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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Prótese valvar mitral : 20 anos de seguimento de uma amostra de pacientes operados no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

Ribeiro, Angela Henrique Silva January 2013 (has links)
Este estudo avalia mortalidade, reoperação e eventos hemorrágicos em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar mitral utilizando substituto biológico ou mecânico. O delineamento do estudo foi do tipo coorte histórica. Entre todos os registros, foram selecionados 352 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar mitral entre 1990 e 2008, que tiveram seguimento mínimo de 5 e máximo de 23 anos. Para avaliar o tempo de sobrevida, a probabilidade de reoperação e de eventos hemorrágicos, foi utilizada a curva de Kaplan-Meier. Foi aplicado, para comparar as curvas entre os grupos, o teste qui-quadrado de Log-rank. A análise multivariada de Regressão de Cox foi utilizada para identificar preditores independentes de mortalidade, reoperação e eventos hemorrágicos. A sobrevivência em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 87,7%, 74,2%, 69,3% e 69,3% e, para substituto biológico, foi de 87,6%, 71,0%, 64,2%, e 56,6%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre a mortalidade entre os dois grupos (p=0,38). Na análise multivariada, os fatores associados com o óbito foram: idade, eventos hemorrágicos e insuficiência renal. A probabilidade de permanecer livre de reoperação em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 94,4%, 92,7%, 92,7% e 92,7% e, para bioprótese, foi de 95,9%, 86,4%, 81,2% e 76,5%, respectivamente (p=0.073), com uma incidência significativamente maior de reoperação para bioprótese (p=0,008). Os fatores associados com reoperação foram: sexo masculino, diâmetro da prótese e endocardite. A probabilidade de permanecer livre de eventos hemorrágicos em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 95,0%, 91,0%, 89,6% e 89,6% e, para bioprótese, foi de 96,9%, 94,0%, 94,0% e 94,0%, respectivamente (p=0,267). Os fatores associados com eventos hemorrágicos foram: IMC (índice de massa corporal) superior à 30 kg/m2, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tempo de ventilação mecânica na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo superior a 30 dias e presença insuficiência mitral. Os autores concluíram que: 1) a mortalidade foi estatisticamente semelhante entre os dois grupos no seguimento; 2) houve tendência maior à reoperação no grupo com bioprótese; 3) após 10 anos de seguimento, a probabilidade de permanecer livre de reoperação não mudou para pacientes com substitutos valvares mecânicos; 4) a probabilidade de permanecer livre de eventos hemorrágicos não mudou após 10 anos de seguimento para portadores de biopróteses; 5) as características basais dos pacientes foram os maiores determinantes de mortalidade tardia após a cirurgia; 6) o tipo de prótese não foi fator preditor independente associado a nenhum dos desfechos avaliados na análise multivariada. / This study assessed mortality, reoperation and bleeding events in patients who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery with a biological or mechanical substitute. This was a historical cohort study. In total, 352 inpatients clinical health records who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery between 1990 and 2008 with 5 to 23 years of follow-up were selected. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to evaluate the survival time, the probability of reoperation and bleeding events. A log-rank chi-square test was applied to compare the curves between groups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of mortality, reoperation and bleeding events. The 5, 10, 15 and 20 year survival rates after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 87.7%, 74.2%, 69.3% and 69.3%, respectively, while the survival rates after surgery with a biological substitute were 87.6%, 71.0%, 64.2% and 56.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups (p = 0.38). In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with death were age, bleeding events and renal failure. The probabilities of being free of reoperation at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 94.4%, 92.7%, 92.7% and 92.7%, respectively, while after surgery with a bioprosthesis, they were 95.9%, 86.4%, 81.2% and 76.5%, respectively (p = 0.073); therefore, there was a significantly higher incidence of reoperation for patients receiving a bioprosthesis (p = 0.008). The factors associated with reoperation were male gender, diameter of the prosthesis and endocarditis. The probabilities of remaining free of bleeding events at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 95.0%, 91.0%, 89.6% and 89.6, respectively, while after surgery with a bioprosthesis, they were 96.9%, 94.0%, 94.0% and 94.0%, respectively (p = 0.267). The factors associated with bleeding events were BMI (body mass index) greater than 30 kg/m2, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mechanical ventilation at an Intensive Care Unit for longer than 30 days and mitral regurgitation. The authors concluded that: 1) mortality during follow-up was statistically similar in both groups; 2) there was a greater tendency to reoperation in the bioprosthesis group; 3) the probability of survival free from reoperation did not change for patients with mechanical valves after 10 years’ follow-up; 4) the probability of survival free from bleeding events did not change after 10 years’ follow-up for bioprostheses patients; 5) patients’ baseline characteristics were the greatest determinants of late mortality after mitral valve replacement surgery; 6) the type of prosthesis fitted was not an independent predictive factor of any of the outcomes analyzed in the multivariate analysis.
2

Prótese valvar mitral : 20 anos de seguimento de uma amostra de pacientes operados no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

Ribeiro, Angela Henrique Silva January 2013 (has links)
Este estudo avalia mortalidade, reoperação e eventos hemorrágicos em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar mitral utilizando substituto biológico ou mecânico. O delineamento do estudo foi do tipo coorte histórica. Entre todos os registros, foram selecionados 352 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar mitral entre 1990 e 2008, que tiveram seguimento mínimo de 5 e máximo de 23 anos. Para avaliar o tempo de sobrevida, a probabilidade de reoperação e de eventos hemorrágicos, foi utilizada a curva de Kaplan-Meier. Foi aplicado, para comparar as curvas entre os grupos, o teste qui-quadrado de Log-rank. A análise multivariada de Regressão de Cox foi utilizada para identificar preditores independentes de mortalidade, reoperação e eventos hemorrágicos. A sobrevivência em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 87,7%, 74,2%, 69,3% e 69,3% e, para substituto biológico, foi de 87,6%, 71,0%, 64,2%, e 56,6%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre a mortalidade entre os dois grupos (p=0,38). Na análise multivariada, os fatores associados com o óbito foram: idade, eventos hemorrágicos e insuficiência renal. A probabilidade de permanecer livre de reoperação em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 94,4%, 92,7%, 92,7% e 92,7% e, para bioprótese, foi de 95,9%, 86,4%, 81,2% e 76,5%, respectivamente (p=0.073), com uma incidência significativamente maior de reoperação para bioprótese (p=0,008). Os fatores associados com reoperação foram: sexo masculino, diâmetro da prótese e endocardite. A probabilidade de permanecer livre de eventos hemorrágicos em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 95,0%, 91,0%, 89,6% e 89,6% e, para bioprótese, foi de 96,9%, 94,0%, 94,0% e 94,0%, respectivamente (p=0,267). Os fatores associados com eventos hemorrágicos foram: IMC (índice de massa corporal) superior à 30 kg/m2, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tempo de ventilação mecânica na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo superior a 30 dias e presença insuficiência mitral. Os autores concluíram que: 1) a mortalidade foi estatisticamente semelhante entre os dois grupos no seguimento; 2) houve tendência maior à reoperação no grupo com bioprótese; 3) após 10 anos de seguimento, a probabilidade de permanecer livre de reoperação não mudou para pacientes com substitutos valvares mecânicos; 4) a probabilidade de permanecer livre de eventos hemorrágicos não mudou após 10 anos de seguimento para portadores de biopróteses; 5) as características basais dos pacientes foram os maiores determinantes de mortalidade tardia após a cirurgia; 6) o tipo de prótese não foi fator preditor independente associado a nenhum dos desfechos avaliados na análise multivariada. / This study assessed mortality, reoperation and bleeding events in patients who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery with a biological or mechanical substitute. This was a historical cohort study. In total, 352 inpatients clinical health records who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery between 1990 and 2008 with 5 to 23 years of follow-up were selected. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to evaluate the survival time, the probability of reoperation and bleeding events. A log-rank chi-square test was applied to compare the curves between groups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of mortality, reoperation and bleeding events. The 5, 10, 15 and 20 year survival rates after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 87.7%, 74.2%, 69.3% and 69.3%, respectively, while the survival rates after surgery with a biological substitute were 87.6%, 71.0%, 64.2% and 56.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups (p = 0.38). In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with death were age, bleeding events and renal failure. The probabilities of being free of reoperation at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 94.4%, 92.7%, 92.7% and 92.7%, respectively, while after surgery with a bioprosthesis, they were 95.9%, 86.4%, 81.2% and 76.5%, respectively (p = 0.073); therefore, there was a significantly higher incidence of reoperation for patients receiving a bioprosthesis (p = 0.008). The factors associated with reoperation were male gender, diameter of the prosthesis and endocarditis. The probabilities of remaining free of bleeding events at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 95.0%, 91.0%, 89.6% and 89.6, respectively, while after surgery with a bioprosthesis, they were 96.9%, 94.0%, 94.0% and 94.0%, respectively (p = 0.267). The factors associated with bleeding events were BMI (body mass index) greater than 30 kg/m2, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mechanical ventilation at an Intensive Care Unit for longer than 30 days and mitral regurgitation. The authors concluded that: 1) mortality during follow-up was statistically similar in both groups; 2) there was a greater tendency to reoperation in the bioprosthesis group; 3) the probability of survival free from reoperation did not change for patients with mechanical valves after 10 years’ follow-up; 4) the probability of survival free from bleeding events did not change after 10 years’ follow-up for bioprostheses patients; 5) patients’ baseline characteristics were the greatest determinants of late mortality after mitral valve replacement surgery; 6) the type of prosthesis fitted was not an independent predictive factor of any of the outcomes analyzed in the multivariate analysis.
3

Prótese valvar mitral : 20 anos de seguimento de uma amostra de pacientes operados no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

Ribeiro, Angela Henrique Silva January 2013 (has links)
Este estudo avalia mortalidade, reoperação e eventos hemorrágicos em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar mitral utilizando substituto biológico ou mecânico. O delineamento do estudo foi do tipo coorte histórica. Entre todos os registros, foram selecionados 352 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar mitral entre 1990 e 2008, que tiveram seguimento mínimo de 5 e máximo de 23 anos. Para avaliar o tempo de sobrevida, a probabilidade de reoperação e de eventos hemorrágicos, foi utilizada a curva de Kaplan-Meier. Foi aplicado, para comparar as curvas entre os grupos, o teste qui-quadrado de Log-rank. A análise multivariada de Regressão de Cox foi utilizada para identificar preditores independentes de mortalidade, reoperação e eventos hemorrágicos. A sobrevivência em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 87,7%, 74,2%, 69,3% e 69,3% e, para substituto biológico, foi de 87,6%, 71,0%, 64,2%, e 56,6%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre a mortalidade entre os dois grupos (p=0,38). Na análise multivariada, os fatores associados com o óbito foram: idade, eventos hemorrágicos e insuficiência renal. A probabilidade de permanecer livre de reoperação em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 94,4%, 92,7%, 92,7% e 92,7% e, para bioprótese, foi de 95,9%, 86,4%, 81,2% e 76,5%, respectivamente (p=0.073), com uma incidência significativamente maior de reoperação para bioprótese (p=0,008). Os fatores associados com reoperação foram: sexo masculino, diâmetro da prótese e endocardite. A probabilidade de permanecer livre de eventos hemorrágicos em 5, 10, 15 e 20 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 95,0%, 91,0%, 89,6% e 89,6% e, para bioprótese, foi de 96,9%, 94,0%, 94,0% e 94,0%, respectivamente (p=0,267). Os fatores associados com eventos hemorrágicos foram: IMC (índice de massa corporal) superior à 30 kg/m2, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tempo de ventilação mecânica na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo superior a 30 dias e presença insuficiência mitral. Os autores concluíram que: 1) a mortalidade foi estatisticamente semelhante entre os dois grupos no seguimento; 2) houve tendência maior à reoperação no grupo com bioprótese; 3) após 10 anos de seguimento, a probabilidade de permanecer livre de reoperação não mudou para pacientes com substitutos valvares mecânicos; 4) a probabilidade de permanecer livre de eventos hemorrágicos não mudou após 10 anos de seguimento para portadores de biopróteses; 5) as características basais dos pacientes foram os maiores determinantes de mortalidade tardia após a cirurgia; 6) o tipo de prótese não foi fator preditor independente associado a nenhum dos desfechos avaliados na análise multivariada. / This study assessed mortality, reoperation and bleeding events in patients who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery with a biological or mechanical substitute. This was a historical cohort study. In total, 352 inpatients clinical health records who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery between 1990 and 2008 with 5 to 23 years of follow-up were selected. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to evaluate the survival time, the probability of reoperation and bleeding events. A log-rank chi-square test was applied to compare the curves between groups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of mortality, reoperation and bleeding events. The 5, 10, 15 and 20 year survival rates after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 87.7%, 74.2%, 69.3% and 69.3%, respectively, while the survival rates after surgery with a biological substitute were 87.6%, 71.0%, 64.2% and 56.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups (p = 0.38). In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with death were age, bleeding events and renal failure. The probabilities of being free of reoperation at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 94.4%, 92.7%, 92.7% and 92.7%, respectively, while after surgery with a bioprosthesis, they were 95.9%, 86.4%, 81.2% and 76.5%, respectively (p = 0.073); therefore, there was a significantly higher incidence of reoperation for patients receiving a bioprosthesis (p = 0.008). The factors associated with reoperation were male gender, diameter of the prosthesis and endocarditis. The probabilities of remaining free of bleeding events at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute were 95.0%, 91.0%, 89.6% and 89.6, respectively, while after surgery with a bioprosthesis, they were 96.9%, 94.0%, 94.0% and 94.0%, respectively (p = 0.267). The factors associated with bleeding events were BMI (body mass index) greater than 30 kg/m2, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mechanical ventilation at an Intensive Care Unit for longer than 30 days and mitral regurgitation. The authors concluded that: 1) mortality during follow-up was statistically similar in both groups; 2) there was a greater tendency to reoperation in the bioprosthesis group; 3) the probability of survival free from reoperation did not change for patients with mechanical valves after 10 years’ follow-up; 4) the probability of survival free from bleeding events did not change after 10 years’ follow-up for bioprostheses patients; 5) patients’ baseline characteristics were the greatest determinants of late mortality after mitral valve replacement surgery; 6) the type of prosthesis fitted was not an independent predictive factor of any of the outcomes analyzed in the multivariate analysis.
4

Comparação da sobrevida entre indivíduos submetidos à cirurgia para substituição valvar aórtica utilizando próteses mecânicas ou biológicas em uma coorte brasileira

Almeida, Adriana Silveira de January 2010 (has links)
Este estudo avalia mortalidade, eventos hemorrágicos e reoperação em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar aórtica utilizando substituto biológico ou mecânico, com poder de relevância na seleção do tipo da prótese. Foram selecionados, randomicamente, 301 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar aórtica entre 1990 e 2005, com seguimento máximo de 20 anos. A sobrevivência em 5, 10 e 15 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 83,9%, 75,4% e 60,2% e, para substituto biológico, foi de 89,3%, 70,4% e 58,4%, respectivamente (p=0,939). Os fatores associados com o óbito foram: idade, obesidade, doença pulmonar, arritmias, eventos hemorrágicos e insuficiência valvar aórtica. A probabilidade livre de reoperação desses pacientes em 5, 10 e 15 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 97,9%, 95,8% e 95,8% e, para bioprótese, foi de 94,6%, 91,0% e 83,3%, respectivamente (p=0,057). Os fatores associados com reoperação foram: insuficiência renal, endocardite de prótese e idade. A probabilidade livre de eventos hemorrágicos em 5, 10 e 15 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 94,5%, 91,7% e 91,7% e, para bioprótese, foi de 98,6%, 97,8% e 97,8%, respectivamente (p=0,047). Os fatores associados com eventos hemorrágicos foram: insuficiência renal e prótese mecânica. Os autores concluíram que: 1) a mortalidade foi estatisticamente semelhante entre os grupos; 2) as características basais dos pacientes foram os maiores determinantes de mortalidade tardia após a cirurgia; 3) houve uma tendência à reoperação para o grupo com bioprótese; 4) pacientes com prótese mecânica tiveram mais eventos hemorrágicos ao longo do tempo; 5) os dados encontrados no presente estudo são concordantes com a literatura atual. / This paper evaluates mortality, bleeding events and reoperation in patients subjected to surgery for replacement of the aortic valve using a biological or a mechanical substitute, where selection of the type of prosthesis is relevant. Three hundred and one patients who had been subjected to aortic valve replacement surgery between 1990 and 2005, with a maximum follow-up period of 20 years, have been randomly selected. Survival at 5, 10 and 15 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute was 83.9%, 75.4% and 60.2% and, for a biological substitute, was 89.3%, 70.4% and 58.4%, respectively (p=0.939). Factors associated with death were: age, obesity, pulmonary disease, arrhythmia, bleeding and aortic valve failure. The probability free of reoperation for these patients at 5, 10 and 15 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute was 97.9%, 95.8% and 95.8% and, for those using bioprostheses, was 94.6%, 91.0% and 83.3%, respectively (p=0.057). Factors associated with reoperation were: renal failure, prosthesis endocarditis and age. The probability free of bleeding events at 5, 10 and 15 years after surgery using the mechanical substitute was 94.5%, 91.7% and 91.7% and, for bioprostheses, was 98.6%, 97.8% and 97.8%, respectively (p=0.047). Factors associated with bleeding events were: renal failure and mechanical prostheses. The authors have concluded that: 1) mortality was statistically similar in the groups; 2) patient characteristics at baseline were a major determinant of late mortality after surgery; 3) there was a tendency toward reoperation in the bioprostheses group; 4) patients using a mechanical prosthesis had more bleeding events as time passed; 5) the data presented in this paper is in accordance with current literature.
5

Comparação da sobrevida entre indivíduos submetidos à cirurgia para substituição valvar aórtica utilizando próteses mecânicas ou biológicas em uma coorte brasileira

Almeida, Adriana Silveira de January 2010 (has links)
Este estudo avalia mortalidade, eventos hemorrágicos e reoperação em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar aórtica utilizando substituto biológico ou mecânico, com poder de relevância na seleção do tipo da prótese. Foram selecionados, randomicamente, 301 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar aórtica entre 1990 e 2005, com seguimento máximo de 20 anos. A sobrevivência em 5, 10 e 15 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 83,9%, 75,4% e 60,2% e, para substituto biológico, foi de 89,3%, 70,4% e 58,4%, respectivamente (p=0,939). Os fatores associados com o óbito foram: idade, obesidade, doença pulmonar, arritmias, eventos hemorrágicos e insuficiência valvar aórtica. A probabilidade livre de reoperação desses pacientes em 5, 10 e 15 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 97,9%, 95,8% e 95,8% e, para bioprótese, foi de 94,6%, 91,0% e 83,3%, respectivamente (p=0,057). Os fatores associados com reoperação foram: insuficiência renal, endocardite de prótese e idade. A probabilidade livre de eventos hemorrágicos em 5, 10 e 15 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 94,5%, 91,7% e 91,7% e, para bioprótese, foi de 98,6%, 97,8% e 97,8%, respectivamente (p=0,047). Os fatores associados com eventos hemorrágicos foram: insuficiência renal e prótese mecânica. Os autores concluíram que: 1) a mortalidade foi estatisticamente semelhante entre os grupos; 2) as características basais dos pacientes foram os maiores determinantes de mortalidade tardia após a cirurgia; 3) houve uma tendência à reoperação para o grupo com bioprótese; 4) pacientes com prótese mecânica tiveram mais eventos hemorrágicos ao longo do tempo; 5) os dados encontrados no presente estudo são concordantes com a literatura atual. / This paper evaluates mortality, bleeding events and reoperation in patients subjected to surgery for replacement of the aortic valve using a biological or a mechanical substitute, where selection of the type of prosthesis is relevant. Three hundred and one patients who had been subjected to aortic valve replacement surgery between 1990 and 2005, with a maximum follow-up period of 20 years, have been randomly selected. Survival at 5, 10 and 15 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute was 83.9%, 75.4% and 60.2% and, for a biological substitute, was 89.3%, 70.4% and 58.4%, respectively (p=0.939). Factors associated with death were: age, obesity, pulmonary disease, arrhythmia, bleeding and aortic valve failure. The probability free of reoperation for these patients at 5, 10 and 15 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute was 97.9%, 95.8% and 95.8% and, for those using bioprostheses, was 94.6%, 91.0% and 83.3%, respectively (p=0.057). Factors associated with reoperation were: renal failure, prosthesis endocarditis and age. The probability free of bleeding events at 5, 10 and 15 years after surgery using the mechanical substitute was 94.5%, 91.7% and 91.7% and, for bioprostheses, was 98.6%, 97.8% and 97.8%, respectively (p=0.047). Factors associated with bleeding events were: renal failure and mechanical prostheses. The authors have concluded that: 1) mortality was statistically similar in the groups; 2) patient characteristics at baseline were a major determinant of late mortality after surgery; 3) there was a tendency toward reoperation in the bioprostheses group; 4) patients using a mechanical prosthesis had more bleeding events as time passed; 5) the data presented in this paper is in accordance with current literature.
6

Comparação da sobrevida entre indivíduos submetidos à cirurgia para substituição valvar aórtica utilizando próteses mecânicas ou biológicas em uma coorte brasileira

Almeida, Adriana Silveira de January 2010 (has links)
Este estudo avalia mortalidade, eventos hemorrágicos e reoperação em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar aórtica utilizando substituto biológico ou mecânico, com poder de relevância na seleção do tipo da prótese. Foram selecionados, randomicamente, 301 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia para troca valvar aórtica entre 1990 e 2005, com seguimento máximo de 20 anos. A sobrevivência em 5, 10 e 15 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 83,9%, 75,4% e 60,2% e, para substituto biológico, foi de 89,3%, 70,4% e 58,4%, respectivamente (p=0,939). Os fatores associados com o óbito foram: idade, obesidade, doença pulmonar, arritmias, eventos hemorrágicos e insuficiência valvar aórtica. A probabilidade livre de reoperação desses pacientes em 5, 10 e 15 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 97,9%, 95,8% e 95,8% e, para bioprótese, foi de 94,6%, 91,0% e 83,3%, respectivamente (p=0,057). Os fatores associados com reoperação foram: insuficiência renal, endocardite de prótese e idade. A probabilidade livre de eventos hemorrágicos em 5, 10 e 15 anos após cirurgia utilizando substituto mecânico foi de 94,5%, 91,7% e 91,7% e, para bioprótese, foi de 98,6%, 97,8% e 97,8%, respectivamente (p=0,047). Os fatores associados com eventos hemorrágicos foram: insuficiência renal e prótese mecânica. Os autores concluíram que: 1) a mortalidade foi estatisticamente semelhante entre os grupos; 2) as características basais dos pacientes foram os maiores determinantes de mortalidade tardia após a cirurgia; 3) houve uma tendência à reoperação para o grupo com bioprótese; 4) pacientes com prótese mecânica tiveram mais eventos hemorrágicos ao longo do tempo; 5) os dados encontrados no presente estudo são concordantes com a literatura atual. / This paper evaluates mortality, bleeding events and reoperation in patients subjected to surgery for replacement of the aortic valve using a biological or a mechanical substitute, where selection of the type of prosthesis is relevant. Three hundred and one patients who had been subjected to aortic valve replacement surgery between 1990 and 2005, with a maximum follow-up period of 20 years, have been randomly selected. Survival at 5, 10 and 15 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute was 83.9%, 75.4% and 60.2% and, for a biological substitute, was 89.3%, 70.4% and 58.4%, respectively (p=0.939). Factors associated with death were: age, obesity, pulmonary disease, arrhythmia, bleeding and aortic valve failure. The probability free of reoperation for these patients at 5, 10 and 15 years after surgery using a mechanical substitute was 97.9%, 95.8% and 95.8% and, for those using bioprostheses, was 94.6%, 91.0% and 83.3%, respectively (p=0.057). Factors associated with reoperation were: renal failure, prosthesis endocarditis and age. The probability free of bleeding events at 5, 10 and 15 years after surgery using the mechanical substitute was 94.5%, 91.7% and 91.7% and, for bioprostheses, was 98.6%, 97.8% and 97.8%, respectively (p=0.047). Factors associated with bleeding events were: renal failure and mechanical prostheses. The authors have concluded that: 1) mortality was statistically similar in the groups; 2) patient characteristics at baseline were a major determinant of late mortality after surgery; 3) there was a tendency toward reoperation in the bioprostheses group; 4) patients using a mechanical prosthesis had more bleeding events as time passed; 5) the data presented in this paper is in accordance with current literature.
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Performance hémodynamique de prothèses valvulaires aortiques percutanées et stratégies d'implantation lors de procédures "valve-in-valve" : études in vitro et in vivo / Hemodynamic performance of transcatheter aortic valve prostheses and strategie of implantation for valve-in-valve procedures : in vitro and in vivo studies

Zenses, Anne-Sophie 17 October 2018 (has links)
L’implantation valvulaire aortique percutanée (TAVI) a émergé comme une alternative à la chirurgie pour les patients avec sténose sévère et haut risque chirurgical. Cette technique s’étend à une population plus large (e.g. anatomie plus complexe, risque chirurgical plus bas), ainsi qu'au traitement Valve-in-Valve (ViV) des bioprothèses (BPs) chirurgicales défaillantes. Cependant, deux complications majeures en limitent la généralisation. En TAVI « classique », la présence de fuites péripothétiques a été associée à une mortalité augmentée. Les effets du surdimensionnement de la prothèse percutanée pour assurer son étanchéité, ou de la forme de l’anneau souvent non circulaire, sur la performance hémodynamique, sont mal connus. En ViV, la présence de hauts gradients est fréquente et associée à une mortalité augmentée. Les BPs de taille nominale ≤ 21 mm et le mode de dégénérescence par sténose, facteurs mis en cause dans la sténose résiduelle et associés à une mortalité augmentée, ne sont pas assez spécifiques et il n’existe actuellement aucune recommandation pour le traitement des petites BPs. Par ailleurs, le bénéfice hémodynamique réel du ViV par rapport aux statuts avant ViV n’a pas été étudié.L’objectif général de ce travail doctoral est de comprendre les interactions entre la prothèse percutanée et l’anneau aortique ou la BP à traiter, impliquées dans la performance hémodynamique, en particulier dans des conditions d’implantation complexes, afin d’étendre les indications du TAVI. En ViV, le défi est de préciser les facteurs associés à sa performance et son utilité hémodynamique et de proposer des stratégies d’implantation afin d’optimiser le succès de la procédure. / Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as an alternative to surgery for patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. This technique is extending to a wider population (e.g. with more complex anatomy or lower surgical risk), as well as to patients with degenerated surgical bioprostheses (BPs). However, two major concerns remain limiting. Regarding “classical TAVI”, periprosthetic leaks have been associated with increased mortality. Oversizing is used to secure the device within the aortic annulus which is often non circular. The effects of oversizing and annulus shape on the hemodynamic performance are unknown. Regarding ViV implantations, elevated post-procedural gradients are common and have been associated with increased mortality. The principal factors associated with this residual stenosis as well as with increased risk of mortality, have been BPs label size ≤ 21 mm and mode of failure by stenosis. These factors are not specific enough and there is currently no recommendation for the treatment of small BPs. Besides, the actual hemodynamic benefit associated with ViV has not been evaluated (vs. pre ViV status).The general objective of this work is to understand the interactions between the transcatheter prosthesis and the aortic annulus or the BP to be treated, which impact the hemodynamic performance, especially in complex conditions of implantation, in order to extend the indications of TAVI. In the context of ViV, the objective is to specify the factors associated with the hemodynamic performance and utility of the treatment. The final aim is to provide strategies of implantation in order to optimize the success of the procedure.

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