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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

"It Took My Brain Away": a Developmental Contextual Case Study of a Child With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Natili, Suzanne Elizabeth 22 May 1998 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the life of one child who has been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The definition of ADHD has become very broad and many children are being treated according to the label of ADHD. This study investigated the life of one eight year old boy from conception until present in order to understand the child as an individual. The research was framed in developmental contextualism and developmentally appropriate practice in a case study approach. In depth interviews and observations formed the data for the case. The study case demonstrated the need to focus on the child as an individual, and not just the label of ADHD. Recommendations were made for parenting and teaching, as well as for future research. / Master of Science

Den töjbara gränsen mellan läkemedel och drog : En analys av massmedias skildring av Ritalin, Concerta och Strattera

Qaderi, Josef January 2016 (has links)
Syftet med föreliggande uppsats är att undersöka hur ADHD-medlen Ritalin, Concerta och Strattera skildras i massmedia. Specifikt studeras den töjbara gränsen mellan läkemedel och drog med avseende på ADHD-medlen. Uppsatsen tar sin utgångspunkt i socialkonstruktionismen och den kritiska diskursanalysen. Sammanlagt analyserades 183 tidningsartiklar som förekom mellan 2002-2015 i åtta av de största svenska dags- och kvällstidningar. Resultatet visar att Ritalin, Concerta och Strattera konstrueras som läkemedel i massmedia genom att; 1) benämna dessa som läkemedel; 2) tilldela förespråkare för en ökad förskrivning av medlen plats på nyhetssidorna medan kritiker förläggs till debattsidorna; 3) tilldela framförallt psykiatriker som intar en biomedicinsk diskurs större massmedialt utrymme; och 4) underrapportera om biverkningar. Konstruktionen av Ritalin, Concerta och Strattera som läkemedel ska ses som en bidragande orsak till den ökade förskrivningen av ADHD-medel.

The Synergistic Effects of Methylphenidate on the Behavioral Effects of Nicotine

Leedy, Kristen K 01 May 2015 (has links)
One of the most common childhood disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) places individuals at a higher risk for nicotine (NIC) dependence. Approximately 37.2% of individuals with ADHD currently smoke compared to the 18.3% of individuals with no record of mental illness. Methylphenidate (MPH; Trade name Ritalin) is the most commonly prescribed treatment for ADHD. Research regarding the synergistic effects of MPH and NIC, however, is divided. Some research indicates that MPH may enhance susceptibility to NIC effects, whereas other studies report that MPH may inhibit sensitization to NIC. The present study examines the effects of pre-exposure to MPH (1.0 mg/kg) on the behavioral effects of NIC (0.5 mg/kg) in adolescent male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We used behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) on animals postnatal day (P)28-50; this is defined as adolescence in rats. For behavioral sensitization, results revealed a significant interaction between day of testing, drug pre-exposure, and adolescent drug treatment (p = .004). On the other hand, CPP results revealed a significant interaction between adolescent drug treatment and drug pre-exposure (p = .031). Findings suggest that pre-exposure to MPH reduces behavioral sensitization to NIC during adolescence. In addition, results indicate that MPH enhances NIC CPP in adolescent male and female rats, suggesting that MPH may enhance the rewarding effect of NIC.

Take a chill pill: a cultural history of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Hansen, Jonathan Herbert 01 August 2014 (has links)
During the last thirty years, millions of Americans have come into contact with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), if not through their own diagnosis or the diagnosis of a friend or family member, then through the perennial and occasionally passionate debate this behavioral disorder has inspired in U.S. popular culture since its inauguration in 1980. The competing claims of this debate are many and varied, and they revolve around a number of subtle distinctions that have emerged from diverse discourses and institutional histories. It is among the aims of this project to excavate and clarify these multiple, often contradictory and disjunctive claims by resituating them within their disparate (indeed, still emerging) rhetorical and historical contexts. The central questions animating this debate tend to advocate for one position or another, within the limitations of a single field and its defining questions, making it nearly impossible to gain a balanced or nuanced understanding of ADHD. Moreover, dominant accounts fail to consider the diagnosis within a wider socio-cultural and historical context. This project therefore analyzes this under-theorized behavioral disorder from a rhetorical and cultural perspective. In doing so, it aims to go further than other critiques or defenses of the diagnosis and its chemical therapies. It does so by bringing discourse analysis to bear on ADHD, thereby illuminating how this assemblage of rhetorics and questions - centered as they are on the Mind/Body continuum - constitute what Michel Foucault refers to as biopower - or a process of social control exercised on and through the technological manipulation of life itself. Considering it from such a perspective will allow us to situate ADHD within modern debates over the definition of consciousness, a debate that is inseparable from the history of technology and the technological systems in which minds and bodies are thoroughly implicated. This dissertation demonstrates that a biopolitics of consciousness structures the emergence of and the debate surrounding ADHD and the administration of stimulant drugs for the purpose of managing attensity.

Examination of the Relationships Between the Dimensions of Self-Perception and Non- Prescribed Ritalin Use in Teens

Lamkin, Mindy Lee 2010 December 1900 (has links)
Due to an increase in diagnosis and prescription of methylphenidate and other ADD/ADHD medications, concerns have been expressed over the rise in Ritalin diversion from prescription to nonmedical use. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between the dimensions of self-perception (i.e., Impulse Control, Body Image, Mastery of the External World, Worry Control) self-enhancement, environmental and demographic factors, and non-prescribed Ritalin (methylphenidate) use. This cross sectional study draws on secondary data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors Survey (AHRBS). The secondary data from AHRBS were analyzed using a sample size of n=1992 and a sub-sample size of n=79. Subjects completed questions pertaining to the dimensions of self-perception, self-enhancement, and demographic factors. The results of this study reveal that females who have worse Body Image, and compare their exams to their previous exams are on average more likely to use non-prescribed Ritalin. As a result, researchers in this area may want to focus on self-perception and self-enhancement in order to better understand illicit drug use. Future research should explore the difference between experimentation vs. regular users and how to incorporate this into effective and efficient drug prevention programs.

Ritalin and the child

Vickers, Valerie. January 2002 (has links)
Thesis (M.A.)--Marshall University, 2002. / Title from document title page. Document formatted into pages; contains viii, 48 p. with illustrations. Includes bibliographical references (p. 42-43).

Teachers' perception of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and effects of ritalin

Govender, Premi Govindomah January 2003 (has links)
A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Education in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Educational Psychology) in the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education, University of Zululand, 2003. / Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often creates significant problems in the classroom for both learner and teacher. Many children with ADHD are plagued with extreme behaviour characteristics that often lead to adverse adult reactions and social rejection. It is believed that teachers often prefer Ritalin as a choice of intervention to cope with the demands of teaching. This study investigates how teachers view the characteristic behaviour of children with ADHD and the effect that Ritalin has on those perceptions. The second aim was to find out how teachers felt regarding the social relations of children with ADHD and the effect that Ritalin has on those perceptions. The third aim was to determine whether teacher perceptions of ADHD children were influenced by their characteristics (age, gender, type of school, qualifications and experience). The views/perceptions expressed by teachers in most instances favoured the research authors identified in this study with reference to the characteristic behaviours of ADHD children. However, views expressed on social interactions were not conclusive as the tally produced an even split, identifying perhaps a lack of understanding of what is expected from children with ADHD. The results in both the above descriptions clearly showed a favourable bias toward the use of Ritalin for producing acceptable behaviour. The study further identified that when evaluating certain teachers' characteristics such as: gender, age, qualifications, teaching experience and type of school, the following became evident: • Special education qualifications did not create a better understanding or tolerance of these children, but in fact the opposite was evident • Gender or age did not influence teachers perceptions • The feedback from both private and public schools were similar It is important to note that the limitations identified in this study, stressed the need for future research to be done in this field.

The Effect of Ritalin on WISC-R Block Design WISC-R Coding and Bender Gestalt Developmental Scores of Hyperactive Children

Wall, Mark 05 1900 (has links)
Psychological research suggests that Ritalin reduces the rate of maladaptive behaviors in hyperactive children but does not improve their academic performance. Teachers, however, often assert that writing skills and other graphic work are improved by Ritalin. Twenty elementary school children who had been diagnosed as hyperactive and who were taking Ritalin were tested using WISC-R coding, WISC-R block design, and Bender Gestalt. Ten of the subjects were assigned to a group which was first tested when the children were off Ritalin and subsequently tested when they were on Ritalin. The sequence was reversed for the remaining ten. This procedure was designed to counterbalance the effect of practice. Direct difference t-tests indicated that there were no differences between groups regarding any of the three dependent measures. Thus, results indicate that the popular conceptions among educators regarding the efficacy of Ritalin for improving visual-motor efficiency is open to serious question.

The effect of Methylphenidate on Energy Expenditure in Individuals with Obesity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Pilot Trial

Hafizi, Kaamel 31 May 2019 (has links)
Objectives: Most weight loss medications target reductions in energy intake while neglecting energy expenditure, a critical predictor of weight loss/regain. This pilot study examined the effect of short-acting methylphenidate (MPH) on resting energy expenditure (REE), thermic effect of food (TEF), physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), and how changes in energy expenditure relate to changes in body composition in youth and adults living with obesity. Methods: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled two-parallel arm study. In total, 19 participants were screened, of which 14 participants were randomized into the study, but complete data was only collected for 12, and only analyzed for 10 participants. Those 10 participants aged 28.8 ± 6.9 yrs. (5 Male, 5 Female) were randomized to receive either MPH (0.5 mg/kg) (n = 5) or placebo (n =5) twice daily for 60 days. Participants’ REE and TEF (indirect calorimetry), were measured at baseline (no drug/placebo), and day 60 post-treatment (drug/placebo). Participants’ PAEE (Actical) was measured between screening and baseline for a 1-week period (no drug/placebo), and on day 53 for a 1-week period (drug/placebo). Participants’ anthropometrics were measured using DEXA at baseline, and day 60 post-treatment. Results: From baseline to day 60, MPH showed a relative difference to placebo in relative REE (Relative REE: F(1, 8) = 4.235, p = 0.074, d = 0.83, 2 = 0.346) of 10%, evidenced by a 6% increase in relative REE kcal/kg (18.53 ± 1.97 Kcal/day/kg at baseline, 19.71 ± 2.52 Kcal/day/kg at final) for the MPH group, and a 4% decrease (19.08 2.36 Kcal/day/kg at baseline, 18.26 ± 2.04 Kcal/day/kg at final) in placebo, translating to moderate-effect size (Cohen’s d=0.63) favouring MPH. From baseline to day 60, there were no significant differences between groups on changes in TEF (TEF AUC: F(1, 8) = 0.079, p = 0.785, d = 0.15, 2 = 0.010) or any PAEE variables such as sedentary behavior (SB: F (1, 8) = 0.455, p = 0.52, d = 0.02, 2 = 0.054), light physical activity (LPA: F (1, 8) = 0.504, p = 0.50, d = 0.16, 2 = 0.059), moderate physical activity (MPA: F (1, 8) = 0.281, p = 0.61, d = 0.19, 2 = 0.034), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA: F (1, 8) = 0.120, p = 0.74, d = 0.15, 2 = 0.015), or vigorous physical activity (VPA: F (1, 8) = 3.495, p = 0.098, d = 0.91, 2 = 0.304) . Mean change in body weight (kg) resulted in a weight loss of roughly -2.66 ± 2.00 kg in the MPH group and -1.64 ± 1.41 kg in the placebo group, differences that were not statistically significant. Mean change in both groups for body fat% of -0.33 ± 2.08 %, mean change in fat mass of -1.05 ± 2.59 kg, and finally a mean change in fat-free mass of -0.06 ± 1.19 kg was reported. Changes in relative REE were inversely correlated with changes in body weight (r = -0.599, p = 0.067), body fat (r = -0.524, p = 0.12) and fat mass (r = -0.599, p = 0.096). These associations were stronger in the MPH group. Conclusions: Our data suggests that MPH administration may lead to a meaningful increase in relative REE, and these suggested changes were associated with reductions in adiposity among individuals with obesity. These preliminary findings suggest that MPH should be further examined using a larger sample size and study duration to determine its effectiveness in promoting weight loss and maintenance of weight loss in individuals with obesity, a population at high risk of morbidity and premature mortality.

O consumo do medicamento ritalina® e a produção do aperfeiçoamento circunstancial

Coelho, Eleonora Bachi January 2016 (has links)
Ancorado nas discussões teóricas acerca do tema da medicalização e nas pesquisas brasileiras que apontam para o aumento, no país, do consumo do psicofármaco comercialmente chamado Ritalina®, este trabalho tem como objetivo refletir sobre o papel atribuído a esse fármaco na forma como seus consumidores compreendem e constroem a si mesmos, especialmente no que tange à crença cultural no auto-aperfeiçoamento. Os dados empíricos que embasam a discussão aqui proposta foram produzidos através de entrevistas com pessoas que utilizavam a medicação e também por meio da análise do material de divulgação da Ritalina®, que é voltado ao público especializado. Busca ressaltar, assim, a importância de pesquisas sobre a imaginação farmacêutica relacionada a esse medicamento, no que se refere à existência de discursos que destacam valores a respeito de desempenho, concentração e controle. Por fim, são apresentadas justificativas e práticas de utilização que perpassam questões acerca da normalização, tratamento e melhorias de si, bem como se problematiza a existência da categoria de aprimoramento intitulada aprimoramento circunstancial. / Based on theoretical discussions about medicalization and on Brazilian researches that point out to an increase in the consumption of the psychotropic medication commercially known as Ritalin®, the present work aims to reflect on the role accredited to this drug in the way its consumers comprehend and construct themselves, especially regarding a cultural believe in self-enhancement. The empirical data that support the presented discussion was gathered through interviews conducted with people that have used the medication, and also through an analysis of Ritalin’s® advertising material directed to an audience of specialists. Thus, it aspires to call attention to the importance of researches on pharmaceutical imagination, as regards the existence of speeches that highlight values regarding performance, concentration and control. Finally, it presents usages justifications and practices that engage issues regarding normalization, treatment and self - improvement, and at the same time it problematizes the existence of an enhancement category termed as circumstantial enhancement.

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