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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
61

Development of microfluidic technology for in-situ determination of iron and manganese in natural aquatic systems

Milani, Ambra January 2014 (has links)
In-situ sensors are crucially important for understanding the physico-chemical processes that occur in natural water environments. Manual sampling with laboratory analysis cannot provide the temporal and spatial resolution required to characterize marine and fresh water ecosystems, and this approach is both expensive and time consuming, and may also be affected by artefacts during handling and storage. In-situ sensors minimize these drawbacks and provide a tool to obtain long-term data banks which will allow a more synoptic interpretation of the biogeochemical cycles of key elements in water systems. The trace metals iron and manganese are examples of key elements that shape the biogeochemistry of aquatic systems. Processes influenced by them include phytoplankton growth, deep-sea vent chemistry and redox equilibria in environments with strong oxygen concentration gradients. This thesis describes the development, optimisation and application in environment of two sequential prototypes of a Lab-On-A-Chip microfluidic autonomous analyser for the in-situ determination iron and manganese in aquatic environments. A first prototype (Prototype 1,P1) of the device existed at the beginning of this project. It was labtested and deployed at depth in the Lucky Strike Vents Field (Mid Atlantic Ridge) for the determination of Fe(II). An operative fault during the deployment triggered a trouble shooting process which highlighted some weak points in the device. Those weaknesses were addressed and solved in a second version of the device (Prototype 2, P2) whose novel feature was the in-line mixing by diffusion of reagents and samples. Total Fe, Fe(II) and Mn could be measured with a frequency of up to 12 and 6 samples per hour respectively, with limits of detection of 35 nM and 27 nM for Total Fe and Fe(II) and 28 nM for Mn. The robustness and reliability of P2 was tested in the laboratory and in the environment in both marine (Baltic Sea) and fresh (Beaulieu River) waters. The results of these deployments are presented and directions for further developments of the technology are proposed.
62

Aspects of the registration of software as patents

Stockl, Daimon 18 February 2014 (has links)
LL. M. (Intellectual Property Law) / Throughout the history of mankind and the countless ages in which law has found a voice, there has existed a need to achieve and maintain a balance between conflicting interests. In this everchanging and dynamic society the need for a balance is paramount. Although it may seem that the various conflicting interests are predominately of a private nature, many of these conflicting interests have consequences that have a salient impact on social welfare. One such branch of the law in which conflicting interests between various interested parties surface is patent law, and the controversial issue of software programs. The current socio-economic environment has experienced exponential technological growth, with substantial advancements not only in the field of hardware but also in the field of software. However, this same rapid growth is not always true when it comes to the law which, in certain fields may be remarked to unfortunately be lagging behind in the degree of protection it affords. The consequences of this may be dire in the case of technological developments, for it is the protection afforded that is in part responsible for the advancements in technology. This once again draws into account the fine line in the balance of rights between various conflicting interests, namely the protection of an individual’s creativity versus that of social welfare. In certain cases, regardless of how innovative or unique certain discoveries or developments may be, if they are important to the social welfare, then an individual’s rights or need for protection must give way. Having said this, one needs to evaluate where software programs fall within this delicate balance of rights. The legal position with regard to software programs in South African intellectual property law is found within the legislation. Namely, the protection afforded to software programs in the Copyright Act,1 and the exclusion of protection in the Patents Act.2 In light of this, why software programs are expressly excluded from protection in the Patents Act will be analysed. It will also be determined if, and to what extent, the Patents Act can be said to afford protection to software
63

The development and optimization of a cosmetic formulation that facilitates the process of detangling braids from African hair

Mkentane, Kwezikazi January 2012 (has links)
A large number of people throughout the world have naturally kinky hair that may be very difficult to manage. These people often subject their hair to vigorous and harsh treatment processes in order to straighten it and hence make it more manageable. Hair braiding is a popular and fashionable trend amongst many people, in particular people of African descent. Braided hairstyles serve to preserve hair and protect it, and to give it time to rejuvenate after a period of harsh treatment. During the braiding process synthetic hair is attached to natural hair by weaving a length of the natural hair into one end of each braid. Other materials like wool or cotton may be use used to achieve different hairstyles and textures. Several strands of natural hair are used to secure each braid. The braids are normally left intact for a number of weeks or even months. Although braiding is a helpful African hair grooming practice, the process of taking down or detangling the braids is labor intensive and entails each braid being cut just below where the natural hair ceases and the natural hair being untangled from the braid using a safety pin, a needle or a fine toothed comb. The labor and long hours required to detangle braided hairstyles often results in braid wearers frustratingly pulling on their braided hair. This behavior inevitably destroys the hair follicle and leaves the hair damaged. According to a study conducted by the University of Cape Town’s dermatology department, braiding may be the root cause of traction alopecia (TA) amongst braid wearers. Traction alopecia is a form of alopecia, or gradual hair loss that is caused primarily by excessive pulling forces applied to the hair. The purpose of this current study was to investigate the factors, other than braid tightness, that affect the way and ease with which braids are detangled from the human hair. The study hypothesized that frictional forces present in braided hair were amongst these factors. It was hypothesized that introducing a lubricating formulation in the braids would allow for easier braid detangling. In order to decrease the prevalence of traction alopecia from braided hair, two hair strengthening actives were included in the test formulation. The study investigated the effects of the test formulations on braid detangling, hair friction and on the tensile strength of human hair. The study found that the method used did not pick up any significant differences between the braid detangling forces of treated braids when compared to the braid vi detangling forces of untreated hair. The same method used to measure braid detangling forces was able to show that there are variations in the braid detangling forces of different sections along the braid length. The method to measure braid detangling was based on the principles of hair combability measurements. The study also found that although the method used to measure braid detangling forces was unsuccessful in picking up significant differences in braid detangling forces of treated hair and untreated hair, the method used to measure the frictional forces of human hair showed that the frictional forces of hair treated with test formulations were significantly different than that of untreated hair. The method used to measure frictional forces was based on the capstan approach. The Capstan method measures the forces required to slide a weighted hair fibre over a curved surface of reference material. The interaction between the weighted fibre and the reference material simulates the movement of hair out of a braid ensemble in the braid detangling process. The optimum mixture with the minimum coefficient of friction, predicted a coefficient of friction of 0.61 ± 0.04. The optimum formulation was found to be one that contained 30% Cyclopentasiloxane , 0% PEG-12 Dimethicone, 10% 18-MEA, 29% water, 10% hair strengthening actives, 12.86% emulsifier combination and 8% other oils. The study also showed that including hair strengthening actives, such as hydrolysed proteins had significant effects in the tensile strength properties of chemically treated African hair.
64

Crossing the Boundaries: Overlaps of Intellectual Property Rights

Tomkowicz, Robert Jacek January 2011 (has links)
Overlaps of intellectual property rights are a phenomenon that is not yet fully understood and analyzed; yet it is an increasingly important issue due to development of new hybrid technologies that defy the established structure of the system. Despite the potential adverse effects this phenomenon can have on the integrity of the system, the problem of overlaps has been neglected in judicial and scholarly analyses. This research presents the thesis that all uses of intellectual property rights should be viewed in light of their purposes. In other words, the phenomenon of overlapping intellectual property rights is not a problem per se; instead, it is the use of the rights for incompatible purposes that may be considered objectionable. The analyses use the concept of balance of rights as the measuring rod for assessment of the consequences resulting from use of the overlapping rights. Thus, the dissertation investigates how use of intellectual property rights associated with one segment of the system can affect carefully crafted balance of rights of various stakeholders in an overlapping segment and whether effectiveness of this segment to advance its purposes will be impeded by such use. The analyses are also done with the aim to formulate a uniform answer to identified and potentially objectionable uses of overlapping rights in an attempt to provide the judiciary and law practitioners with analytical framework for resolving disputes involving overlaps in the intellectual property system. An adequate response to the challenge posed by improper use of overlapping intellectual property rights can be found in a properly construed doctrine of misuse of intellectual property rights. Because overlaps in the intellectual property system are a phenomenon that probably cannot be legislated in practical terms, this dissertation advocates adoption of a judicially created doctrine of misuse based on purposive analysis of intellectual property rights.
65

Úloha státu v podpoře výzkumu a vývoje v soukromé sféře / The roles of the state and its support of research and development in the private sector

Pivoňková, Jana January 2009 (has links)
This project is aimed at the roles of the state and its support of research and development in the private sector. The core part of this project is focused on view and judgment of the roles of the state institutions in the research and development process. Is should be also mentioned that substantial part is focused on the following four dominant institutions: Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic; Ministry of Industry and Trade and Grant Agency of the Czech Republic. My primal interest is aimed at comparison of public and private expenses relating to the research and development and evaluation of all effects connected with these expenses. The key aspects of this project are supported by economic theories such as The Theory of Bureaucracy, Public Interests, Government and Market Failure or The State Regulation Theory. The whole point of this project is to find out reasons for state intervention in the research and development areas. Particular attention is paid to the current empirical studies and results related to these studies.
66

Intellectual Assets and Corporate Finance

Longman, Sophia C. 14 October 2015 (has links)
No description available.
67

Fundamentals of Software Patent Protection at a University

Everett, Christopher E 10 May 2003 (has links)
Software protection by patents is an emerging field and thus is not completely understood by software developers, especially software developers in a university setting. University inventors have to balance their publication productivity and the desire of their university to license inventions that could be profitable. This balance stems from the one-year bar on filing a U.S. patent application after public disclosure such as publications of the invention. The research provides evidence supporting the hypothesis that a university inventor can improve the protection of his or her software patent by applying certain information about patent prosecution practices and the relevant prior art. Software inventors need to be concerned about fulfilling the requirements of patent laws. Some of the methods for fulfilling these requirements include using diagrams in patent applications such as functional block diagrams, flowchart diagrams, and state diagrams and ensuring that the patent application is understandable by non-technical people. The knowledge of prior art ensures that the inventor is not "reinventing the wheel," not infringing on a patent, and understands the current state of the art. The knowledge of patent laws, diagrams, readability, and prior art enables a software inventor to take control of the protection of his or her invention to ensure that the application of this information leads to improvements during the application process.
68

Inside the Ivory Tower: Inventors and Patents at Lund University

Göktepe, Devrim 06 May 2008 (has links)
The purpose of this thesis is to identify patents invented by researchers at Lund University, to describe the university inventors, and to understand the main factors that influence their patenting activities. The analysis focuses on inventors in relation to their environment. A number of factors influence scientists’ decisions to patent. Internal factors related to individuals such as solving the research puzzle, demonstrating the quality and novelty of the research, and enhancing professional reputation are the main internal factors that trigger researchers to patent. Although external factors such as TTOs and the Third Task are relatively more important for some inventors, internal factors are still the predominant factors. The thesis has also suggested a typology of inventors to show the differences in the level of patenting and in the way they applied for patent and commercialized. This nuanced heterogeneity among inventors emphasizes the need for caution in generalizations, especially regarding the roles and influences of patent legislation and TTOs in university patenting. Adaptive and flexible institutions and organizations may enable scientists to patent by providing them with the necessary resources and skills they may need for patenting rather than applying standard solutions to different cases. This study has made empirical and theoretical contributions to the literature by developing a focus on individual inventors and by emphasizing the characteristics of these inventors and of their external environments. Hence, this dissertation may provide both theoretical insights and empirical evidence to scholars investigating university patenting and inventors. It may also provide insights to policy makers and university administrators on the appropriate roles of institutions and organizations in promoting and assisting patenting activities of university researchers.
69

Individual-Level Collaboration and Firm-Level Innovation in the Biotechnology Industry

Hohberger, Jan-Simon 11 May 2010 (has links)
Malgrat el gran nombre de recerques sobre els acords col·laboratius i la innovació, són pocs els estudis que examinen la influència de la col·laboració individual entre els membres d'una mateixa organització i la seva repercussió en la innovació de l'empresa. Això resulta sorprenent, perquè bastants estudis destaquen el paper important que les persones poden acomplir en els processos d'aprenentatge i adquisició de coneixements (p. ex., la mobilitat dels enginyers i els científics, els investigadors estrella i "boundary spanners"). En conseqüència, aquesta tesi investiga l'impacte de les col·laboracions interorganitzatives dels científics -recollides per la coautoria dels seus papers de recerca- en les innovacions patentades de les empreses. Els resultats indiquen que, fins i tot després de controlar alguns factors que ja han estat identificats per la seva incidència en els resultats innovadors de l'empresa -com ara les aliances estratègiques de l'empresa, els científics estrella i els que no ho són, la capacitat científica individual i la inversió en R+D-, el grau en què els científics d'una empresa col·laboren externament en articles científics influeix positivament en el seu acompliment innovador. A més, les col·laboracions individuals entre els investigadors d'empresa i els investigadors universitaris són especialment útils, i els transvasaments regionals milloren l'impacte de les col·laboracions individuals. Avalant les prediccions derivades de l'economia evolutiva i de les teories de la conducta, les empreses amb un nombre més alt de col·laboracions individuals externes tenen més probabilitats de créixer més a prop de la frontera de la innovació emergent. En canvi, les empreses amb més aliances estratègiques i col·laboracions individuals internes probablement creixeran més allunyades de la frontera de la innovació i l'especialització tecnològica redueix l'alineació de les empreses amb la frontera innovadora. Així doncs, aquesta tesi aïlla i destaca el paper de la col·laboració individual en el procés d'innovació de l'empresa. / Pese al gran número de investigaciones sobre las colaboraciones y la innovación, solo unos pocos estudios examinan la influencia de la colaboración individual entre los miembros de una misma organización y su repercusión en la innovación de la empresa. Ello resulta sorprendente, puesto que bastantes estudios destacan el importante rol que las personas pueden desempeñar en los procesos de aprendizaje y adquisición de conocimientos (p. ej., la movilidad de los ingenieros y los científicos, los investigadores estrella y los "boundary spanners"). En consecuencia, esta tesis investiga el impacto de las colaboraciones interorganizativas de los científicos -recogidas por la coautoría de sus papers de investigación- en las innovaciones patentadas de las empresas. Los resultados indican que, incluso después de controlar algunos factores que ya han sido identificados por su incidencia en los resultados innovadores de la empresa -como son las alianzas estratégicas de la empresa, los científicos estrella y los que no lo son, la capacidad científica individual y la inversión en I+D-, el nivel en que los científicos de una empresa colaboran externamente en artículos científicos influye positivamente en su desempeño innovador. Además, las colaboraciones individuales entre los investigadores de empresa y los investigadores universitarios son especialmente útiles, y los trasvases regionales mejoran el impacto de las colaboraciones individuales. Avalando las predicciones derivadas de la economía evolutiva y las teorías conductuales, las empresas con mayor número de colaboraciones individuales externas tienen mayores probabilidades de crecer más próximas a la frontera de la innovación emergente. En cambio, las empresas con mayor número de alianzas estratégicas y colaboraciones individuales internas probablemente crecerán más alejadas de la frontera de la innovación y la especialización tecnológica reduce la alineación de las empresas con la frontera innovadora. Así pues, esta tesis aísla y destaca el rol de la colaboración individual en el proceso de innovación de la empresa. / Despite the vast amount of research on collaborative arrangements and innovation, only a few studies examine influence of individual collaboration of members within an organization and their influence on firm innovation. This is surprising since several studies illustrate the important role individuals can play in knowledge acquisition and learning (e.g. mobility of engineers and scientist, star researchers and boundary spanners). Therefore, this dissertation investigates the impact of inter-organizational collaborations of scientists - as captured by co-authorship of research papers - on the patented innovative of firms. The results indicate that even after controlling for factors that have been previously suggested to impact the innovative output of a firm - including the firm's strategic alliances, star and non-star scientists, individual-level scientific ability, and R&D investment - the extent to which a firm's scientists collaborate externally on scientific articles positively influences the firm's innovative performance. Furthermore, individual collaborations between firm researchers and university researchers are particularly useful and regional spillovers enhance the impact of individual collaborations. Supporting the predictions derived from evolutionary economics and behavioral theories, firms with greater numbers of external individual collaborations are likely to grow increasingly aligned to the frontier of emerging innovation. Firms with greater numbers of strategic alliances and internal individual collaborations are likely to grow more distant from the innovation frontier and technological specialization decreases the alignment of firms to the innovative frontier. Thus this dissertation isolates and highlights the role of individual level collaboration in the firm innovation process.
70

Oh I Think I Found Myself a Cheerleader: An Empirical Approach to the Relevancy of Patents in Motivating Innovation and Driving Economic Growth

Xu, Jiani 01 January 2016 (has links)
Innovation is generally regarded as an essential aspect of the economic growth for a country. Intellectual property rights such as patents are often held in the same regard of importance towards promoting the pursuit of innovation. This paper examines this assumption and explores whether patent applications positively or negatively influence GDP growth in a sample of 4 countries chosen for their similarity in stages of economic development. In my research, I also test for the influence of patent applications on commercialized innovation. I find that GDP growth and commercialized innovation are negatively affected by patent applications. This suggests that the commonly assumed link between patents and innovation may need to be reevaluated, and that using patents as an indicator of the economic growth of a country may also need to be reevaluated.

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