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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Routines

Agre, Philip E. 01 May 1985 (has links)
Regularities in the word give rise to regularities in the way which we deal with the world. That is to say, we fall into routines. I have been studying the phenomena of routinization, the process by which institutionalized patterns of interaction with the world arise and evolve in everyday life. Underlying this evolution is a dialectical process of internalization. First you build a model of some previously unarticulated emergent aspect of an existing routine. Armed with an incrementally more global view of interaction, you can often formulate an incrementally better informed plan of attack. A routine is not a plan in the sense of the classical planning literature, except in the theoretical limit of this process. I am implementing this theory using running arguments, a technique for writing rule-based programs for intelligent agents. Because a running argument is compiled into TMS networks as it proceeds, incremental changes in the world require only incremental recomputation of the reasoning about what actions to take next. The system supports a style of programming, dialectival argumentation that had many important properties that recommend it as a substrate for large AI systems. One of these might be called additivity: an agent can modify its reasoning in a class of situations by adducing arguments as to why its previous arguments were incorrect in those cases. Because no side-effects are ever required, reflexive systems based on dialectical argumentation ought to be less fragile than intuition and experience suggest. I outline the remaining implementation problems.
2

Routes, Routines and Emotions in Decision Making of Emergency Call Takers

Svensson, Martin January 2012 (has links)
Emergency call takers listen to callers expressing mundane errands, but also to callers who describe severe accidents, agony and deaths. The emergency setting is further complicated by having to perform triage under time-pressure, but without possibilities of seeing the patient. The setting rests on an imperative of speedy management—there are few or no possibilities to postpone or reconsider decisions. At the same time, the mode of communication (telephone) may cause overflow or insufficient information, resulting in an uncertain and ambiguous decision setting. A focal point for the organization is therefore the individual capability of conducting triage. However, call takers are also helped by organizational routines, which are manifested in decision support systems, in order to navigate this uncertain and ambiguous setting. Taken together, the emergency setting brings a tension to the fore—how does this emotional setting, with features of vivid and interruptive experiences that possibly detour normative decisions, interact with routines that are supposed to provide for both stability and that recurrent decisions can be made under similar conditions? Drawing on the fields of psychology, decision making, organization theory and communication theory the tension is investigated by a series of four studies. The first study is a field study of the emotional landscape of emergency call taking. Emergency call takers rated callers’ emotional expressions in authentic emergency calls, the level of intensity and expressed need for help. The second study is an experiment, using a speech sample from authentic emergency calls in order to find out whether expressed emotion and intensity contribute to perceived need for help. The third study focuses on management strategies of call takers. More specifically, how do emergency call takers manage double-faced emotional management—i.e., their own and the caller’s emotions—simultaneously? The fourth study focuses on how call takers make decisions, more specifically how call takers use intuitive and emotional capabilities to complement or challenge rational aspects of the decision support systems. The studies reveal that certain emotions occur more often than others and that the level of intensity of expression contributes to perceived help need. Call takers have also developed specific emotional management strategies in order to cope with both callers’ and their own emotions. Finally, call takers were found to use rational and formal routines as well as non-formal, intuitive and emotionally based individual routines in order to derive their decisions. These findings are put into organizational context in terms of implications for emergency call taking. Limitations to the development of situation-specific expertise and obstacles for organizational learning are identified. Also, emergency call taking would benefit from drawing on knowledge found outside of the medical domain. However, the most important finding is that interpretation of emotional expressions in callers’ voices can trigger modifications of the triage routine in use. / <p>Disp. June 12</p>
3

The evolutionary theory of the firm. Routines, complexity and change.

Hölzl, Werner January 2005 (has links) (PDF)
This paper provides an overview on the evolutionary theory of the firm. The specific feature of the evolutionary approach is that it explains the adaptive behaviors of firms through the tension between innovation and selection. It is suggested that the evolutionary theory can provide a useful basis for a theory of the firm which is concerned with change over time and development. (author's abstract) / Series: Working Papers Series "Growth and Employment in Europe: Sustainability and Competitiveness"
4

Longitudinal relationships between family routines and biological profiles in youth with asthma

Schreier, Hannah Milena Caroline 11 1900 (has links)
While numerous studies have linked family routines to pediatric asthma outcomes, it remains unclear how family routines come to be associated with these outcomes on a biological level. The current study investigated whether longitudinal trajectories of inflammatory markers of asthma could be predicted by levels of family routines in youth with asthma. Family routines were assessed at baseline through parent questionnaires and peripheral blood samples obtained from youth every 6 months (total number of assessments = 4) over the course of an 18 month study period. Youth with more family routines in their home environment showed decreases in mitogen-stimulated production of a cytokine implicated in asthma, IL-13, over the course of the study period. In turn, within-person analyses indicated that at times when stimulated production of IL-13 was high, asthma symptoms were also high, pointing to the clinical relevance of changes in IL-13 over time. A variety of potential explanations for this effect were probed. Parental depression, stress, and general family functioning could not explain these effects, suggesting that family routines are not just a proxy for parent psychological traits or family relationship quality. However, medication use eliminated the relationship between family routines and stimulated production of IL-13. This suggests that family routines do impact asthma outcomes at the biological level, possibly through influencing medication adherence. Considering daily family behaviors when treating asthma may help improve both biological and clinical profiles in youth with asthma.
5

Longitudinal relationships between family routines and biological profiles in youth with asthma

Schreier, Hannah Milena Caroline 11 1900 (has links)
While numerous studies have linked family routines to pediatric asthma outcomes, it remains unclear how family routines come to be associated with these outcomes on a biological level. The current study investigated whether longitudinal trajectories of inflammatory markers of asthma could be predicted by levels of family routines in youth with asthma. Family routines were assessed at baseline through parent questionnaires and peripheral blood samples obtained from youth every 6 months (total number of assessments = 4) over the course of an 18 month study period. Youth with more family routines in their home environment showed decreases in mitogen-stimulated production of a cytokine implicated in asthma, IL-13, over the course of the study period. In turn, within-person analyses indicated that at times when stimulated production of IL-13 was high, asthma symptoms were also high, pointing to the clinical relevance of changes in IL-13 over time. A variety of potential explanations for this effect were probed. Parental depression, stress, and general family functioning could not explain these effects, suggesting that family routines are not just a proxy for parent psychological traits or family relationship quality. However, medication use eliminated the relationship between family routines and stimulated production of IL-13. This suggests that family routines do impact asthma outcomes at the biological level, possibly through influencing medication adherence. Considering daily family behaviors when treating asthma may help improve both biological and clinical profiles in youth with asthma.
6

Investigating a group of New Zealand leaders : their roots of, routes to, and routines in leadership : a ... research report ... presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management at Massey University

McLeod-Jones, David Unknown Date (has links)
Zaleznik (1977) addressing “Development of leadership” in Managers and leaders: Are they different? states that, “The development of every person begins in the family . . . Also, beyond early childhood, the patterns of development that affect managers and leaders involve the selective influence of particular people (p.75). This leads to a position of leadership that he earlier suggested, “inevitably requires using power to influence the thoughts and actions of people” (p.67). These stages of leadership correspond with the roots of leadership, the routes to leadership, and the routines in leadership, investigated in this research project. These were drawn, with some modification, from research conducted by Sinclair and Wilson (2002) into leadership in the Australian setting. Having observed the impact of leadership, or the lack of, in both work and community settings, I was interested to investigate what led to a person becoming a leader, and what they thought they did in that role. It was only near the end of my literature review that I came across Sinclair and Wilson’s work and their use of qualitative research for investigating leadership. I have modelled my research project on theirs, to investigate the development and practises of a group of leaders in the New Zealand setting.
7

The Impact of Disruptions on Routinization of Goal-Directed Grocery Shopping Behavior

Ong, Adeline, Pek Kay, adeline.ong@rmit.edu.au January 2007 (has links)
This thesis bridges a gap in extant research by examining key factors that play a role in behavioral grocery shopping routines following minor and major disruptions. The present research involves two interrelated investigations incorporating mixed methodologies (Cresswell, 2003). Study 1 involves semi-structured in-depth interviews seeking to establish how goal-directed grocery shopping routines are developed over time. Utilizing a laddering approach of questioning (Gutman, 1997), respondents are probed on their routines (Brotherton, 2001) and goals, including end goals as described in the List of Values (Kahle & Kennedy, 1988). Three participants were interviewed on three occasions over an eight week period, until theoretical saturation was achieved. A significant contribution of Study 1 lies in the development of a conceptual framework for understanding factors associated with grocery shopping routines. This model reflects a working definition characterizing routines as goal-driven and value-guided heuristic strategies. It is proposed that routines are repetitive patterns of personal and private behavioral activities dependent upon situational and temporal contexts, and utilized for instrumental reasons. Risk-taking attitudes and personal values also shape goal-directed behaviors. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1993), Study 2, an online experiment, aims to test and build upon the conceptual model emanating from Study 1. This study also investigates the impact of minor and major disruptions on routinized grocery shopping behavior. 612 participants were allocated across three experimental groups: situational contexts, anticipated temporal conditions, and repetitive value. Cohorts were assessed at baseline levels and received unique minor and major disruptions appropriate to their circumstance. Study 2 contributes through the large-scale SEM testing of a model of grocery shopping routinization. Overall, sound structural model fit demonstrates that the present model of grocery shopping routinization is explained by six distinct components including routinized behavior, goal-centeredness, situational contexts, anticipated temporal conditions, repetitive value, and risk-taking attitudes; and three dimensions of personal values: maturity, self-direction/achievement, and enjoyment. In terms of disruptions, findings indicate that routine strength is dependent on degree of situational, temporal, and instrumental interruptions. Disruptions can both facilitate and impede routines. Results demonstrate that regardless of goal stability, routines change when model components are disrupted. Findings suggest theoretical, research, and practical implications. This thesis expands decision making theory (Betsch, Fiedler, & Brinkmann, 1998) by demonstrating that, despite unwavering goals, new contexts arising from disruptions influence new behavioral deliberations. In relation to research implications, this thesis develops then subsequently tests a model of grocery shopping routinization. Despite routines becoming subconscious over time (Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2000a), this study asserts that routines are intentional and involve goal-directed strategies for dealing with the environment. From an applied perspective, practitioners should be aware that routine-disrupted consumers remain goal-driven. Consumers are unlikely to forego focal goals (e.g., shop for weekly household meals) if these goals are non-negotiable. Present results suggest that consumers esteem maturity-related personal values, such as fostering and maintaining warm relationships with others and sense of belonging, when grocery sho pping.
8

SM-mästare - för att det var kul! : En kvalitativ studie om psykologiska framgångsfaktorer hos motocrossförare

Jonsson, Jimmy January 2012 (has links)
Syfte och Frågeställning Syftet med studien är att undersöka motocrossförares förberedelse inför tävling och deras uppfattning av en topprestation under tävling. De frågor som jag sökt svar på är: Hur ser förarna på balansen mellan utmaning och skicklighet utifrån sin förmåga? Vilka mål har förarna inför en tävling och vilken feedback får förarna under tävling? samt hur förarna upplever sin topprestation? Metod Studien har en kvalitativ ansats med semistrukturerad intervju som metod (Bryman 2008 s. 206). I studien ligger tonvikten på att uppfatta och tolka förarens förklaringar. Intervjuerna spelades in, transkriberades och analyserades, till största del, utifrån flowteorin. Det gjordes ett medvetet urval av informanter. Deltagarna i studien är två aktiva elitförare i motocross med SM-guld och erfarenhet från internationella tävlingar på meritlistan. Analysen vilar på forskningsanknuten litteratur samt vetenskapliga artiklar inom aktuellt ämnesområde. Resultat Undersökningen visar att de faktorer som gör att förarna upplever sin topprestation är en kombination av flera olika faktorer som överensstämmer med flowteorin; tydliga mål, tydlig feedback, handling av medvetande bildar ett sammanhang, koncentration på uppgiften, känsla av kontroll, förlust av osäkerhet, tidsförskjutning samt en autotelisk upplevelse. Förarna i studien upplever flow på olika sätt. Den ena föraren upplever en känsla av "att vara ett med hojen" och ha fullständig kontroll över den. Den andra föraren uttrycker det som att hon "går in i en bubbla" och minns i stort sett ingenting av prestationen. Slutsats Båda förarna anser det avgörande att komma väl förberedd inför en tävling samt att allt runt omkring ska fungera för en topprestation skall uppnås. Hur förarna förbereder sig och vilka strategier de använder ser dock olika ut, men gemensamt är att de har den autoteliska upplevelsen, glädjen, som drivkraft för sitt idrottande. / <p>Tränarprogrammet 1995-1998</p>
9

Longitudinal relationships between family routines and biological profiles in youth with asthma

Schreier, Hannah Milena Caroline 11 1900 (has links)
While numerous studies have linked family routines to pediatric asthma outcomes, it remains unclear how family routines come to be associated with these outcomes on a biological level. The current study investigated whether longitudinal trajectories of inflammatory markers of asthma could be predicted by levels of family routines in youth with asthma. Family routines were assessed at baseline through parent questionnaires and peripheral blood samples obtained from youth every 6 months (total number of assessments = 4) over the course of an 18 month study period. Youth with more family routines in their home environment showed decreases in mitogen-stimulated production of a cytokine implicated in asthma, IL-13, over the course of the study period. In turn, within-person analyses indicated that at times when stimulated production of IL-13 was high, asthma symptoms were also high, pointing to the clinical relevance of changes in IL-13 over time. A variety of potential explanations for this effect were probed. Parental depression, stress, and general family functioning could not explain these effects, suggesting that family routines are not just a proxy for parent psychological traits or family relationship quality. However, medication use eliminated the relationship between family routines and stimulated production of IL-13. This suggests that family routines do impact asthma outcomes at the biological level, possibly through influencing medication adherence. Considering daily family behaviors when treating asthma may help improve both biological and clinical profiles in youth with asthma. / Arts, Faculty of / Psychology, Department of / Graduate
10

Role of organisational learning in maintaining a stable context for transformation : the case of a Scottish SME

Apostolou, Katerina January 2014 (has links)
This thesis explores organisational learning, a process of improving actions through better knowledge and understanding (Fiol & Lyles, 1985). Organisational learning is essential in an organisation's ability to evolve and grow and respond to environmental changes and is implicated in its survival. While all organisations are said to be learning constantly, the processes involved in this learning are highly contested, multi-layered and intricate. Knowledge, memory and practice have been implicated in the multi-faceted nature of organisational learning. This study examines the role of organisational learning in stability and change patterns and the ways that this learning is manifested in an organisational context. In particular, this study focuses on the routine actions taken by organisational members and their role in reproducing relations of stability and change organisationally. It employs Giddens's Structuration Theory (1984) as a sensitising device to view the relationship between organisational structure and employees as one of mutual constitution where knowledgeable agents both produce their world at the same time as they reproduce it anew through their daily actions. The research takes the form of a single case study comprising interview and documentary data collected over a period of eighteen months with an aerospace manufacturing company. The analysis of the findings indicated that organisations and the individuals who comprise them: are driven by a mutual objective that directs collective action; constantly interpret the information they receive from within and outside the organisation and act upon their interpretations; and accept that such varied interpretations can and do create conflict about organisational priorities. The findings are presented in the context of existing literature on organisational learning, knowing, remembering, practising and routine work; and within the theoretical framework of structure and agency. In doing so this study discusses the transformation of the organisation through practices, thus making stability and change constantly present rather than being viewed as mutually exclusive. This transformation is constant because organisations are comprised of individuals who engage in knowing as an element of living. Individual employees, driven by incomplete and provisional knowledge, engage in learning about their work, their organisation and how to improve by constantly interpreting the knowledge transmitted to them through their socialisation in and through organisational practices. Their knowing and learning is continuous; when practising routine work not only do they reproduce the conditions that make their actions possible, they also produce the organisation anew. Better knowledge has increased the capacities of employees and their contribution to organisational efficiency has improved. In their joint efforts they have thus transformed the organisation which in turn forces change back upon the individuals – a transformed organisation needs to be interpreted and understood once more and the cycle starts again. Organisational learning can be viewed as the transformation of the organisation, not only through major changes that are deliberate and contingent, but also though the subtle alterations that happen continuously in the course of each day as people go about their work.

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