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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Balanço hídrico em teto com cobertura vegetal no semiárido pernambucano

Tyaquiçã da Silva Santos, Pedro 31 January 2011 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-12T17:42:16Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 2 arquivo7111_1.pdf: 1388033 bytes, checksum: 645508c7ef101ae31fed17e866992644 (MD5) license.txt: 1748 bytes, checksum: 8a4605be74aa9ea9d79846c1fba20a33 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011 / Faculdade de Amparo à Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco / Na atualidade, metade da população mundial reside nos grandes centros urbanos. Grande parcela desse crescimento tem ocorrido em países em desenvolvimento. No Brasil, já se verifica um contingente de cerca de 80% da população residindo nas áreas urbanas. Neste crescente cenário de urbanização, impactos ambientais e socioeconômicos decorrentes de eventos hidrológicos têm sido recorrentes, afetando grande parte da população. O aumento da impermeabilização reduz as taxas de infiltração, que por sua vez leva à diminuição das taxas de recarga para os aquíferos e à diminuição do escoamento de base. O escoamento superficial é intensificado, aumentando em velocidade e, a frequência e magnitude dos picos de cheia, levando ocasionalmente às enchentes. Nesse contexto, têm sido empregados os telhados verdes em várias partes do mundo principalmente com finalidades estéticas de valorização do espaço urbano e para melhoria do conforto ambiental. Essas áreas verdes podem servir também para detenção do escoamento superficial, minimizando as enchentes urbanas. A simulação da dinâmica da água no solo do telhado verde realizada no programa Hydrus 1-D, a partir das características do sistema do teto verde implantado e dados obtidos em campo, proporcionou a caracterização da dinâmica da água em seu perfil de solo, fornecendo subsídios quanto ao desempenho deste dispositivo no amortecimento do escoamento superficial oriundo dos telhados
2

Determinação das propriedades hidráulicas do solo pelo método de evaporação monitorada por atenuação de radiação gama / Determination of soil hydraulic properties by the evaporation method monitored by gamma ray attenuation

Inforsato, Leonardo 29 August 2018 (has links)
Modelos matemáticos são comumente utilizados no estudo da dinâmica da água no solo não-saturado. A principal equação para se quantificar esta dinâmica é a equação diferencial de Richards. Sua solução direta é impossível na maioria dos casos, necessitando de métodos numéricos, dos quais se destaca a utilização das funções de condutividade e de retenção de água de Van Genuchten - Mualem para obtenção da solução numérica. Diante disto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar um novo método para a obtenção dos parâmetros de Van Genuchten - Mualem, que utiliza a modelagem inversa de dados de teores de água medidos periodicamente e obtidos por experimento de evaporação assistido por atenuação de radiação gama, para a modelagem inversa foi utilizado o software Hydrus-1D. O método foi testado em amostras com diferentes texturas, colhidas em 11 localidades na região de Piracicaba-SP. Dos conjuntos de exemplares analisados, apenas um apresentou resultado insatisfatório, concluindo que o método é válido / Mathematical models are commonly used in studies of water dynamics in unsaturated soil. The main equation to quantify water the dynamics is the differential Richards equation. Its analytical solution is impossible in almost all cases, requiring numerical methods, among which the Van Genuchten - Mualem water conductivity and water retention functions are frequently used to obtain the numerical solution. The objective of this work is to present a new method to obtain the Van Genuchten - Mualem parameters, using the inverse modeling of water content data measured periodically by gamma radiation attenuation in evaporating samples. Hydrus-1D software was used for the inverse modeling. The method was tested in samples with different textures, collected in 11 locations in the region of Piracicaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the sets of samples analyzed, only one presented an unsatisfactory result, concluding that the method is valid
3

Determinação das propriedades hidráulicas do solo pelo método de evaporação monitorada por atenuação de radiação gama / Determination of soil hydraulic properties by the evaporation method monitored by gamma ray attenuation

Leonardo Inforsato 29 August 2018 (has links)
Modelos matemáticos são comumente utilizados no estudo da dinâmica da água no solo não-saturado. A principal equação para se quantificar esta dinâmica é a equação diferencial de Richards. Sua solução direta é impossível na maioria dos casos, necessitando de métodos numéricos, dos quais se destaca a utilização das funções de condutividade e de retenção de água de Van Genuchten - Mualem para obtenção da solução numérica. Diante disto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar um novo método para a obtenção dos parâmetros de Van Genuchten - Mualem, que utiliza a modelagem inversa de dados de teores de água medidos periodicamente e obtidos por experimento de evaporação assistido por atenuação de radiação gama, para a modelagem inversa foi utilizado o software Hydrus-1D. O método foi testado em amostras com diferentes texturas, colhidas em 11 localidades na região de Piracicaba-SP. Dos conjuntos de exemplares analisados, apenas um apresentou resultado insatisfatório, concluindo que o método é válido / Mathematical models are commonly used in studies of water dynamics in unsaturated soil. The main equation to quantify water the dynamics is the differential Richards equation. Its analytical solution is impossible in almost all cases, requiring numerical methods, among which the Van Genuchten - Mualem water conductivity and water retention functions are frequently used to obtain the numerical solution. The objective of this work is to present a new method to obtain the Van Genuchten - Mualem parameters, using the inverse modeling of water content data measured periodically by gamma radiation attenuation in evaporating samples. Hydrus-1D software was used for the inverse modeling. The method was tested in samples with different textures, collected in 11 locations in the region of Piracicaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the sets of samples analyzed, only one presented an unsatisfactory result, concluding that the method is valid
4

Modelagem na transferência de cobre e zinco em solos contaminados por dejetos líquidos de suínos / Modeling of copper and zinc transference in soils contaminated by pig slurry

Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem 07 June 2013 (has links)
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior / Soils subjected to successive pig slurry (PS) amendments present zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) increases, mostly on soil surface layer. The continuous application of PS causes accumulation of these heavy metals (HM) in soil, increasing risks for environmental contamination. Therefore, development of methods to estimate Zn and Cu accumulation in surface layer and their movement in soil is very important for the management planning of PS and of the agricultural soils amended with these residues. The main objective of this work was to model the vertical transport of Zn and Cu in profile of agricultural soils receiving successive application of PS at high, moderate and low doses, evaluating the effects of soil tillage and water absorption by roots on the movement of these HM. We also aimed to predict the long-term accumulation of HM in soil surface and their transport into groundwater, comparing estimated results with the threshold values established for agricultural soils and groundwater by the Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (CONAMA). Two studies were performed on field experiments composed by different PS doses, the first located on an Alfisol in Santa Maria RS, and the second on an Oxisol in Campos Novos SC. Hydro-physical and chemical characteristics of these soils were measured and, accompanied by atmospheric and PS application data sets, were introduced into HYDRUS-1D for parameterization of the two-site model used. In the first study, simulations for next 100 years were performed under scenarios combining two PS doses and four time intervals between soil tillage of the arable layer. The solute transport model used on these simulations was already validated for this local soil in another study. In the second study, the validation of a solute transport model was carried out primarily, following the same approaches used for the Alfisol. Afterwards, root water uptake and root growth modules were introduced to the model. The future scenarios were simulated using applications of different PS doses during the next 50 years. The solute transport model previously validated for the Alfisol was also validated for the Oxisol, and the introduction of the root modules in HYDRUS-1D produced even better results. This increased the usefulness of the model for its use in simulations related to Zn and Cu transport on other contaminated soils. Future scenarios exhibit a great accumulation of these two HM in soil surface layer during the simulated times. Moreover, when soils are submitted to high PS annual doses, its Cu concentrations reached the maximum values established by CONAMA for agricultural soils in approximately 94 years on the Alfisol and in 29 years on the Oxisol. Reduction in PS doses and sporadic soil tillage are strategies that slow the increase of these HM concentrations in soil surface layer, decreasing so the environmental risks and making PS additions on agricultural soils viable for longer time. / Solos submetidos a sucessivas aplicações de dejeto líquido de suínos (DLS) apresentam incrementos nos seus teores de zinco (Zn) e cobre (Cu), principalmente na camada superficial. A continuidade dessa prática faz com que esses metais pesados (MP) se acumulem no solo, aumentando o potencial de contaminação do ambiente. Dessa forma, o desenvolvimento de métodos que estimem o acúmulo superficial e o movimento de Zn e Cu no solo é de extrema importância no planejamento do manejo dos DLS e dos solos agrícolas que recebem esses resíduos. O trabalho objetivou modelar o transporte vertical de Zn e Cu no perfil de solos agrícolas contaminados por aplicações sucessivas de altas, moderadas e baixas doses de DLS, avaliando o efeito do revolvimento do solo e da absorção de água pelas raízes no movimento desses MP, prevendo, no longo prazo, seus acúmulos na camada superficial do solo e suas transferências rumo ao lençol freático, confrontando os resultados estimados com os respectivos limites de concentração para solos agrícolas e águas subterrâneas estabelecidos pelo Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (CONAMA). Foram realizados dois estudos em experimentos de campo com diferentes doses de DLS, o primeiro localizado sobre um Argissolo, em Santa Maria RS, e o segundo sobre um Latossolo, em Campos Novos SC. Diversas características físico-hídricas e químicas foram determinadas nesses solos para, juntamente com os dados atmosféricos e do histórico de aplicação de DLS nessas áreas, serem introduzidos no HYDRUS-1D para parametrização do modelo químico de dois sítios utilizado. No primeiro estudo foram realizadas simulações para os próximos 100 anos, considerando cenários combinando duas doses de DLS e quatro intervalos de tempo entre revolvimentos periódicos da camada arável do solo. O modelo de transporte de solutos utilizado nessas simulações já havia sido validado para o solo deste local em outro trabalho. No segundo estudo foi feita a validação de um modelo de transporte de solutos, seguindo as mesmas premissas do modelo utilizado no Argissolo. Posteriormente, módulos de absorção de água e crescimento de raízes foram incorporados ao modelo. Realizaram-se então simulações futuras de cenários considerando aplicações de diferentes doses de DLS durante os próximos 50 anos. O modelo de transporte de solutos validado previamente no Argissolo foi validado também no Latossolo, apresentando resultados ainda melhores quando os módulos de raízes foram introduzidos no HYDRUS-1D. Isso aumenta a abrangência desse modelo para simular o transporte de Zn e Cu em outros solos contaminados. Os cenários futuros mostram que ocorre grande acúmulo desses MP na camada superficial do solo durante os períodos simulados. Além disso, quando os solos são submetidos a altas doses anuais de DLS, as suas concentrações de Cu atingem os valores máximos estipulados pelo CONAMA, para solos agrícolas, em aproximadamente 94 anos no Argissolo e 29 anos no Latossolo. Reduzir as doses de DLS e revolver o solo esporadicamente são alternativas que retardam o aumento da concentração desses MP na camada superficial do solo, diminuindo o potencial de impacto ao ambiente e tornando a adição de DLS em áreas agrícolas viável por mais tempo.
5

Characterizing Water and Nitrogen Dynamics in Urban/Suburban Landscapes

Sun, Hongyan 01 December 2011 (has links)
This research investigated the water use of different plant types in urban landscapes, nitrogen (N) and water transport in turf, and potential N leaching from urban landscapes to ground water. In the first study, three landscape treatments integrating different types of plants—woody, herbaceous perennial, turf—and putative water use classifications—Mesic, Mixed, Xeric—were grown in large drainage lysimeters. Each landscape plot was divided into woody, turf, and herbaceous perennial plant hydrozones and irrigated for optimum water status over two years, with water use measured using a water balance approach. For woody plants and herbaceous perennials, canopy cover, rather than plant type or water use classification, was the key determinant of water use relative to reference evapotranspiration (ETo) under well-watered conditions. For turf, monthly evapotranspiration (ETa) followed a trend linearly related to ETo. In the second study, water transport parameters were calibrated using an inverse simulation with Kentucky bluegrass (KBG). Subsequently, those parameters were applied to simulate water use by tall fescue (TF) and buffalograss (BG) turfgrasses using numerical modeling (Hydrus-1D). By using the calibrated soil hydraulic parameters obtained from the water transport simulation, N transport and transformation was modeled with Hydrus- 1D under different irrigation rates and different fertilization rates. Different soil texture scenarios were also simulated to demonstrate the influence of soil texture on N leaching. In the third study, the simulated N-leaching from different soil textures was integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach to estimate NO3-N leaching mass from urban turf areas. Nitrate-N leaching risks to ground water under overirrigation and overfertilization scenarios and efficient irrigation and fertilization scenarios were estimated. The results showed improvement of turf irrigation and fertilization management may decrease N-leaching significantly and greatly decrease the risk of ground water being contaminated by NO3-N leaching in the Salt Lake Valley.
6

Advancing Methods to Quantify Actual Evapotranspiration in Stony Soil Ecosystems

Parajuli, Kshitij 01 August 2018 (has links)
Water is undeniably among the most important natural resources and the most critical in semi-arid regions like the Intermountain West of the United States. Such regions are characterized by low precipitation, the majority of which is transferred to the atmosphere from the soil and vegetation as evapotranspiration (ET). Quantification of ET is thus crucial for understanding the balance of water within the region, which is important for efficiently planning the available water resources. This study was motivated towards advancing the estimation of actual ET (ETA) in mountain ecosystems, where the variation in different types of vegetation and non-uniformity of soil including considerable stone content creates challenges for estimating water use as ET. With the aim of addressing the effect of stone content in controlling soil moisture and ET, this study examined the influence of stone content on bulk soil hydraulic properties. An averaging model referred to as a binary mixing model was used to describe the way in which water is held and released in stony soil. This approach was based on the individual hydraulic behavior of the background soil and of the stones within the soil. The effect of soil stone content on ETA was evaluated by accounting for the water retention properties of stones in the soil using a numerical simulation model (HYDRUS-1D). The results revealed overestimation of simulated ETA when effects of stone content were not accounted for in comparison to ETA measured by the state-of-the-art “eddy covariance” measurement method for ETA. An even larger-scale model was evaluated, named the Noah-Multiphysics (Noah-MP) land surface model. The land surface model was run using different arrangements of complexity to determine the importance of stone content information on simulation results. The version of the model with information about stone content along with detailed soil properties was able to provide the best Noah-MP prediction of ET. The study suggests that improvement in representation of soil properties including stone content information, can substantially advance the ability of numerical and land surface models to more accurately simulate soil water flow and ETA.
7

The Contributions of Soil Moisture and Groundwater to Non-Rainfall Water Formation in the Namib Desert

Adhikari, Bishwodeep 08 1900 (has links)
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) / Non-rainfall waters such as fog and dew are considered as important source of water in drylands, and the knowledge of possible sources of its formation is very important to make future predictions. Prior studies have suggested the presence of radiation fog in drylands; however, its formation mechanism still remains unclear. There have been earlier studies on the effects of fog on soil moisture dynamics and groundwater recharge. On the contrary, no research has yet been conducted to understand the contribution of soil moisture and groundwater to fog formation. This study, therefore, for the first time intends to examine such possibility in a fog-dominated dryland ecosystem, the Namib Desert. The study was conducted at three sites representing two different land forms (sand dunes and gravel plains) in the Namib Desert. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first part examines evidences of fog formation through water vapor movement using field observations, and the second part simulates water vapor transport using HYDRUS-1D model. In the first part of the study, soil moisture, soil temperature and air temperature data were analyzed, and the relationships between these variables were taken as one of the key indicators for the linkage between soil water and fog formation. The analysis showed that increase in soil moisture generally corresponds to similar increase in air or soil temperature near the soil surface, which implied that variation in soil moisture might be the result of water vapor movement (evaporated soil moisture or groundwater) from lower depths to the soil surface. In the second part of the study, surface fluxes of water vapor were simulated using the HYDRUS-1D model to explore whether the available surface flux was sufficient to support fog formation. The actual surface flux and cumulative evaporation obtained from the model showed positive surface fluxes of water vapor. Based on the field observations and the HYDRUS-1D model results, it can be concluded that water vapor from soil layers and groundwater is transported through the vadose zone to the surface and this water vapor likely contributes to the formation of non-rainfall waters in fog-dominated drylands, like the Namib Desert.
8

Medição e simulação da temperatura e conteúdo de água em argissolo sob resíduos de aveia / Measurent and simulation of soil temperature and water content in alfisols under oat residues

Zwirtes, Anderson Luiz 27 January 2017 (has links)
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES / This research was conducted with the objective of studying the dynamics of soil temperature and water content as a function of the different amounts of black oat residue (Avena sativa Schreb.) in the soil cover, through existing relationships with meteorological variables, as well as the simulation of these dynamics using Hydrus-1D. The experiment was carried out in an Argissolo Vermelho Distrófico arênico (Rhodic Paleudalf) in Santa Maria - RS. The treatments consisted of the use of 3, 6 and 9 Mg ha-1 of oat straw in soil cover and an uncovered soil treatment (0 Mg ha-1). Soil temperature and water content at different depths, in addition to meteorological conditions, were measured during the period from December 1, 2014 to December 6, 2015. The effect of straw on soil temperature was analyzed at different depths, correlating covered soil temperature with uncovered soil temperature. The equations used for estimating soil surface temperature were adjusted by the least square method, where the surface temperature is estimated as a function of air temperature and incident solar radiation, and its performance compared to the sinusoidal equation. The hydraulic and thermal parameters required for the simulation of soil temperature and water content were optimized by the reverse solution and validated on uncovered soils. The optimized parameters were used to simulate the temperature and water content in soils with different amounts of straw with two contour conditions for the soil surface temperature, one measure and the other estimated. The straw affected the soil temperature down to 50 cm deep. The uncovered soil temperature at which inversion of the straw effect occurred was 19.6 ° C at the surface and 15.8 ° C at 50 cm depth. The presence of straw keeps the soil warmer than the soil without straw at the beginning of the day, but prevents it from warming similar to the ground without straw for the rest of the day, causing in turn that, bare soil gets warmer during the day and cools more at night compared to the covered soil. This temperature was similar in all amounts of straw, but decreased in depth. The temperature of the soil surface can be estimated as a function of air temperature and solar radiation. In uncovered soil the proposed equation presents better performance compared to the sinusoidal equation. In covered soils the sinusoidal equation had better performance. The optimal hydraulic and thermal parameters of the soil improved the simulations of temperature and soil water content. The soil temperature with different amounts of oat straw can be simulated using Hydrus-1D, and the use of the contour condition with the measured surface temperature performed better than the estimated surface temperature. / Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de estudar a dinâmica da temperatura e do conteúdo de água do solo em função de diferentes quantidades de resíduos de aveia preta disposta em cobertura por meio das relações existente com variáveis meteorológicas, bem como a representação destes comportamentos por meio de simulação utilizando o Hydrus-1D. O experimento foi conduzido em um Argissolo Vermelho Distrófico arênico em Santa Maria - RS. Os tratamentos consistiram da utilização de três diferentes níveis de cobertura do solo (3, 6 e 9 Mg ha-1) com palha de aveia (Avena sativa) e um tratamento com solo descoberto (0 Mg ha-1). A temperatura do solo e o conteúdo volumétrico de água, em diferentes profundidades, além das condições meteorológicas, foram mensurados durante o período de 01/12/2014 a 06/12/2015. O efeito da cobertura do solo com resíduos vegetais na temperatura do solo foi analisado nas diferentes profundidades correlacionando a temperatura do solo com palha e a temperatura do solo descoberto. O método dos mínimos quadrados foi usado para gerar equações de estimativa da temperatura da superfície do solo em função da temperatura do ar e da radiação solar e o seu desempenho foi comparado com a equação senoidal. Os parâmetros hidráulicos e térmicos, necessários para a simulação da temperatura e do conteúdo de água do solo, com o Hydrus-1D, foram otimizados por meio da solução inversa e validados em solos descobertos. Os parâmetros otimizados foram usados para a simulação da temperatura e do conteúdo de água em solos com diferentes quantidades de palha com duas condições de contorno para a temperatura da superfície do solo, uma medida e outra estimada. A palha exerce influência sobre a temperatura do solo até 50 cm de profundidade. A temperatura do solo descoberto em que ocorre a inversão do efeito da palha foi de 19,6 °C na superfície e 15,8 °C a 50 cm de profundidade. A presença de cobertura de palha mantém o solo mais aquecido que o solo sem palha no início do dia, mas impede que ele se aqueça igual ao solo sem palha no restante do dia. Assim resultando em uma percepção de que a palha aquece e resfria o solo em relação à temperatura do solo desnudo. Essa temperatura foi semelhante em todas as quantidades de palha, porém decresceu em profundidade. A estimativa da temperatura da superfície do solo pode ser estimada em função da temperatura do ar e da radiação solar. Em solo descoberto as equações propostas tem melhor desempenho que a equação senoidal. Em solos cobertos a equação senoidal teve melhor desempenho. Os parâmetros hidráulicos e térmicos do solo otimizados melhoraram as simulações da temperatura e conteúdo de água do solo. A simulação da temperatura do solo com diferentes quantidades de cobertura vegetal pode ser simulada usando o Hydrus-1D, sendo que o uso da condição de contorno com a temperatura da superfície medido teve melhor desempenho que o utilizando a temperatura da superfície estimada.
9

Effects of Model Spin-Up on Simulated Recharge Using the Hydrus-1D Vadose Zone Model / Betydelsen av spin-up för simulerad grundvattenbildning genom användning av Hydrus-1D modellen av den omättade zonen

Vogel, Mie January 2019 (has links)
Groundwater is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle and is an important source for drinking water, irrigation and industry, particularly during droughts. With climate change, the hydrological variability is predicted to increase, making predictions for recharge and groundwater storage even more important to implement and to maintain sustainable water use. This study examines the importance of model spin-up in simulating recharge using the Hydrus-1D computer model. The focus is on two previously made Hydrus-1D models that represent end members in climate and hydrology; one which is a natural grassland in a semi-arid climate, while the other is a low impact development (LID) bioswale site in a Mediterranean climate. The main goal of this study is to characterize the range and causes of spin-up behavior as well as to analyze the extent of the effects that the spin-up process has on the recharge simulations. Although there has been some research on spin-up behavior for surface-water models, there is still a knowledge gap regarding the effects of model spin-up on vadose zone models simulating recharge. The initial conditions varied using three parameters for each of the two models: time (3, 15 and 30 years), initial moisture (θ = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) and precipitation (25% drier than historical data, historical 30-year data, 25% wetter than historical data). The output from these spin-ups were then used as initial conditions in simulating recharge using the 15-year models. The study found that the impact of spin-up is significant in the natural grassland site where there is a slow response between atmospheric forcings and recharge and where there is a relatively thick vadose zone. Especially spin-up time showed great variability and there is an inverse relationship between spin-up time and magnitude of recharge, where the longer spin-ups had lower recharge rates. Initial water content and precipitation did not result in different recharge amounts for the LID model. Length of spin-up only had very small differences in recharge for the LID models, indicating they are less sensitive to changes in initial spin-up parameters.
10

Simulation of Leachate Generation from a Waste Rock Dump in Kiruna Using HYDRUS-1D / Simulering av lakvattenbildning från gråbergsdeponier i Kiruna med HYDRUS-1D

Atmosudirdjo, Aryani January 2019 (has links)
The percolation of water through waste rock dumps at mine sites can lead to the production of a leachate with high concentrations of dissolved metals, sulfate and nitrogen compounds. It is important to understand how water flows in waste rock dumps in order to predict the environmental impact of this leachate on recipients. The dynamics of percolation and leachate discharge are controlled by climatological conditions at the site, where relatively large flows in northern Sweden correspond to snowmelt during late Spring. Rock dumps are often tens of meters in height, resulting in an unsaturated water flow system through heterogeneous material. Hence, the simulation of leachate generation requires an accurate representation of the subsurface materials as well as the flow processes, where water flow in waste rock dumps is dominated by matrix flow with macropore flow being of secondary importance. Matrix flow is rather slow and may thus potentially yield relatively high concentrations of contaminants in the leachate, in response to precipitation and snow melt. This study uses Hydrus-1D to predict leachate generation from a small-scale waste rock dump in Kiruna in terms of discharge magnitude and timing. The 3-dimensional geometry of the waste rock dump is approximated by summing simulations from 1225 one-dimensional columns of different length, with a surface area of 1 m2 each. There are four output parameters that are compared between the model results and measured data: snow accumulation, water content, temperature, and discharge. There are some discrepancies between the model results and field measurements, most likely due to uncertainties in the input parameters (especially waste rock properties), limitations in the Hydrus-1D model (i.e. freeze-thaw dynamics), and assumptions that are used in constructing the conceptual model. For better agreement between model results and measured data, a new modelling approach is recommended, potentially using a different program than Hydrus-1D.

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