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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Hur uppfattas miljörisker? : En komparativ studie om riskperception avseende miljöproblem på två orter i Sverige / How are environmental risks perceived? : A comparative study on risk perception regarding environmental problems in two localities in Sweden

Nilsson, Daniel January 2020 (has links)
Miljörisker är risker som är relaterade till miljöproblem och hot kopplat till det. Hur människor i Sverige uppfattar det kan skilja sig runt om i landet. Den här studiens syfte är att undersöka uppfattningen och riskperceptionen hos människor i de två orterna Skoghall och Tullinge, samt hur samhällsstrukturer och kulturella världsbilder påverkar uppfattningen och synen på miljörisker relaterat till klimatförändringar och luftföroreningar. Studien använder en komparativ metod där riskperception och uppfattningar hos människor i de två orterna är egenskaperna som jämförs utifrån det teoretiska ramverket Cultural Theory of Risk. Fokusgruppsintervjuer används för datainsamling som genomfördes under två tillfällen i respektive ort, data analyseras med tematisk analys där mönster i intervjusvar beskrivs i form av teman. Studiens resultat visar att skillnader såväl som likheter kan hittas i uppfattning av miljörisker i båda orterna. Den största skillnaden mellan orterna är att det finns mångfald vad gäller synen på miljörisker på en lokal nivå i Skoghall än i Tullinge, där det visar sig råda mer samsyn. Den största likheten mellan orterna är hur nyheter och media med mera påverkar människors uppfattning av miljörisker på ett sätt som gör att de bland annat anser att klimatförändringar och luftföroreningars effekter skulle bli mer allvarliga utanför Sverige. Slutligen visar studien att det generellt finns en påverkan från samhällsstrukturer och kulturella världsbilder i riskperception hos människor som är delvis grunden till skillnaderna och likheterna mellan orterna. / Environmental risks are risks connected to environmental issues and threats that come with them. How people in Sweden perceive them can vary around the country. This study’s purpose is to examine the comprehension and perception of environmental risks linked to climate change and air pollution in the two localities of Skoghall and Tullinge. How social structures and cultural worldviews are affecting them is also examined. The study is using a comparative method where the risk perception and comprehension of the people in the two localities are the characteristics that are compared, based on the theoretical framework of Cultural Theory of Risk. Focus group interviews are used to collect data with two interviews that is made in each locality, the data is analyzed with Thematic analysis where patterns in the interview answers are described through themes. The result of this study shows that there are differences and similarities between the localities when it comes to the comprehension of environmental risks. The greatest difference between the localities is that there is more of a diversity in perception of environmental risks on a local level in Skoghall than in Tullinge, where there is more of a consensus on the matter. The greatest similarity between the localities is regarding how news and media etc. are influencing people’s comprehension of environmental risks in a way that they, among other things, think that the effects of climate change and air pollution would be more serious outside of Sweden. Finally, the study shows that there is a general effect from social structures and cultural worldviews on the risk perception of people in both localities, which is partially the cause of the differences and similarities between them.
32

Det muntliga språkets status i skolan : Inriktning mot grundskolan årskurs Förskoleklass-3 / The status of oral communication school : Preeschool to third grade

Andréasson, Helén January 2016 (has links)
Syftet med mitt examensarbete är att undersöka vilken status den muntliga kommunikationen har i klassrummet. För att belysa detta har jag intervjuat sex verksamma lärare inom grundskolans lägre åldrar. Jag är nyfiken på hur de betraktar muntlig kommunikation, hur de ser på sitt arbete med att utveckla och stärka det muntliga språket hos eleverna, och vilken inställning de har till muntlig kommunikation i jämförelse med skriftlig kommunikation. Undersökningen är kvalitativ och ett sociokulturellt perspektiv har använts som teoretisk utgångspunkt, vilket utmärks av att lärande och utveckling tar form i kommunikation med andra individer. Kursplanen för svenska i årskurs 1-3 belägger att arbete med den muntliga förmågan är grundläggande för varje människas identitet, sociala trygghet och lärande, och bör därför vara en stor del av undervisningen. Dock förefaller den ha en underordnad ställning i förhållande till läs- och skrivutvecklingen. Resultatet visar att lärarens kunskapssyn och attityd till det talade språket, är en avgörande faktor för mängden muntlig kommunikation i klassrummet. Lärarna är positivt inställda till kommunikation i undervisningen och arbetar aktivt för att utveckla ett resonerande bland eleverna, genom att förespråka en positiv gruppdynamik och ett gott socialt klassrumsklimat i syfte att stärka alla elever och deras vilja till att våga tala. / The aim of this study is to shed light on the status of oral communication in school. I am interested in examining how teachers define oral communication, how they perceive their work to develop and strengthen the oral language of the pupils, and their attitude to oral communication in comparison to written communication. The study is qualitative and a socio-cultural perspective has been used as a theoretical basis, which is characterized by learning and development in interaction between individuals. The syllabus for Swedish in grades 1-3 stresses oral ability as fundamental to every human identity, social security, and therefore states that it should be a big part of teaching. Contrarily, it appears that the oral ability stands subordinate to writing skills. The results of my investigation shows that a teacher's approach to and knowledge of oral ability is an essential factor in the amount of oral communication in the classroom. The teachers interviewed are in favor of communication in teaching and are actively working to develop a reasoning among students, by advocating a positive group dynamics and a good social climate in order to strengthen all the students and their willingness to dare speak.
33

The culture of prison management : measurement of risk control culture in the English and Japanese prison services using the grid and group cultural theory

Nakamura, Ayako January 2011 (has links)
Comparative analysis is crucial to academic studies of public administration because it provides understanding of the nature of different types of public service institution: in particular, it helps to show what they do and don’t have in common, what kinds of institution they are, and what kinds of problems they face. However, in order to effectively conduct comparative research of public service institutions it is important that some thought is given to how they can best be compared. Accordingly, it is argued in this study that the differences between public service institutions can be appropriately analysed by examining their respective risk control cultures. This study makes use of the grid and group cultural theory, as developed by Mary Douglas, Aaron Wildavsky and Christopher Hood, to analyse the risk control cultures of the English and Japanese prison services in regard to two specific types of risk, namely suicide and violence. The results show that particular patterns of organizational behaviour within the English and Japanese prison services can be identified with their respective risk control cultures. More specifically, the English prison service tends to try to control risk by using formal rules and granting strong leadership roles to governors. By contrast, the Japanese prison service tends to use informal rules and group pressures to control risk. Furthermore, the peculiar organizational patterns of risk control within both organizations are often not recognised by their members. As a result, the strengths and weaknesses of organizations can be identified by analysing the patterns of risk control behaviour within them.
34

Mediated learning experience in a community of practice : a case study

Silver, Judy January 2009 (has links)
This study describes the attempt to understand the quality of mediation between people within a community of practice. An innovative chefs’ apprenticeship in a dedicated restaurant provides a setting in which to explore what happens when a group of young people are learning to become fully accepted members of a community of practice. The setting, the social enterprise of Fifteen London, is founded on a passionate belief in the learning potential of all individuals, regardless of background. Conducted over a period of five years this ethnographic study tells the stories of the apprentices; the story of the community; and the story of conducting the investigation. A pilot study completed in 2005 revealed that beyond the mediation observed between individuals, apprentices’ felt their experience of the culture of the learning environment had a greater impact. The thesis explores the theoretical implications of these findings. Drawn from a sociocultural perspective, two theoretical frameworks are applied: Mediated Learning Experience (Feuerstein, Miller and Tannenbaum, 1994) concerned with the mediation between people and its effect on human development; and Situated Learning (Lave and Wenger, 1991) concerned with participation in a community of practice. These frameworks were felt to be useful to an analysis which demonstrates that a community of practice can be analysed according to the framework for Mediated Learning Experience. The symbiosis of these two approaches creates a coherent framework for discourse in which to analyse the learning process itself. A description of the community highlights the complexities of learning, and the challenges of attempting to change the course of human development by means of cultural transmission and social enterprise. I conclude that this learning environment serves as a good example of what can be achieved when innovation works hand in hand with moral purpose.
35

From the sea to the land beyond : exploring plural perspectives on whaling

Singleton, Benedict E. January 2016 (has links)
A perennial challenge in efforts to deal with environmental issues is the question of how to simplify. As such, where and when one simplifies is often a source of conflict, but perversely also paramount to finding a solution. This thesis focuses on one long-standing environmental issue, the whaling debate. Specifically, it performs a strategically sited microethnography of Faroese whaling, grindadráp, exploring linkages between actions on local and international scales. This thesis aims to contribute to environmental sociological efforts to analyse and resolve complex socio-environmental problems. The five papers that together constitute this thesis collectively provide a description of grindadráp from the local scale of the bays where pilot whales are killed to the international forums where whaling as a whole remains an issue at the heart of an on-going, deadlocked conflict. Primarily based on three months’ fieldwork in the Faroe Islands, this thesis combines observation, interviews, media and other literature. The theoretical lenses employed are that of the ‘ontological turn’ and the ‘theory of sociocultural viability’ (cultural theory). The former utilised as a tool for ethnographic practice with the latter used to analyse how different perspectives on reality manifest throughout the whaling conflict. This thesis demonstrates that grindadráp has changed through time as a result of the interactions between actors with different views on the matter at hand. However, in contrast to the global whaling debate, this interaction has been mostly constructive, with appropriate changes in practice ensuring grindadráp’s continued popularity within the Faroe Islands. Furthermore, its continuation will likely depend on grindadráp’s continued ability to balance different perspectives. This thesis thus echoes environmental sociological calls for improved dialogue in the framing and resolution of environmental disputes, suggesting that cultural theory provides a tool that balances relativism and pragmatism in dealing with complex environmental problems.
36

Princípios e propostas sobre o conhecimento matemático nas avaliações externas / Principles and proposals on the mathematical knowledge in external evaluations

Wilkins, Stefanie Lello 13 September 2013 (has links)
A presente investigação se vincula à pesquisa do Projeto Observatório da Educação/CAPES intitulada: Educação matemática nos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental: Princípios e práticas da organização do ensino\", sob responsabilidade do Grupo de Estudo e Pesquisa sobre Atividade Pedagógica GEPAPe/FEUSP, cujo objetivo principal é investigar as relações entre o desempenho escolar dos alunos, representado pelos dados do INEP, e a organização curricular de matemática nos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental. Nossa participação dá-se em um núcleo da pesquisa, o Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisa do Ensino e Aprendizagem da Matemática na Infância (GEPEAMI), que realiza as ações de investigação junto a um município do interior do estado de São Paulo. Disso depreendemos nosso objeto de pesquisa: investigar os princípios e propostas sobre o conhecimento matemático nas avaliações externas. Nossa base material de pesquisa congregou instrumentos de avaliação de caráter mundial, nacional e municipal, respectivamente: o Programa Internacional de Avaliação dos Estudantes (PISA), a Provinha Brasil e a avaliação municipal intitulada Olimpíadas de Matemática. Buscamos, primeiramente, apresentar o contexto histórico de modo a situar a implementação de avaliações em larga escala alinhada a determinado projeto educativo, em uma sociedade organizada pelo modo de produção capitalista. Em seguida apresentamos características, abrangência, finalidade e composição dos instrumentos de avaliação: PISA, Provinha Brasil e Olimpíadas de Matemática, com o intuito de discutir como instrumentos de diferentes âmbitos se relacionam e se fundamentam em determinados princípios acerca do conhecimento matemático. Por fim analisamos o eixo matemático de Grandezas e Medidas em itens das avaliações externas do PISA, da Provinha Brasil e das Olimpíadas de Matemática, com o propósito de compreender como o conhecimento matemático é proposto em tais itens. Nossos resultados indicam que documentos de âmbito internacional influenciaram a concepção de educação existente no Brasil, que passa a considerar elementos como qualificação dos sujeitos para o trabalho. Desse cenário eclodem diferentes instrumentos de avaliações externas, sustentados pelo discurso da garantia da melhoria da qualidade da educação: o Sistema de Avaliação da Educação Básica (Saeb), o Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (ENEM) (1998), o Exame Nacional do Desempenho dos Estudantes (ENADE) (2004), a Provinha Brasil (2008; 2011) e a avaliação Olimpíadas de Matemática (2012) de um Município do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Os itens do eixo de Grandezas e Medidas analisados, carregam o entendimento de letramento matemático assim como o de que o conhecimento matemático deve voltar-se para situações da vida real dos sujeitos e para isso eles devem ser capazes de conseguir resolver problemas cotidianos, fazendo uso do conhecimento matemático. Compreendemos, a partir dos postulados da teoria histórico-cultural, que os instrumentos de avaliações externas analisados possuem caráter medidor do processo de ensino-aprendizagem e atuam, muitas vezes, de maneira perversa, enquadrando o aluno, desde os anos iniciais, em uma matriz produtora de sujeitos dispostos com competência para atender à demanda do mercado. / The present research lies under a wider research of the Education Observatory Project named: Mathematical Education in the Early Years of Elementary School: Principles and Practices of the Teaching organization\". The latter is taken forward by the Educational Activity Study Group GEPAPe/FEUSP and investigates the relationship between the students school success, represented by data available from INEP, and the Mathematics curricular organization in the early years of the elementary school. Our participation gives up on a core of the research, o Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisa do Ensino e Aprendizagem da Matemática na Infância (GEPEAMI), which performs the investigative actions with a town in the state of São Paulo. Our researchs object of study is precisely taken from there: to investigate the mathematical knowledge principles and propositions that are present at external evaluations. Our research material basis is formed by evaluation instruments at global, national and municipal levels, respectively: the PISA, Provinha Brasil and the municipal assessment entitled Olimpíadas de Matemática. We seek, first, to present the historical context in order to situate the implementation of large-scale assessments aligned to a particular educational project, in a society organized by the capitalist mode of production. The analysis of the external evaluations instruments was made by presenting its characteristics, outreach, goals and composition, and was intended to discuss how instruments from different contexts can relate to each other, and how they are based in certain principles of the mathematical knowledge. Finally, we analyze the mathematical axis of Quantities and Measurements in external evaluations of items in PISA, the Provinha Brazil and Mathematics Olympics, in order to understand how mathematical knowledge is proposed in such items. Our results indicate that the international documents influenced the conception of education existing in Brazil, which shall consider factors such as the qualification of subjects for the job. Different external evaluation instruments appear in this context, and are sustained by the guaranteed improvement of the quality of the Education: Sistema de Avaliação da Educação Básica (Saeb), Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (ENEM) (1998), the Exame Nacional do Desempenho dos Estudantes (ENADE) (2004), Provinha Brasil (2008; 2011) and Olimpíadas de Matemática (2012) of a certain town in the state of Sao Paulo. The analyzed activities in the Grandezas e Medidas axis that were evaluated, materialized in the items of the evaluation instruments, lead to the understanding of mathematical literacy as well as the understanding that the mathematical knowledge should be directed to ones real life situations and because of this, one should be able to solve problems that are present in real life, making use of this mathematical knowledge. We understand, based on the historical-cultural theory, that the external evaluations that were analyzed have a mediator profile in the teaching and learning process and they mostly act in a perverse manner, offering the students an alienated education, making them incapable of comprehending scientific knowledge trends and framing them into a matrix that produces people that are all the same, and competently willing to supply the markets demand.
37

Exploring the Impact of Mentoring Relationships for Asian American Senior Women Administrators at a Critical Career Juncture

Kawamoto, Judy A. January 2011 (has links)
Thesis advisor: Karen Arnold / Despite an increasing number of Asian American women earning the advanced degrees necessary to qualify them for senior administrative positions such as dean, vice president, provost and president, this group remains severely underrepresented in the upper administrative ranks in American higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine if mentoring relationships, which research has shown to be vital to the success of other women administrators of color, would prove important to Asian American women administrators at critical career junctures. Eleven Asian American senior women administrators from four different ethnic backgrounds were interviewed. Two theoretical frameworks were used to interpret the data: relational cultural theory to analyze each interview from the participant's point of view, and; critical race theory to review the data from the institutional perspective. Many of the women experienced factors reported by other women administrators of color: a culture dominated by White men; sexism and racism; feelings of isolation, and; gender-typed family concerns. Most of the women also faced the model minority stereotype of being perceived as passive, yet analysis of their interviews revealed that they did not behave passively. Also contrary to what research has shown to be the experience of other women administrators of color, several reported more instances of sexism than racism. The majority of the women had White male mentors, which is consistent with the literature. For the women who had both male and female mentors, several experienced more career than psychosocial mentoring from their male mentors, a pattern opposite what is typical for other women administrators of color. No clear patterns emerged with regard to how the women utilized their mentors at critical career junctures. The interviews revealed that the women in this study were distinctly different from each other, which disputes the assumption that all Asian American women are similar. This study challenges how these women are currently perceived, and institutions must re-examine their current policies and practices to better support this population. / Thesis (PhD) — Boston College, 2011. / Submitted to: Boston College. Lynch School of Education. / Discipline: Higher Education Administration.
38

Resilience Through Relational Connection: A Relational Model to Sexual Minority Mental and Physical Health

Mereish, Ethan January 2014 (has links)
Thesis advisor: Paul Poteat / Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals) are at higher risk for mental and physical health disparities than heterosexuals, and research has related some of these disparities to minority stressors such as institutional heterosexism, sexual prejudice, and discrimination. Yet, there is a dearth of research elucidating factors that predict the development of these health risks, and factors that protect and promote resiliency against them. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health disparities within a relational framework. Specifically, the study examined the mediating and moderating factors between the deleterious effects of distal stressors (i.e., heterosexist relational disconnections such as discrimination and victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., self-disparaging relational images such as internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) on mental and physical health for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test three models of: the relations between minority stressors and health; mediating effects of diminished agency, loneliness, and shame on the relations between minority stressors and health; and the moderated-mediation effects of growth-fostering relationships with peers, mentors, and community on the mediating pathways between minority stressors and health. Results indicated that heterosexist distal and proximal minority stressors predicted poor mental health (i.e., depression, anxiety, and suicidality) and physical health (i.e., cardiovascular disease risk, distressing physical symptoms). The relations between proximal minority stressors and health were mediated by diminished sense of agency, loneliness, and shame, and there were mixed results for the relations between distal stressors and health. Although the direct effects of growth-fostering relationships were significant in predicting lower levels of diminished agency, loneliness, and shame, these factors had mixed moderating effects. Findings have research, practice, and policy implications that underscore the possible mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to poor health. Researchers and practitioners need to addresses and advocate against societal forces contributing to heterosexist relational disconnections and for sexual minority health policies and research. / Thesis (PhD) — Boston College, 2014. / Submitted to: Boston College. Lynch School of Education. / Discipline: Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology.
39

Materialismo cultural / Cultural materialism

Glaser, André Luiz 25 September 2008 (has links)
O materialismo cultural de Raymond Williams, como formulação de uma nova teoria da cultura inscrita no materialismo histórico, centra-se em um dos debates mais polêmicos e fecundos da tradição marxista - a questão da determinação econômica da cultura e da arte. O presente trabalho visa a uma leitura crítica do livro Marxismo e Literatura, no qual Williams expõe sua teoria de forma abrangente. Por tratar-se de um livro expositivo, sua discussão será acompanhada de diversas análises culturais e literárias do crítico, trazendo à tona seu método teórico-prático as análises criando a teoria, que reorganiza, por sua vez, as formas de entendimento da realidade. / Raymond Williamss Cultural Materialism, working as a formulation of a new cultural theory inscribed in Marxs historical materialism, takes part in one of the most polemical and productive debates in the Marxist tradition the question of the economic determinantion of culture and the arts. The present dissertation has as its aim a critical reading of Marxism and Literature, book in which Williams thoroughly exposes his theory. Being of an expositive kind, its discussion will be conducted along with the study of some of Williamss literary and cultural analyses, bringing forth his method both theoretical and practical the analyses producing the theory that, in its turn, reorganizes the forms of understanding reality.
40

O trabalho pedagógico e a zona de desenvolvimento proximal na aprendizagem da linguagem escrita /

Bassan, Larissa Helyne. January 2008 (has links)
Orientador: Stela Miller / Banca: Lígia Márcia Martins / Banca: Suely Amaral Mello / Resumo: Vigotski, um dos maiores representantes da Teoria Histórico-Cultural, definiu a categoria zona de desenvolvimento proximal (ZDP) como sendo o nível de desenvolvimento em que a criança é capaz de realizar suas ações mediante a colaboração de alguém culturalmente mais experiente. Para ele, o bom ensino é aquele que se adianta ao desenvolvimento da criança, e isso é possível, acreditamos, desde que o ensino incida em sua zona de desenvolvimento proximal. Coerente com essa orientação, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo geral estabelecer as possíveis relações entre o trabalho pedagógico do professor e a zona de desenvolvimento proximal do aluno no processo de ensino e de aprendizagem da linguagem escrita. Esta pesquisa foi realizada com oito professoras e dezesseis alunos das 1ª e 2ª séries do ensino fundamental da rede municipal de ensino da cidade de Marília. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, observações e registros de episódios da interação professor-aluno nos estritos limites das situações de produção textual escrita, além de análise de textos dos alunos, coletados durante o período pesquisado. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o professor que desenvolve ações mais potencializadoras organiza o ensino de modo a lidar com as possibilidades de aprendizagem dos alunos, fornecendo-lhes as ajudas necessárias à apropriação dos conteúdos culturais com os quais trabalham, propicia-lhes o seu desenvolvimento, ou seja, potencializa-o. Durante essas ações, o professor se relaciona de maneira envolvente com seus alunos, permitindo que eles objetivem suas necessidades e interesses, além de trabalhar a linguagem escrita pela função social e prover ajudas diferenciadas no momento da produção textual. / Abstract: Vigotski, one of the greatest representatives of the Historical-Cultural Theory, defined the zone of proximal development (ZPD) category, as the level of development in which the child is capable of performing its actions by means of the involvement with someone culturally more experienced. For him, good instruction is the one that makes the development of the child advance, and that is possible, we believe, once the teaching process works with the possibilities in the area of proximal development. Consistent with this guidance, this search aimed to establish the possible relations between the pedagogical work of the teacher and the zone of proximal development of the students in the teaching and learning processes of the written language. This search was conducted with eight teachers and sixteen students of the first and second series of the elementary school of the municipal system of education of the city of Marília. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, observations and records of episodes of the teacher-student interaction in the strict limits of the situations of textual production. Besides, we analyzed the students' texts, gathered during the search. The results indicate that the teacher who develops strongly effective actions organizes the instruction in order to deal with the possibilities of students learning capacity by providing them the necessary assistance to the appropriation of cultural contents they work with, makes them progress in their development, giving potency to it. While she develops her work, the teacher interacts with her students, allowing them objectify their needs and interests, besides dealing with the written language by its social function and providing differentiated aid in the moment of textual production. This kind of action has implications in the learning process. / Mestre

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