21 February 2012
Self-esteem and measurement thereof is a very prominent phenomenon in psychology and related fields of study. In contrast to traditional measures of selfesteem which focus on individual self-esteem, Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) developed a measure of Collective self-esteem (CSE) with the following subscales: membership self-esteem, private collective self-esteem, public collective self-esteem and importance to identity. The aim of this study was to determine if the instrument is a valid measurement of collective self-esteem in the South African context. The CSE was evaluated using item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. According to the findings of this study the Collective Self Esteem Scale is a reliable instrument for South African use, but confirmatory factor analysis determined that it is not factorially valid. The fit indexes indicate that the theorized four-factor model is not a good fit to the data in the South African context and should pave the way for further research on the construct validity of the Collective Self esteem Scale. Copyright 2010, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Rossouw, A 2010, Confirmatory factor analysis of the collective self esteem scale, MCom dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-02212012-122435 / > C12/4/134/gm / Dissertation (MCom)--University of Pretoria, 2010. / Human Resource Management / unrestricted
National identity and historic collective memory in Peru. An exploratory study / Identidad nacional y memoria histórica colectiva en el Perú. Un estudio exploratorioRottenbacher, Jan Marc, Espinosa, Agustín 25 September 2017 (has links)
We analyze the memory of collective events in Peru and its relationship with Peruviannational identity in a middle-class sample from Lima (N = 81). Peruvian collective self- esteem and two dimensions of the Peruvian self-concept (Peruvians as proactive-capable and negative image of Peruvians) are related moderately to valence of historic characters remembered. Nevertheless, valence of remembered historical events was not associated to Peruvian national identity. Results also suggest that characters and events from 20th century comprise the majority of remembered instances, and 20th century instances are worse evaluated than characters and events from previous periods of Peruvian history. Results confirm a recency bias and a tendency to make more positive meaning attributions to distant eventsand characters than those made to more recent events. / Se analizan las relaciones entre la memoria de hechos colectivos en el Perú y la constitución de la identidad nacional peruana en 81 habitantes de clase media de Lima Metropolitana. La valencia positiva del recuerdo colectivo de personajes históricos, más no el de eventos, se asocia moderadamente a la autoestima colectiva y a dos dimensiones del autoconcepto colectivo (peruanos proactivos-capaces e imagen negativa de los peruanos). Se encontró que personajes y eventos del siglo XX conforman el porcentaje mayoritario de recuerdos colectivos, y en promedio personajes y eventos del siglo XX son peor evaluados que personajes y eventos previos a este siglo. Esto confirma la presencia de un sesgo de recencia y la tendencia a atribuir un significado más positivo a personajes y hechos que se recuerdan a largo plazo en contraposición con aquellos más recientes.
Daly, Anthony Leslie, email@example.com
OBJECTIVES: The general aim of this research was to analyse the relationships between bullying (as a distinct form of aggression), victimisation, personal and collective self-esteem, and narcissism in adolescents. Baumeister et al. (1996) refuted the conventionally accepted view that low self-esteem is a cause of violence whereby, for example, those who lack self-esteem may use aggression as a means of dominating others and thereby gaining self-esteem. Instead, it may be that aggression is related to high self-esteem such that individuals with a combination of high levels of both self-esteem and narcissism are more likely to react aggressively to a perceived threat. Design: After a conducting a small pilot study (n = 112), the main study employed a large-scale cross-sectional survey with self-report questionnaires administered to school students during class. METHODS: Participants were drawn from six metropolitan high schools in Adelaide (South Australia), resulting in 1,628 adolescents (665 females & 963 males, aged 12-17 years) completing the survey. The questionnaire battery comprised modified self-report bully and victim versions of the Direct and Indirect Aggression Scales (Bjorkqvist et al., 1992), personal (Rosenberg, 1979) and collective self-esteem (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) scales, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Hall, 1981), and a measure of socially desirable responding (i.e., Impression Management; Paulhus, 1991). RESULTS: A variety of multivariate analyses controlling for socially desirable responses was employed to test and explore hypothesised relationships. Results showed no relationship between age and any form of bullying or victimisation. Boys reported significantly higher mean levels of direct and total bullying and victimisation, whereas girls reported higher levels of indirect bullying and victimisation. Victimisation was negatively correlated with personal self-esteem, and positively correlated with collective self-esteem. In contrast, bullying was positively correlated with personal self-esteem, with no significant relationship found with collective self-esteem. Collective and personal self-esteem did not differentially predict different types of bullying or victimisation. Narcissism was positively correlated with bullying. The predicted interaction between personal self-esteem, narcissism and bullying was evident, although the predicted collective self-esteem interaction was not found. Impression Management (social desirability) was significantly negatively correlated with bullying and, to a lesser extent, with victimisation. CONCLUSION: Research such as this into the possible causes and correlates of aggression and bullying will assist in the design, implementation, and maintenance of effective interventions. For example, as results corresponded with Baumeister et al.'s (1996) assertion in that bullying was related to high self-esteem, interventions that are designed to increase self-esteem might in reality be counterproductive and possibly contribute to an increase in bullying behaviour. Additionally, victims reported higher collective self-esteem than their non-victimised peers, clearly a novel finding worthy of further research. Findings suggested that, rather than running the risk of underreporting of socially undesirable behaviours, self-report methods provide a useful and valid means of measuring prevalence rates and internal states. Rather than underreporting aggressive behaviours, it is likely that respondents were being honest as they did not feel that these behaviours were, in fact, socially undesirable. The present sample reported bullying and victimisation prevalence rates that were comparatively high, despite using relatively conservative criteria, possibly due to an increased awareness of what constitutes bullying as a result of government and school anti-bullying policies and initiatives. The findings generally correspond with and build upon previous research. In addition, a number of the results are novel, providing numerous opportunities for future researchers to further explore and test the relationships between self-esteem, bullying, and victimisation.
The relationships between ethnic identity, collective self-esteem and academic self-efficacy among students at a higher learning institutionThomas, Tsholofelo Angela 09 June 2011 (has links)
Previous research has shown relationships between ethnic identity and other aspects of the self-concept such as efficacy and self-esteem, particularly among minority groups. This study examined the relationships between ethnic identity, collective self-esteem and academic self-efficacy. These relationships were examined among an overall sample of 144 respondents, and among two distinct samples consisting of Black and White respondents, respectively. Results showed positive correlations between ethnic identity and academic self-efficacy, collective self-esteem and academic self-efficacy, and between ethnic identity and collective self-esteem for the overall sample. Similar results were found for the sample consisting of Black respondents only. For the White sample, a positive correlation was found between collective self-esteem and ethnic identity only. The study further examined the relationships between academic self-efficacy and the ethnic identity and collective self-esteem subscales. For the overall sample, positive correlations were found between academic self-efficacy and the ethnic identity search and commitment subscales. Correlations for this sample were also found between academic self-efficacy and the membership self-esteem and private collective self-esteem subscales. For the Black sample, correlations were found between academic self-efficacy and the ethnic identity search and commitment subscales. Furthermore, there were correlations between academic self-efficacy and the membership self-esteem subscale, as well as the private collective self-esteem subscale for Black respondents. For the White sample, no relationships were found between academic self-efficacy and any of the collective self-esteem and ethnic identity subscales. Furthermore, limitations of the current study were identified and, subsequently, recommendations for future research were made. It was recommended that future research include other aspects of the self-concept such as personal self-esteem and actual academic achievement, so as to determine the relationships between these and the variables examined in the current study. / Dissertation (Master of Arts)--University of Pretoria, 2011. / Psychology / unrestricted
17 December 2010
All bona fide professions have affiliated professional organizations, ethical standards or a code of ethics, and an accrediting and sanctioning body that deals with preparation, credentialing, and licensure, and pride in one's profession (Gale & Austin, 2003; Remley & Herlihy, 2010). As school counseling continues to evolve, school counselors have struggled to define and maintain their role. This may be due, in part, to the social desirability an individual has to belong to dominant group in the school setting (Tajfel, 1986). School counselors may draw esteem from their professional membership. This concept, called collective self-esteem, denotes those aspects of identity that are related to membership in social groups and the respective value that one places on one's membership (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between collective self-esteem and professional identity. The findings of this study indicated that collective self-esteem was relatively stable and remained moderately high across several demographic variables related to professional identity. Collective self-esteem remained relatively consistent across level of practice, professional background, years of total experience and years of experience at the current school, and area of practice. Further, collective self-esteem remained moderately high for those who were affiliated with a counseling organization and those who were not. Results also suggested that collective self-esteem is constant regardless of variations in credentialing, chosen code of ethics, role definition (educator first or counselor first), and professional pride. Results indicated that collective self-esteem remained moderately high across several demographic areas and variables related to professional identity. Further, a significant positive correlation was found between pride in the profession and collective self-esteem was shown. Additionally, a small, significant negative correlation was garnered between those participants who viewed themselves as a counselor first and held an LPC or equivalent. Further, a significant relationship was found between those participants who defined their role as a counselor first and chose the NBCC Code of Ethics as their primary code of ethics and those participants who held the counselor first position and chose the ASCA Ethical Code as their primary code of ethics.
This item is only available in print in the UCF Libraries. If this is your Honors Thesis, you can help us make it available online for use by researchers around the world by following the instructions on the distribution consent form at http://library.ucf.edu/Systems/DigitalInitiatives/DigitalCollections/InternetDistributionConsentAgreementForm.pdf You may also contact the project coordinator, Kerri Bottorff, at firstname.lastname@example.org for more information. / Bachelors / Sciences / Psychology
Paths From Fear Of Death To Subjective Well-being: A Study Of Structural Equation Modeling Based On The Terror Management Theory PerspectiveSimsek, Omer Faruk 01 July 2003 (has links) (PDF)
In this research four models derived from Terror Management Theory (TMT) were tested by using structural equation modeling.. These models were developed for testing different theoretical alternatives in relation to psychological mechanisms explaining the subjective well-being as an outcome of fear of death. The first two models were based on the original Terror Management Theory. The first supposed that death anxiety as a catalyst motivates individuals in two defenses: developing culturally committed personalities by validation of cultural worldview and thus enhancing self-esteem. The second indicated that every individual had two options in the face of death: enhancing their self-esteem or committing to cultural worldview, in turn, improves the well-being of the individual. The last two models were identified by taking attachment as an alternative variable. In the third model, attachment styles of the individuals were presented as a third defense mechanism in addition to self-esteem and cultural worldview in TMT. They were assumed as mediator variables in the model between fear of death and subjective well-being. The last model treated attachment as a mediator between fear of death and distal defenses of self-esteem and cultural worldview. The results indicated that only the last model was entirely supported.. The lack of support for the first two models might be an indicator of the invalidity of the model in cultures that are not individualistic. For the last two models, the results suggested that attachment was crucial in understanding the relationship between fear of death and subjective well-being from a TMT perspective.
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