'New' femininities in the culture of intoxication : exploring young Women's participation in the night-time economy, in the context of sexualised culture, neo-liberalism and postfeminismMackiewicz, Alison January 2013 (has links)
The thesis explores current debates ,around postfeminism and neoliberalism, and young women's articulations of femininity within the context of young women's excessive drinking practices. Alcohol plays a key ro le in UK culture today, and for young people, getting drunk is an accepted, expected and indeed normalised part of a night out in the current 'culture of intoxication'. It is also a space for enacting highly visible displays of gender, femininities and class, and one that represents an important 'space of attention' for exploring contemporary subjectivity. As such this space provides a productive source for carrying out in-depth analysis of how young women negotiate and manage 21st century femininities in the UK. Data is provided in the form of white working-class women's accounts of excessive drinking in various drinking venues within the county of Hampshire, England. Thirty-three women, aged between 18 and 24 years, took part in several phases of data collection, and these include individual interviews, friendship group discussions, and ethnographic methods. I employed a version of Foucauldian discourse analysis to identify key themes and discourses in the young women's talk, and note how young women use excessive alcohol for confidence within what has become a drinking culture of hyper-sexuality, where the emphasis is on the traditional male gaze, but also and possibly even more powerfully, the postfeminist female gaze. The young women draw on a number of discourses to construct drunkenness as a routine part of going out, and how the female gaze plays an important role in 'mirroring' and/or 'othering' women in terms of their feminine recognition. Furthermore, the women draw on postfeminist discourses to emphasise how painful and hard it is becoming a young female subject today.
Hardy, Nicole Amy
This thesis examines the ways in which rural, national, and urban spaces become gendered through the practices and representations of beer drinking in New Zealand. Critical social theory combined with feminist poststructuralist debates on identities provides the theoretical framework for this research. Two focus groups with Pākehā beer drinkers aged between 18 - 30 years old were conducted; one consisting of six males and the other consisting of six females. Critical textual analysis was also undertaken on five beer advertisements representing the most popular beer brands in New Zealand; Tui, Lion Red, Waikato and Speight's. Three points frame the analysis. First, I examine rural and national gendered identities associated with beer drinking. New Zealand's beer drinking cultures are constructed within rural discourses of masculinity. There is not a single masculinity present in New Zealand's beer drinking cultures, rather there are multiple and conflicting masculinities. I suggest that through the need to constantly perform their identity, men create a rural hegemonic masculinity that is both hard, yet vulnerable. I argue that the femininities constructed within these spaces are used to enhance and further enable the hard, yet vulnerable, rural masculinity. Second, within urban spaces of beer drinking - such as the office, nightclub, clubrooms and home - homosexuals, metrosexuals and women are 'othered'. These identities are defined in relation to the hegemonic norm - 'Hard Man' masculinity - in negative ways. Furthermore, some women perform a hyper masculine identity in order to be included in these beer-drinking spaces. Finally, I examine the ways in which hegemonic gendered identities in rural, national and urban spaces may be resisted and subverted. I use contradictions from my focus group participants to unsettle the 'Hard Man' masculinity of New Zealand's beer drinking cultures.
Gender, power and identities in the fitness gym : towards a sociology of the 'exercise body-beautiful complex'Mansfield, Louise January 2005 (has links)
This thesis examines the ways in which female bodies are central to the production and reproduction of gendered social inequality, and the formation of feminine identities in the fitness gym. Ethnographic methods were utilised to investigate the patterns and relations of power that underpinned the production and reproduction of feminine body ideals and feminine identities and habituses in a fitness gym in the South-East of England. The potential usefulness of harnessing feminist and figurational concepts for understanding gendered bodies in the context of sport and exercise is also explored. Some of the theoretical and methodological links between feminist and figurational perspectives are explored in this thesis. A feminist-figurational approach is presented as a useful way of understanding the complexities of female body image and feminine identification in the fitness gym. Central in this regard has been an examination of the unequal relationships between, and within, groups of people in exercise and fitness settings. The task of producing a relatively high degree of adequate knowledge about gendered bodies in the fitness gym has also involved consideration of several concepts related to Elias's (1978,1987) theory of involvement and detachment including: the personal pronoun model, the use of developmental thinking, the interplay between theory and evidence and the adequacy of evidence. Feminist and figurational ideas about gender, power and identities have been of use in making sense of the relationships between workingout, female bodies and femininities. Elias's conceptualisations of power, establishedoutsider relations and identification have been particularly helpful. Evidence from participant observations and interviewing revealed that several mechanisms serve to reinforce, challenge and negotiate a variety of images of the female body-beautiful in the fitness gym. These include: the insecurity and emotion that surround the acquisition and maintenance of an ideal physique, the monopolisation of corporeal power, the construction of group charisma and group disgrace, the formation of gossip networks, and the corporeal logic of the 'exercise body-beautiful complex'. The findings also reveal that female bodies are central to the formation of feminine identities and habituses. Feminine identities are founded on both different and shared characteristics of the female body-beautiful. Some female exercisers also share some characteristics with other women, specifically in the context of the fitness gym. Linked to a desire for a high status body Image, there is a tendency for white, western, middle-class, heterosexual, able-bodied women, who go to the gym, to share a preference for cosmetic fitness activities, and an emotional tie to aspirations for a slender, muscularly toned physique. The exercise histories of the women in this study indicated that the inculcation of feminine conduct and bodily preference happens over time, and in relation to a range of corporeal experiences including: physical education, sport, exercise, dance, dieting and adolescence.
Lacing Skates and Unlacing Corsets: Gender Play and Multiple Femininities in Roller Derby and Neo-BurlesqueHelweg-Larsen, Jules 01 May 2017 (has links)
Lacing Skates and Unlacing Corsets: Gender Play and Multiple Femininities in Roller Derby and Neo-Burlesque. Contemporary roller derby and neo-burlesque, as an athletic sport and a framed staged performance respectively, each provide a space that encourages gender play through interactions between participants and audience and the role of physical body. In this thesis, I discuss how each activity allows for a multiplicity of feminine identities and commentary by performers on the social and cultural expectations of women. Drawing on performance theory, ritual theory, and gender studies, along with fieldwork, I explore how this commentary comes from participants simultaneously critiquing and embracing those expectations in their performances through costuming, use of the body, and the presence of an audience who interpret the events.
That's what I am, I'm an England player : exploring the gendered, national and sporting identities of England's elite sportswomenBowes, Ali January 2013 (has links)
According to Robinson (2008), England exists more in imagination than it does anywhere else, except on the sports field. However, Englishness remains relatively unexplored in discussions of sporting nationalism. For so long, academics have focused on the ways in which male sport plays a key role in (re)producing national identities, with the contribution of women to the relationship between sport and national identity formation undeniably ignored. Based on interviews with 19 elite sportswomen from England s netball, football, rugby and cricket teams, this thesis examines the relationship between gendered, national and sporting identities, giving a voice to England s heroines of sport . These sports were chosen as the women had only represented England, rather than Great Britain, in international sport. Few research studies have adopted this approach of speaking to athletes about their national identities, although significantly, those that have were not concerned with women (see Tuck, 1999; Tuck and Maguire, 1999; McGee and Bairner 2011). The challenge was not only to integrate personal experiences into discussions of sport and national identity, but also to try to incorporate gender into these very discussions. The question here is whether women s sport has a place in the national imagination, and how do those very women who embody their nation on the field of play articulate their experiences. Central to this research is an understanding of the ways in which we perform aspects of our identity. Building on work by Butler (1990) and Edensor (2002), we can understand how international sport provides a site where multiple identities are performed. Findings suggest that performances of femininities are contextual, and that elite sport is an arena where displays of heteronormative femininity are inappropriate. In addition, sport serves to clarify imaginings of Englishness, where previously it may have been confused or conflated with conceptions of Britishness. What was clear throughout the research, however, was the performative nature of the participants identities, as well as the way in which their identities can be conceptualised as multiple and fluid, subject to change depending upon context and circumstance.
Shumeyko, Amelia Mari
Thesis advisor: Mary J. Hughes / Based on the current sociological views of gender, this paper will examine the various constructs of femininities and masculinities as observed in stream of consciousness fiction. Using Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse and William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury, one can view the interactions of pressures which establish characters' resistance or acceptance of gender roles. Because of their narrative styles, both Woolf and Faulkner provide perspectives which would normally be concealed. The characters will be organized and analyzed based upon their generations and genders, concluding with aspects of both novels which do not fit into this schema. These "complications" also bear heavily on the implications of gender in both novels, highlighting the authors' individual intentions in writing. / Thesis (BA) — Boston College, 2008. / Submitted to: Boston College. College of Arts and Sciences. / Discipline: College Honors Program.
Monteagudo, Graciela G
13 May 2011
The focus of my research has been the reverberations of the 2001 Argentine economic crisis, as they affected and were responded to by women in social movements. This dissertation contributes to studies of globalization by highlighting the unintended consequences of neoliberalism in Argentina in the form of the collective empowerment of women in egalitarian social movements. The negative consequences of neoliberalism are well known, but I found that these policies produced more than misery. They also helped to stimulate a new kind of politics —a set of autonomous movements aimed at democratizing society as well as the state. In response to rapidly deteriorating living conditions, contemporary Argentine social movements organized their constituencies in what I have defined as the field of politics by other means. In the context of failed governmental programs and discourse designed to create docile, mobile subjects (governmentality), egalitarian social movements engaged in the creation of social movements whose democratic structures contrasted with the dispossessing nature of the neoliberal global power they confronted. In Argentina, this new political culture and methodology fostered, through street theater and pageants, 'other means' of making politics, including a concern for internal gender democracy in what has been called the “solidarity economy.” My research suggests that struggles against gender inequities have a synergistic relationship to democratic political structures. I found that receptivity to feminist discourses and opportunities for women’s participation were greater in antihierarchical opposition movements than in those with a more traditional leftist orientation. In these autonomous movements, women were able to challenge gender inequities, democratizing both the movements and their family relationships. Their struggle for democracy and freedom contrasts with the role of neoliberal policies and practices responsible for the weakening of democratic institutions in Argentina. In this way, my research not only broadens understanding of Argentina’s crisis and recovery, but it raises questions about the implications of the present worldwide economic and social crisis on struggles to transform gender relations.
Transforming geographies of tourism and gender : Exploring women's livelihood strategies and practices within tourism in LatviaMöller, Cecilia January 2009 (has links)
This thesis explores different geographies of tourism, gender, work and livelihood in post-socialist Latvia. The study puts focus on the overall transformation process and the reshaping of the tourism sector, in how Latvia is reimagined both as a nation state and as a tourism destination. One central aim is to analyse the transformation process as genderised, and how existing gender identities in general and femininities more specifically are being transformed and mirrored within tourism. The thesis first contain an analysis of how Latvian tourism-marketing carries genderised meanings and identities, based on three interrelated ‘geographies’ as part of the transforming ‘national common space’: geographies of neo-nationalism, geographies of Europeanisation and geographies of relic-communism. These hold certain imaginations and conceptions of space and place, and include aims and priorities of the transition process. Secondly, focus is placed on the changing conditions for women’s livelihood within rural tourism in the Cēsis district, and spa/health tourism in Jūrmala. The thesis has mainly a qualitative approach, including semi-structured interviews and text analysis, but the case studies also comprise a survey. The thesis illustrates how tourism becomes an arena for reclaiming a Latvian national identity rooted in a pre-Soviet past, while also manifesting a Western European identity, and negotiating the remains of the controversial Soviet heritage. This process reveals, for example, traditional feminised features of the nation state, portraying women as the ‘mothers’ of the nation. Two case studies of female employees and entrepreneurs within rural tourism and spa/health tourism also show how women negotiate different ideals of femininities, including ‘traditional’, ‘Western’ and ‘socialist’ ideals, through their everyday livelihood practices within both the public and the private sphere. Their negotiations for a more independent livelihood are also affected by structural factors, such as wages and taxes, but also by the local socio-cultural context and related gender identities, including class, family structure, age and ethnicity.
11 September 2013
Contemporary Western feminist scholarship fails to explore the backdrop to the naturalization of feminine subjugation. By analyzing the structures, histories, and theories of gender relations, this study dislocates femininity from its ascribed Otherness and, in doing so, demonstrates how empowered femininities have been overlooked or rendered invisible within gender studies. Femme, as the failure or refusal to approximate the patriarchal norms of femininity, serves as the conceptual anchor of this study and is used to examine how femmephobic sentiments are constructed and perpetuated in contemporary Western feminist theory. In part, this perpetuation is achieved through the pedagogical and theoretical exclusions from the texts chosen for gender studies courses, revealing a normative feminist body constructed through the privileging of identities and expressions. Privileging of identities is demonstrated through the designation of literary space and in an overview of dominant theories, such as how the feminine subject is maintained as the object of critique and as not able to be “properly” feminist. This assessment of gender studies course texts reveals a limited understanding of femme and femininity that maintains these identities as white, middle-class, normatively bodied, and without agency. Feminist theory demonstrates an embedded normative feminist subject, one marked by whiteness and body privileges. By deconstructing the privileging of theories of the normative feminist subject, this study argues that gender studies has replicated feminist histories in which the politics and concerns of the white socially privileged subject are the first to be addressed. While white femininity is present in hir Otherness and in critiques of hir femininity, the racially marked femme does not exist, even in absence. The femme—as a queer potentiality—offers a way of thinking and re-thinking through the limitations of contemporary Western feminist theory and the paradoxical preoccupations with the absented femme. / Thesis (Master, Gender Studies) -- Queen's University, 2013-09-09 19:36:29.903
Feminilidades e masculinidades: ressignificação e criação de novas identidades em romances contemporâneos / Femininities and masculinities: ressignification and creation of new identities in contemporary novelsChatagnier, Juliane Camila 16 February 2018 (has links)
Submitted by Juliane Camila Chatagnier null (email@example.com) on 2018-03-09T15:18:53Z No. of bitstreams: 1 TESE JULIANE CAMILA CHATAGNIER.pdf: 1517550 bytes, checksum: 0f619d1b031428befe6918444044f2af (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Elza Mitiko Sato null (firstname.lastname@example.org) on 2018-03-09T18:13:28Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 chatagnier_jc_dr_sjrp.pdf: 1517550 bytes, checksum: 0f619d1b031428befe6918444044f2af (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2018-03-09T18:13:28Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 chatagnier_jc_dr_sjrp.pdf: 1517550 bytes, checksum: 0f619d1b031428befe6918444044f2af (MD5) Previous issue date: 2018-02-16 / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / A contemporaneidade tem colaborado com as mudanças na forma como as questões de gênero e sexualidade são vistas na sociedade. Padrões tradicionais vêm sendo quebrados e algumas formas de preconceito não se encaixam mais na comunidade. Hoje, muitos homens e mulheres não têm mais uma identidade única e fixa, e não configuram um par dual, e essa fragmentação das identidades de gênero possibilita a criação de ouras nomenclaturas. Com base nesse contexto de mudanças, as personagens de nosso corpus formam-se mulheres, homens, gays, lésbicas, e a construção do gênero é vista, então, como estratégia narrativa, na qual as escritoras procuram mostrar que há possibilidades para formação de gênero distinta dos padrões impostos pela matriz heteronormativa. Assim, realizamos uma análise de como essas configurações de gênero, masculinos ou femininos, são representadas na literatura, partindo da premissa de que as identidades de gênero sofrem rupturas com os modelos tradicionais e estão deslocadas, devido às diversas orientações sexuais presentes na contemporaneidade. Como corpus deste trabalho, escolhemos cinco obras, de escritoras norte-americanas, brasileiras e inglesas, a partir da década de 1970, a saber: Rubyfruit Jungle (1973), de Rita Mae Brown; The Front Runner (1974), de Patricia Nell Warren; Hotel Dulac (1984), de Anita Brookner; Duas iguais (1996), de Cíntia Moscovich e Sapato de salto (2006), de Lygia Bojunga. A configuração da identidade de gênero das personagens é analisada sob a luz da teoria da performatividade, de Judith Butler (1993; 2003; 2004; 2015), segundo a qual o gênero é constituído por meio da repetição de atos estilizados que se tornam inerentes ao indivíduo. Butler, juntamente à Rubin (1975), Wittig (1982; 1993) e Connell (2000), embasa, também, as questões relativas à construção da masculinidade e/ou feminilidade e Laclau (1990; 2004), Ortiz (1998; 2006) e Santos (1993; 2001), dentre outros, fundamentam o estudo a respeito das modificações ocorridas na sociedade, bem como essas interferem na construção da identidade de gênero. / Contemporaneity has contributed to changes in the way gender and sexuality issues are seen in society. Traditional patterns have been broken and some forms of prejudice do not fit into current society anymore. Today, some men and women have no longer a single, fixed identity, and no longer form a dual pair, and this fragmentation of gender identities makes it possible to create nomenclatures. Based on this context of change, the characters of our corpus are women, men, gays, lesbians, and the construction of gender is seen, therefore, as a narrative strategy, in which women writers try to show that there are possibilities for gender formation which differs from the patterns imposed by the heteronormative matrix. Thus, we perform an analysis of how these configurations of gender, male or female, are represented in literature, starting from a premise that gender identities suffer ruptures from traditional models and are displaced, due to diverse sexual orientations present in contemporary times. As a corpus of this work, we chose five works by American, Brazilian and English writers, beginning in the 1970s: Rubyfruit Jungle (1973) by Rita Mae Brown; The Front Runner (1974), by Patricia Nell Warren; Hotel Dulac (1984), by Anita Brookner; Duas iguais (1996), by Cíntia Moscovich and Sapato de salto (2006), by Lygia Bojunga. The configuration of the characters gender identity is analyzed in the light of Judith Butler's theory of performativity (1993, 2003, 2004, 2015), according to which gender is constituted through the repetition of stylized acts that become inherent to individual. Butler, along with Rubin (1975), Wittig (1982, 1993) and Connell (2000), also addresses issues related to the construction of masculinities and/or femininities, and Laclau (1990, 2004), Ortiz (1998, 2006) and Santos (1993), among others, ground the study on the changes that occurred in society, as well as these interfere in the construction of the gender identity.
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