína aplicadas sobre los mismos nervios.La estimulación eléctrica unilateral del nervio supraorbitario indujo la aparición de 2 (perros) y 3 (caballos) potenciales musculares reflejos evocados ipsilaterales , y de un potencial muscular reflejo contralateral en los músculos orbiculares del ojo. Siguiendo la nomenclatura utilizada en neurofisiología humana, los potenciales musculares ipsilaterales se denominaron R1, R2 y R3. El potencial muscular contralateral se denominó Rc.La estimulación eléctrica unilateral del nervio facial indujo la aparición de dos potenciales en el músculo orbicular del ojo ipsilateral a la estimulación. En todos los animales se observó un primer potencial muscular evocado directo (D), seguido de una respuesta refleja facio-facial (RF).El bloqueo anestésico del nervio supraorbitario izquierdo causó ausencia bilateral de respuestas al estimular el mismo nervio, y la aparición de respuestas normales al estimular el nervio supraorbitario contralateral. El bloqueo anestésico del nervio facial derecho provocó ausencia de respuestas en el músculo orbicular del ojo derecho, cualquiera que fuera el lado de estimulación.Los resultados de nuestro estudio demuestran que el test del reflejo palpebral puede ser inducido eléctricamente y estudiado electromiográficamente en perros y en caballos. El estudio aporta valores de referencia para los componentes electromiográficos del reflejo palpebral, así como para los potenciales musculares evocados mediante estimulación directa del nervio facial en perros y en caballos. La utilidad potencial de la prueba del reflejo palpebral en el diagnóstico de lesiones periféricas de los nervios trigémino y facial en estas especies queda demostrada por los resultados del estudio en animales con bloqueos anestésicos de estos nervios. / Electrophysiologic assessment of the blink reflex and the muscle potentials evoked by stimulation of the facial nerve were performed in 21 adult horses and 15 adult Beagle dogs sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (horses) and medetomidine hydrochloride (dogs). The tests were performed before and after left supraorbital (trigeminal) and right auriculopalpebral (horses) or facial (dogs) nerve blocks, achieved with lidocaine injections over the afore-mentioned nerves.Unilateral electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve elicited 2 (dogs) and 3 (horses) ipsilateral reflex-evoked muscle potentials and a contralateral reflex muscle potential in the obicularis oculi muscles. The ipsilateral reflex-evoked muscle potentials were named R1, R2 and R3, following the human nomenclature. The contralateral potential was named Rc. Unilateral electrical stimulation of the facial nerve elicited 2 muscle potentials, a direct compound motor unit action potential (D) and a reflex facio-facial response (RF) in the ipsilateral orbicularis oculi muscle in all animals.Anesthetic block of the left suprorbital nerve resulted in bilateral lack of responses upon left supraorbital nerve stimulation, and normal bilateral responses upon right supraorbital nerve stimulation. Right facial nerve anesthetic block produced lack of responses in the right orbicularis oculi muscle regardless the side of supraorbital stimulation.Results of this study demonstrate that the blink reflex can be electrically elicited and electromyographically assessed in dogs and horses. Reference values for the electromyographic components of the blink reflex and for the muscle potentials evoked by direct facial nerve stimulation in dogs and horses are provided. The potential usefulness of the electrically elicited blink reflex test in the diagnosis of peripheral facial and trigeminal nerve dysfunction in dogs and horses has been demonstrated.

Advances in the application of information and communication technologies in healthcare at the patient's home

Isetta, Valentina 05 April 2013 (has links)
Tesi realitzada a la Unitat de Biofísica i Bioenginyeria - Facultat de Medicina / INTRODUCTION The pressure to contain health costs, particularly by avoiding hospitalizations and promoting the early discharge of patients, is generating a greater demand for home healthcare at a time when this resource is rapidly becoming less available. Telemedicine has been defined as the use of information and communications technologies (ICT), to deliver health services and transmit health information at distance for the purpose of improving patient’s care and education and to facilitate communication between patients and healthcare professionals. Most of the studies on telemedicine showed a lot of potentialities and possibilities, but did not develop further in the clinical routine because of problems and difficulties involving the use of this technology. Therefore, it seems clear the need of simple and straightforward applications, which can provide useful and widely applicable services to healthcare and as well as reliable data to assess the actual impact of telemedicine on homecare. 2) GENERAL AIM To design, develop, validate and assess the benefit of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) applications in healthcare at patient’s home. 3) HYPOTHESES 1. An Internet-based support system for monitoring newborn patients after discharge from nursery would improve care, be well accepted by parents and reduce unplanned healthcare, particularly visits to the emergency department; 2. The development of a specific web-based tool could introduce a new strategy for the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy follow-up of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which could improve the CPAP compliance, reduce face-to-face clinical visits, and be more cost-effective; 3. A new telemedicine system for remote CPAP therapy monitoring could provide valuable and useful data about treatment compliance and efficacy for the follow-up of OSAS patients. 4) STUDY 1 - A new Internet-based monitoring tool for the neonatal home care after discharge was successfully developed; - This new monitoring approach resulted in a high level of parental satisfaction with the service; - Using a societal perspective, the cost of the Internet-based follow-up resulted much lower than that of the conventional hospital-based follow-up. Additionally, ED visits in the first month of patients’ life decreased with the use of the Internet-based monitoring system. This telemedicine follow-up strategy proved absolute dominance (both more clinically effective and less costly) over the standard follow-up based on hospital visits; - This Internet-based tool has been effectively transferred to the health system since it is in routine clinical use at the Hospital de Sant Pau in Barcelona (www.petitsacasa.santpau.cat). 5) STUDY 2 - The opinion of the interviewed patients and medical staff about the helpfulness and satisfaction of the telemedicine monitoring approach indicated that the web-based support tool together with the televisit are potentially useful to support the home follow-up of CPAP treatment in OSAS patients; - The high patients’ compliance to the remote monitoring through the online questionnaire suggested this strategy to be helpful and practical for the long-period CPAP therapy control; - The multicenter support system we developed represents a new telemedicine approach to CPAP therapy follow-up for OSAS patients, which seeks enforcing patients’ confidence and improving therapy adherence; - The developed telemedicine support system has been effectively transferred to the health system since it is in use in a multinational clinical trial currently involving 18 hospitals (www.mi-cpap.com). 6) STUDY 3 - The geometry of the telemonitoring device (NOWAPI) does not influence the CPAP treatment; - NOWAPI showed good compatibility with the CPAP machines and an excellent performance in estimating the duration of the CPAP treatment and in detecting residual respiratory events in simulated OSAS patients. The results of this study demonstrated that NOWAPI system could be a valuable tool for telemonitoring the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea;

Efecte de l'activació del canal K(ATP) al perfil d'expressió microglial durant la neurodegeneració a l'hipocamp de la rata

Martínez Moreno, Margot 26 April 2013 (has links)
En aquesta tesi s'ha estudiat l'efecte de l'activació del canal de potassi dependent de ATP (KATP) amb un fàrmac activador, la diazoxida, sobre el perfil fenotípic de la microglia en dos models diferenciats: un de in vitro amb una línia cel•lular i un de in vivo en un model de lesió excitotòxica a l'hipocamp de la rata. També s'ha estudiat com aquesta modulació afecta a la progressió de la lesió excitotòxica i la neurogènesis que porta associada. Finalment, s'ha descrit la presència del canal de calci dependent de voltatge (VGCC) a microglia i com la seva inhibició també regula la activitat microglial in vivo i in vitro. / In this thesis we have studied the effect of the activation of the potassium channetl ATP-dependent (KATP channel) with the drug diazoxida, a KCO (potassium channel opener), over the phenotypic expression profile of microglial cells. We did it with two different approaches: an in vitro model with the murine cell line BV2; and an in vivo model of excitotòxic lesion in rat hippocampus. We have also studied how this modulation affects the progression of the damage of the excitotòxic lesion and the hipocampal neurogènesis associated. Finally, we have described the presence of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in microglia and how its regulation also affects to the activity of microglia in vivo and in vitro.

Identificació de factors predictius de les conductes de risc en adolescents en l'àmbit de la consulta

Suris i Granell, Joan Carles 17 June 2003 (has links)
OBJECTIUSObjectiu general és la creació d'una escala per la predicció de les conductes de risc que es pugui utilitzar en l'àmbit de la consultaObjectius específics: A) estudiar les associacions entre les conductes de risc (consum de drogues, sexualitat de risc, i seguretat viària); B) identificar factors personals, familiars i escolars que influeixen en la presa de conductes de risc a l'adolescència en una mostra d'adolescents escolaritzats; i C) analitzar la capacitat predictiva de l'escala en les mostres d'adolescents escolaritzats de Barcelona de 1993 i 1999.MATERIAL I MÈTODESS'ha fet servir les dades de l'Enquesta de Salut als Adolescents de la Ciutat de Barcelona 1993. Les variables conductuals són 10 agrupades en tres grans grups: consum de drogues, conducta sexual i seguretat viària. Les variables independents són de tipus personal, familiar i escolar. Per l'anàlisi bivariada, que s'ha fet separadament per gènere, s'ha creuat cadascuna de les 10 variables conductuals entre elles i posteriorment amb cadascuna de les variables independents. S'han calculat els estadístics Xi-quadrat i Odds Ratio (OR) per les variables qualitatives i la t de Student per les variables quantitatives. Totes les variables independents significativament associades amb 5 o més de les variables conductuals en els nois i en les noies han estat introduïdes en una anàlisi multivariada per detectar almenys una conducta de risc. Aquelles variables que es mantenen significatives i compleixen els criteris establerts conformen l'escala. Posteriorment, l'escala s'aplica als resultats de l'Enquesta de Salut als Adolescents Escolaritzats de Barcelona 1999 per confirmar la seva capacitat predictiva. RESULTATSLes deu variables conductuals estan significativament associades entre elles, amb l'excepció del fet de no portar sempre el cinturó de seguretat que no s'associa amb el consum de tabac, alcohol o altres drogues en les noies ni amb els consum de cannabis i altres drogues en els nois. Pel que fa a les variables independents, a més de l'edat i el sexe, hi ha 15 variables que s'associen amb la majoria de les variables conductuals. D'aquestes, només vuit (edat, religiositat, hàbit tabàquic de la mare, consum d'alcohol del pare, relació amb els pares, relació amb l'escola, notes mitjanes, relació amb els mestres) es mantenen significatives en l'anàlisi multivariada. Dues d'aquestes variables (hàbit tabàquic de la mare i consum d'alcohol del pare) han estat finalment excloses perquè depenen de la quantitat consumida. Repetint l'anàlisi multivariada sense elles, no s'observen diferències. Les cinc variables finalment incloses en l'escala reben una puntuació de 0 si son protectores (alt nivell de religiositat, bona relació amb els pares, agrada anar a l'escola, notes mitjanes d'aprovat o més, bona relació amb els mestres) i de 1 en cas contrari, el que dona una puntuació entre 0 i 5. Mitjançant una corba ROC, el millor punt de tall per detectar almenys una conducta de risc és quan la puntuació és >1. Aplicant l'escala als resultats de l'enquesta de 1993, trobem que aquells adolescents que presenten una puntuació >1 tenen significativament més probabilitats de prendre qualsevol de les 10 conductes de risc. Quan ho estratifiquem per edats, totes les variables són significatives pels més joves (14-16 anys), però pels més grans (17-19 anys) no són significatives les dues variables relacionades amb la sexualitat. Quan apliquem l'escala a l'enquesta de 1999, es manté significativa per a totes les variables conductuals menys no portar sempre el cinturó. El mateix succeeix quan ho estratifiquem per edats, però pels més joves tampoc no és significativa per haver conduït intoxicat ni per haver tingut relacions sexuals coitals.CONCLUSIONSLes conductes de risc estan altament relacionades entre elles.Hi ha factors personals, familiars i escolars que estan relacionats amb la presa de conductes de risc.L'escala és senzilla d'aplicar i d'avaluar i permet detectar aquells adolescents que prenen almenys una conducta de risc.L'escala és sobretot un bon predictor del consum de drogues.L'escala permet detectar millor les possibles conductes de risc en els adolescents més joves (14-16 anys).Atès que hi ha una forta associació entre les conductes de risc, encara que l'escala serveixi principalment per la detecció del consum de drogues, també ens està indicant, ni que sigui de manera indirecta, que poden haver-hi altres conductes nocives per a la salut que cal explorar. / PURPOSEThe main purpose is to create a scale to predict risky behaviors that can be used in clinic.Specific objectives are: A) to study the association between risky behaviors (drug use, risk sex and vehicle-related behavior); B) to identify personal, family and school-related factors that influence risk taking among a sample of school-aged adolescents; and C) to analyze the predictive capacity of the scale in the samples of school-aged adolescents of Barcelona of 1993 and 1999.MATERIAL AND METHODSData were drawn from the Barcelona Adolescent Health Survey 1993. There are 10 behavioral variables divided in 3 groups: drug use, sexual risk, and vehicle-related behavior. Independent variables are personal, family and school-related. Bivariate analysis, performed separately by gender, crossed behavioral variables between them and with each independent variable. Chi-square and odds ratio were used to compare qualitative variables and Student's t for quantitative variables. All independent variables statistically significant for 5 or more behavioral variables among boys and among girls were included in a multivariate analysis to detect at least one risky behavior. Statistically significant variables were included in the scale. Afterwards, the scale is applied to the Barcelona Adolescent Health Survey 1999 to confirm its predictive capacity.RESULTSAll the behavioral variables are significantly associated between them, with the exception of not always using the seat-belt that is not significant for tobacco, alcohol or other illegal drugs use among girls nor with cannabis and other illegal drugs use among boys. Fifteen independent variables, plus gender and age are significant for most behavioral variables. Of those, only 8 (age, religiosity, mother' smoking, father's drinking, relationship with parents, relationship with school, grades, relationship with teachers) are significant in the multivariate analysis. Two of these variables (mother' smoking, father's drinking) were not included because they depend on the quantity used. Redoing the multivariate analysis without them no differences were found. The five variables finally included in the scale score 0 if they are protective (high religiosity, good relationship with parents, likes going to school, above mean grade average, good relationship with teachers) and score 1 when risky, giving a final score ranging from 0 to 5. Through ROC curve, the best cut-off point to detect at least one risky behavior is a score over 1. Applying the scale to the 1993 survey, all adolescents with a score >1 are significantly more likely to take any of the 10 risky behaviors. When stratifying by age, all variables are significant for the younger ones (14-16 years), but for the older group (17-19 years) the two risk sex variables are not significant. In applying the scale to the 1999 survey, it is significant for all the variables with the exception of not always using a seat belt. The same is true when we stratify by age, but for the younger group having had sexual intercourse and having driven while intoxicated were not significant.CONCLUSIONSRisky behaviors are significantly linked between them.There are personal, family, and school-related behaviors related to risk taking behaviors.The scale is easy to use and assess and permits to detect those adolescents that take at least one risky behavior.The scale is mainly a good predictor of drug use.The scale works better to detect risk behaviors among younger adolescents (14-16 years).Since there is an association between risk behaviors, even though the scale is more useful to detect drug use, it also indicates, even indirectly, that other risk-taking behaviors that need to be explored may be present.

El cáncer cervical como problema de salud pública en mujeres mexicanas y su relación con el Virus de papiloma humano

Castañeda Iñiguez, Maura Sara 31 May 2005 (has links)
Objetivo. Conocer la prevalencia y los tipos del Virus de papiloma humano (VPH) y evaluar la magnitud de la asociación entre la presencia del VPH y otros cofactores y las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de bajo y alto grado (LIEBG y LIEAG) y cáncer invasor en mujeres VPH positivas de Morelos. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal de base poblacional realizado entre 1997 y 1999. Se definió como caso todas aquellas mujeres VPH positivas que presentaran LIEBG y LIEAG/cáncer invasor, diagnosticados por medio de citología cervical, colposcopía y confirmados a través de histopatología. El grupo de comparación fueron mujeres VPH positivas sin lesión cervical. Se colectaron células endo y exocervicales utilizando citobrush y se utilizo utilizó un ensayo de tirillas de nylon ( Strip assay) empleando un formato de hibridación reversa. Resultados. Se estudiaron un total de 246 mujeres VPH positivas, 24 diferentes tipos del VPH fueron identificados siendo los tipos más frecuentes el 16, 18, 31 y 33. La prevalencia del VPH 16 en mujeres con LIEAG y cáncer invasor fue del 53.6%. El riesgo de presentar LIEAG/CC es treinta y siete veces mayor LIEAG/CC (RM= 37.8 IC 17.1-83.5) si se tiene una infección con un VPH de alto riesgo. Posibles cofactores además del VPH serian la multiparidad y 2 o más parejas sexuales. Conclusiones. En las mujeres de Morelos, el factor más fuertemente asociado con el desarrollo de LIEAG y cáncer cervical invasor es la infección por virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo ( especialmente el VPH 16). / Objetive: To know the prevalence and the types of the Human papilloma viruses being (HPV) and to evaluate the magnitude of the association between the presence of the HPV and other cofactors and the injuries intraepiteliales scaly of low and high degree (LIEBG and LIEAG) and invading cancer in women positive HPV. Material and methods. Transversal study of population base realized between(among) 1997 and 1999. It was defined as a case all those women positive VPH who were presenting LIEBG and invading LIEAG/cancer, diagnosed by means of cervical screening, colposcopy and confirmees across histopathology. The group of comparison they were women positive VPH without cervical injury. Cells were collected endo and exocervicales using citobrush and I use a Strip assay. They were studied a total of 246 women VPH positive, 24 different types of the VPH were identifying being the most frequent types the 16, 18, 31 and 33. The prevalence of the VPH 16 in women with LIEAG and invading cancer was of the 53.6%. The risk to present LIEAG/CC is thirty-seven times greater LIEAG/CC (RM = 37.8 IC 17.1-83.5) if has an infection with a VPH of high risk. Possible cofactors besides the VPH be the multiparidad and 2 or more sexual couples. Conclusions. In the women of the most hardly associated factor with the development of LIEAG and invading cervical cancer is the infection by virus of the HPV of high risk (especially the HPV 16).

Facilitació de l'aprenentatge i la memòria per AEIC: envelliment i memòria declarativa

Soriano Mas, Carles 05 March 2002 (has links)
L'Autoestimulació Elèctrica Intracranial (AEIC) del feix prosencefàlic medial facilita l'adquisició i posterior retenció d'un aprenentatge quan és administrada immediatament després de l'entrenament. Aquest efecte és especialment potent en rates que parteixen de baixos nivells d'aprenentatge, i es creu que és degut a un efecte activador general de l'AEIC sobre diferents estructures encefàliques.Es va decidir estudiar els efectes del tractament d'AEIC post-entrenament sobre l'adquisició i la retenció d'un condicionament d'evitació activa de dos sentits en rates velles (16-17 mesos), i sobre l'adquisició i retenció d'una tasca de memòria declarativa dependent de l'hipocamp (alternança en laberint en T) en rates joves (3 mesos).Per assolir aquests objectius es van realitzar dos experiments amb rates albines de la soca Wistar. En el primer treball vam observar com el tractament d'AEIC post-entrenament va facilitar l'adquisició del condicionament d'evitació activa de dos sentits, sense afectar sobre la retenció a llarg termini. Aquests resultats demostren que els animals vells, que generalment parteixen de baixos nivells d'aprenentatge, mantenen els mecanismes de plasticitat necessaris perquè es faciliti l'adquisició d'aquest condicionament, encara que possiblement de manera menys eficaç que en els animals joves, el que planteja la necessitat de desenvolupar un model de tractament amb AEIC que sigui igual d'efectiu pels diferents grups d'edat.En el segon treball vam constatar un efecte facilitador del tractament d'AEIC post-entrenament sobre l'expressió flexible d'una memòria declarativa, una característica essencial dels aprenentatges que depenen d'aquest sistema de memòria. Aquests efectes no es van observar en la retenció a llarg termini, indicant un efecte específic sobre la fase de consolidació de la informació entre sessions d'aprenentatge.Aquestes dades mostren com els efectes facilitadors del tractament d'AEIC post-entrenament poden ser generalitzar a dues situacions prèviament no estudiades d'alt interès per a l'estudi i desenvolupament de tractaments compensadors dels trastorns de la memòria, com són l'envelliment i les tasques de memòria declarativa. / Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the medial forebrain bundle improves learning acquisition and subsequent retention when administered immediately after training. This effect is particulary marked in rats with low initial learning levels, and this is thought to be due to a general arousing effect on different structures of the brain.We decided to study post-training ICSS effects on acquisition and retention of a two-way active avoidance conditioning in aged rats (16-17 months), and on acquisition and retention of a hippocampus-dependent declarative memory task (delayed alternation in a T-maze) in young rats (3 months).We conducted two experiments with albino rats of the Wistar strain. In the first, we observed a facilitatory effect of post-training ICSS on the acquisition of the two-way active avoidance conditioning, and no effect on long-term retention. These results show that aged animals, which generally show poor initial learning levels, do maintain the necessary plastic mechanisms for facilitating acquisition of this conditioning, although probably in a less efficient way than young rats, raising the need for developing a model of ICSS equally effective in young and old rats.In the second experiment, we observed a facilitatory effect of post-training ICSS on the flexible expression of declarative memory, which is the hallmark of the learning tasks that depend on this memory system. These effects were not observed in the retention session, suggesting a specific effect on the consolidation phase between learning sessions.This data generalize the facilitatory effects of post-training ICSS to two conditions, never tested before, of high interest for the study and development of compensating treatments for memory disorders, such as aging and declarative memory.

Study of synaptic proteins and neuronal cell death mechanisms in animal degenerative disorders

Sisó Llonch, Sílvia 29 July 2002 (has links)
La neuropatologia degenerativa inclou un grup de malalties que cursen amb la degeneració progresiva del teixit nerviós tant en animals com en persones, i causant una pèrdua neuronal i una reacció glial, majoritàriament astrocítica en el Sistema Nerviós Central. La distribució d'aquestes lesions degeneratives acostuma a ser focal o multifocal.En neuropatologia veterinària existeixen múltiples malalties neurodegeneratives que afecten a diferents espècies animals. En la present tesi s'estudien quatre malalties degeneratives que afecten a l'espècie canina, l'equina, l'ovina i la bovina. Les malalties són: la distròfia neuroaxonal canina i l'envelliment en el gos, la mieloencefalopatia degenerativa equina, l'atròfia muscular espinal en vedells i l'scrapie en un model experimental murí. Es creu que la pèrdua neuronal pot ser causada o pot causar una disminució o una alteració en la sinapsi o transmisió nerviosa. Per això en aquesta tesi es pretén investigar si existeix alteració de la sinapsi i si la pèrdua neuronal present en les malalties neurodegeneratives animals és deguda a mort neuronal apoptòtica. Alhora es pretén que els resultats obtinguts puguin encaminar la recerca en neuropatologia veterinaria cap a la creació de nous models animals que poden ser de gran utilitat pel millor coneixement dels processos neurodegeneratius que afecten actualment a l'espècie humana. / Degenerative neuropathology brings together all animal and human disorders in which the nervous tissue has features of neurodegneration such as neuronal loss and gliosis, preferently astrocytosis. The distribution of the lesions is usually focal or multifocal.In veterinary science, there are several neurodegenerative diseases that affected diferent animal species. This thesis is based on four animal diseases present in the canine, the equine, the ovine, and the bovine specie. The diseases are as follows: neuroaxonal dystrophy and aging in the canine specie, the equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, the bovine spinal muscular atrophy, and the scrapie in an experimental murine model. Several recent studies describes a relation between the neuronal cell death and the synapse. It is thought that abnormalities at the synapse might let neurons to die.The aim of this thesis is to investigate if synapses are altered in the previous mentioned animal disorders, and if cell loss is due to apoptosis.Moreover, it is also our interest that results obtained in this thesis may give possible insights to the creation of new animal models and contribute its human counterparts.

Análisis de la concentración sérica de vitamina D como factor de riesgo de cáncer de próstata y agresividad tumoral

Gómez Lanza, Esther 01 December 2010 (has links)
El cáncer de próstata es una neoplasia frecuente con una incidencia en aumento. La etiología es desconocida pero existen factores de riesgo de carcinogénesis, entre los que destacan la edad avanzada, la etnia negra y la latitud elevada. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante la determinación del antígeno prostático específico (PSA) y el tacto rectal para indicar una biopsia prostática transrectal. Diversos estudios epidemiológicos han analizado la relación entre la vitamina D3 y el cáncer de próstata. La hipótesis de trabajo es que la disminución de la concentración sérica de 25-hidroxivitamina D3 (25-OHD3) y la elevación de los valores de parathormona (PTH) se relacionan con el riesgo de padecer cáncer de próstata y con su agresividad tumoral. Los objetivos son analizar la relación entre los valores plasmáticos de 25-OHD3 y PTH con el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de próstata y con su agresividad tumoral. Para ello, se realiza un estudio epidemiológico analítico no experimental que consta de 479 pacientes a los que se les realiza una biopsia de próstata. Se clasifican los pacientes en 262 controles y 217 casos, que se clasifican en función de los criterios de d’Amico en relación a la agresividad tumoral. Se realizan las determinaciones plasmáticas en ambos grupos y se realiza el análisis estadístico correspondiente. Los resultados no objetivan diferencias significativas en las concentraciones plasmáticas de 25-OHD3 y PTH en relación con el diagnóstico de cáncer de próstata. Tampoco se detectan diferencias significativas en los valores de ambas hormonas al analizar la agresividad tumoral. Así, no hemos evidenciado en la población estudiada una relación significativa entre los valores séricos de 25-OHD3 y PTH con el riesgo de ser diagnosticado de cáncer de próstata ni tampoco con la agresividad tumoral de los cánceres detectados. / Prostate cancer is a frequent malignant tumour. The incidence is higher than years ago. The etiology is unknown but there are risk factors for prostatic carcinogenesis such as age, race and latitude. Patients were diagnosed by prostate biopsy using serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) determination and digital rectal exam. Many epidemiological studies have analyzed the relation between serum vitamin D3 concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Our hypothesis is that low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) levels and high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are in relation to subsequent development of prostate cancer and tumoral aggressiveness. Our objectives are analyzed the relation between serum 25-OHD3 and PTH with prostate cancer risk and tumoral aggressiveness. For that reason, we performed an epidemiological analytical non experimental study with 479 patients to whom were performed a prostate biopsy. There are 262 controls and 217 cases. Of the 217 prostate cancer cases, they were classified by d’Amico criteria. The results examine no statistically association between serum 25-OHD3 and PTH in relation with prostate cancer. Neither there are significant association between serum 25-OHD3 and PTH and prostate aggressiveness. As a conclusion, in our study we have not seen a significant association between serum levels of 25-OHD3 and PTH and prostate cancer risk either prostate aggressiveness.

Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular en el estado de Lara, Venezuela, 2008

Infante Viloria, Elisabeth 19 November 2010 (has links)
Las enfermedades cardiovasculares, subgrupo de enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles, constituyen un importante problema de salud pública, no solo por su magnitud, reflejada en el primer lugar que ocupan entre las causas de morbi-mortalidad en el mundo, sino por su elevado poder discapacitante. Según la OMS cada año mueren más personas por esta causa que por otra. Se calcula que en 2005 murieron por esta causa 17,5 millones de personas, lo cual representa un 30% de todas las muertes registradas en el mundo; 7,6 millones de esas muertes se debieron a la cardiopatía coronaria, y 5,7 millones a los AVC. Las causas más importantes de las enfermedades cardiovasculares son los factores de riesgo. El objetivo de este estudio es cuantificar la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular, en el año 2008, en la población urbana del estado Lara, Venezuela. La población objetivo de este estudio esta constituida por residentes del área urbana del estado Lara, Venezuela, con 15 o más años de edad. El muestreo realizado se asocia a un diseño complejo, en cuatro etapas por conglomerados dado que se agrupan unidades urbanas en una mayor, que combina la selección aleatoria simple y sistemática de las unidades sin reemplazo. Resultado: Del total de individuos seleccionados para encuestar fueron 1675, de los cuales se entrevistó a 1294. Las prevalencias estimadas de los diferentes factores de riesgos para las enfermedades cardiovasculares fueron: El sedentarismo resultó ser la más alta prevalencia (47,6%), siendo mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres, seguida de la hipertensión, una de cada tres personas son hipertensas siendo esta mayor en hombres que en las mujeres, así como la diabetes resultó ser la menor prevalencia (5%), una de cada cinco personas presentan el factor de riesgo de tabaquismo y/o obesidad, siendo en ambas mayor en hombres que en las mujeres y una de cada seis personas tienen el colesterol alto, sin diferencia importante por sexo. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de hipertensión arterial, la obesidad y el sedentarismo en la población urbana de 15 o más años de edad se puede considerar alta. Las personas entrevistadas manifestaron conocer bien las consecuencias que genera la presión arterial elevada. Los resultados encontrados en relación a la prevalencia de angina de pecho, sugieren que en el grupo de edad 25 a 44 años existen diferencias entre hombres y mujeres, mientras que en el grupo de 45 a 74 años, no. / Cardiovascular diseases, which form a subgroup of non-transmisible chronic diseases, constitue a key problem of public health, not only in its magnitude, as manifested in the fact that they are the primary cause of morbimortality in the world, but also for its high disability power. According to the WHO, every year more people die of this cause than of any other. It was calculated that in 2005, 17.5 million people died of this cause, which represented 30% of all deaths registered in the world; 7.6 million of these deaths were due to coronary cardiopathies, and 5.7 million were affected by some AVC. The most important causes of cardiovascular diseases are risk factors.The main objective is to quantify the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, in 2008, among the urban population at Lara’s state in Venezuela. The purpose of this study is an analysis of a group of people aged above 15 years in the urban area of Lara’s state in Venezuela. The sampling is associated with a complex design of analysis divided into four phases for a conglomerate of population that belong to a bigger unit of population, the one combine the simple aleatory and systemic selection of the units without replacement. Results: The total number of people chosen for the survey was 1675, of which 1294 were interviewed. The results of estimated prevalence of the different risk factors for cardiovascular desease were: firstly, a sedentary lifestyle had the highest prevalence (47.6 %), this percentage was higher among women than men; the second highest prevalence was hypertension, where one above three persons had hypertension, this proportion being higher among women than in men; thirdly, diabetes had the least prevalence (5%); the last group there were smokers and/or obese people, where in both was higher among men than in women. In this last group, one of every six persons showed a higher cholesterol, independently of sex gender. Conclusions:The prevalence of high blood pressure, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle can be considered as higher in the urban population over the age of 15 years. The interviewed individuals showed well enough to know the consequences generated by a high blood pressure. The results found in relation to the prevalence of angina pectoris suggest that in the age group 25 - 44 years old there are differences between men and women, whereas in the group between 45-74 years, there were no gender differences.

Estudio nutricional comparativo entre una población infantil caucásica y una inmigrante

Sánchez Muro, José Miguel 21 March 2013 (has links)
INTRODUCCIÓN El incremento de la población infantil inmigrante en Salt (Girona) nos decidió a efectuar un estudio del estado nutricional de esta población comparando con la autóctona y determinar si es una población de riesgo de desarrollar hipovitaminosis D y anemia ferropénica. Salt tiene 29.527 habitantes según censo del año 2007. El 38 % de esta población es inmigrante de 71 nacionalidades, fundamentalmente magrebí y subsahariana. OBJETIVOS 1- Comparar los parámetros antropométricos y bioquímicos de la población infantil de Salt con la inmigrante. 2- Determinar las concentraciones plasmáticas de 25(OH)D, PTH, calcio, fósforo, fosfatasas alcalinas y su relación con la ingesta de calcio y vitamina D y el grado de exposición solar de cada etnia. 3- Analizar las concentraciones plasmáticas de hemoglobina, ferritina y sideremia en cada etnia. POBLACIÓN Y MÉTODOS Estudio prospectivo efectuado durante 2008-2010 en una consulta de pediatría de asistencia primaria y por un único observador. Parámetros antropométricos evaluados: a) peso y longitud del nacimiento, b) el peso, la talla y el IMC en el momento de efectuar el estudio. Población: 307 niños de edad inferior a 3 años de Salt. Distribución por origen y etnia: caucásicos (n=85, 27.4%); magrebí (n=87, 28.0%); subsaharianos (n=101, 32.5%); centroamericanos (n= 20; 6.4%) e indios (n=14, 4.5%). Parámetros bioquímicos: calcemia, fosforemia, fosfatasas alcalinas, 25(OH)D, PTH, hematimetría, sideremia y ferritina. Se utiliza la encuesta nutricional de Garabedian para estimar la ingesta nutricional de calcio, de vitamina D y el grado de exposición solar. RESULTADOS 1- El análisis de los parámetros antropométricos no demuestra diferencias significativas entre la población autóctona e inmigrante. 2- Déficit de sideremia (<50µg/dl): Caucásico 38,5%, magrebí, 51 %, subsahariano 43%, centroamericano 35% , indio 79%. 3- Déficit de ferritina (< 20 ng/ml): Caucásico 10,5%, magrebí 49%, subsahariano 29%, centroamericano 15%, indio 85%. 4- Déficit de hemoglobina (<10,5 mg/ml): Caucásico 3,7 %, magrebí 7%, subsahariano 15%, centroamericano 5%, indio 21%. 5- Déficit de Vitamina D (< 20ng/ml): Caucásico 8 %, magrebí 34,5%, subsahariano 18%, centroamericano 20%, indio 64%. 6- Alteraciones de PTH (> 65 pg/ml): Caucásico 1 %, magrebí 5 %, subsahariano 3%, indio 8 %. 7- Exposición solar insuficiente: Caucásico 12%, magrebí 85%, subsahariano 81%, centroamericano 50%, indio 93%. CONCLUSIONES 1- No se ha detectado malnutrición auxológica en las poblaciones evaluadas. 2- La ingesta de calcio es similar en los 5 grupos, mientras que el aporte de vitamina D es escaso en el subsahariano e indio. La escasa exposición solar de las poblaciones infantiles de origen magrebí, subsahariano e indio es un factor determinante del déficit de la vitamina D y de la elevación de las concentraciones plasmáticas de PTH. Se contabilizan 2 niños subsaharianos con analítica de raquitismo. 3- Existe un déficit de ferritina, hierro y hemoglobina en las poblaciones infantiles magrebí, subsahariana y de forma más acusada en la población india debido a un aporte insuficiente de carne, pescado y huevos con alimentación excesiva en arroz y maíz. / INTRODUCTION On account of the increase in the child population due to immigration in Salt (Girona) we decided to carry out a nutritional study compared with the indigenous child population in order to determine the possible risk of developing hypovitaminosis D and ferropenica anaemia. Salt has a population of 29,527 according to the census of 2007. 38% of this population is immigrant comprised of 71 different nationalities, principally Maghreb and sub-Saharan. OBJECTIVES 1-Compare the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of the infantile population of Salt with that of the immigrants. 2-Determine the plasmatic concentrations of 25(OH) D, PTH, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphates and their relation with the ingestion of calcium and vitamin D and the degree of solar exposure of each race. 3-Analyse the plasmatic concentrations of haemoglobin, ferrite and sideremia in each ethnic group. POPULATION AND METHOD Prospective study carried out during 2008-2010 in a primary paediatric consultancy by a single observer. Anthropometric parameters evaluated: a) weight and length at birth. b) weight, height and IMC during the study. Population: 307 children less than 3 years old in Salt. Distribution by origin and race: Caucasians (n=85, 27.4%) North African (n=087, 28.0%); sub-Saharan (n=101, 32.5%); Central American (n=20; 6.4%) and Indian (n=14, 4.5%). Biochemical parameters: calcemia, phosphoremia, alkaline phosphates, 25(OH) D, PTH, haematometria, sideremia and ferritin. A Garabedian nutritional study to estimate the nutrition ingestion of calcium, Vitamin D and the degree of solar exposure. RESULTS 1-The analysis of anthropometric parameters showed no significant difference between the indigenous and immigrant population. 2-Deficiency of sideremia (<50µg/dl): Caucasians 38,5%, North African 51%, sub-Saharan 43%, Central American 35%, Indian 79%. 3-Deficiency of ferritin (< 20 ng/ml): Caucasians 10,5%, North African 49%, sub-Saharan 29%, Central American 15%, Indian 85%. 4-Deficiency of haemoglobin (< 10.5 mg/ml): Caucasian 3,7%, North African 7% sub-Saharan 15%, Central American 5%, Indian 21%. 5-Deficiency- of Vitamin D (< 20ng/ml): Caucasian 8%, North African 34,5%, sub-Saharan 18%, Central American 20%, Indian 64%. 6-Alterations of PTH (>65 pg/ml): Caucasians 1%, North African 5%. Sub-Saharan 3%, Indian 8%. 7-Insufficient exposure solar: Caucasian 12%, North African 85%, sub-Saharan 81%, Central American 50%, Indian 93%. CONCLUSIONS 1-Auxologic malnutrition has not been detected within the populations in this study. 2-The ingestion of calcium is similar throughout the 5 groups, whilst the presence of vitamin D is scarce in the sub-Saharan and Indian groups. The lack of exposure solar of the infant population of the groups from, North Africa, sub-Sahara and India is a determining factor in the deficiency of vitamin D and the high plasmatic concentration of PTH. 2 children were recorded with analytical sub-Saharan rickets. 3-There exists a deficiency of ferritin, iron, and hemoglobin in the infant population of North Africa, sub-Sahara and, in a more acute form of India due to an insufficiency of meat, fish and eggs with a excess of rice and corn.

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