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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

A Study on the Blade Geometry of Turbomolecular Pumps

Kuo, Tsung-Jung 26 June 2001 (has links)
A turbomolecular pump (TMP) with good performance must have higher compress ratio and higher pumping speed. At the same time, the performance of turbomolecular pump depends on blade geometries and the rotational speed. When design the blade of Turbomolecular Pump, the blade geometries including, the blade angle, the blade spacing, the blade chord, the spacing-chord ratio, the tip diameter, the root diameter, and the number of blades and as well as the rotational speed of the rotor must be considered. In this paper the simulation for gas molecular behavior is obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Therefore, a Maxwellian distribution of particles at the inlet and outlet of the flow region and diffuse reflection for the particles that collide with the walls are assumed. Models of this type have been applied to the two-dimensional case. The most important result is to compare the performance between turbomolecular pumps with curve style and plane style of blades. Furthermore, that direct multi-stage simulation (DMS) by Monte Carlo method is used in this paper. The compression ratio multiplication (CRM) method is the improved due to the considering the change of velocity distribution of molecular at the adjacent stages. From results of the simulation, the effect upon the geometric parameters of the blades and the arrangement in the multi-stage are concluded, that are very useful in designing the turbomolecular.
2

A framework for qualitative transportation management plan assessment using cognitive task analysis methods

Nittala, Ambareesha 24 February 2015 (has links)
Increasingly, highway transportation projects are tending to involve maintenance and rehabilitation work. The age and the condition of the transportation asset, in addition to funding constraints have been the key drivers of this trend. This implies that construction operations take place in the presence of traffic flows, leading to the creation of construction work zones. This has safety implications for the commuters and construction workers alike. In addition, construction operations also hamper mobility through the work zone. Effective management of the work zone is thus very important from the perspective of construction and mobility. The preferred and mandated method to manage the impacts of the work zone is the Transportation Management Plan, which prescribes a set of coordinated strategies for the same. The strategies used in a TMP range from enforcing lane closures to modifying the construction sequencing. As the choice of particular strategies or a combination of those affects the work zone, assessing TMP strategies is important to inform future decisions. This thesis proposes a framework for the qualitative assessment of TMP strategies and TMP processes using cognitive task analysis methods. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated through two case studies of large highway reconstruction projects, involving significant bridge reconstruction. The knowledge elicitation techniques are discussed and the obtained knowledge is represented using different knowledge representation structures. The benefits and the applicability of CTA methods are explored through the case studies of projects using different contracting strategies. Finally, recommendations are made for the design of decision support tools, based on the insights obtained through the analysis. / text
3

A framework for qualitative transportation management plan assessment using cognitive task analysis methods

Nittala, Ambareesha 24 February 2015 (has links)
Increasingly, highway transportation projects are tending to involve maintenance and rehabilitation work. The age and the condition of the transportation asset, in addition to funding constraints have been the key drivers of this trend. This implies that construction operations take place in the presence of traffic flows, leading to the creation of construction work zones. This has safety implications for the commuters and construction workers alike. In addition, construction operations also hamper mobility through the work zone. Effective management of the work zone is thus very important from the perspective of construction and mobility. The preferred and mandated method to manage the impacts of the work zone is the Transportation Management Plan, which prescribes a set of coordinated strategies for the same. The strategies used in a TMP range from enforcing lane closures to modifying the construction sequencing. As the choice of particular strategies or a combination of those affects the work zone, assessing TMP strategies is important to inform future decisions. This thesis proposes a framework for the qualitative assessment of TMP strategies and TMP processes using cognitive task analysis methods. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated through two case studies of large highway reconstruction projects, involving significant bridge reconstruction. The knowledge elicitation techniques are discussed and the obtained knowledge is represented using different knowledge representation structures. The benefits and the applicability of CTA methods are explored through the case studies of projects using different contracting strategies. Finally, recommendations are made for the design of decision support tools, based on the insights obtained through the analysis. / text
4

Desenvolvimento do processo de biopolpação de eucalipto em escala piloto para produção de polpas termomecânicas e quimiotermomecânicas / Development of the eucaliptus biopulping process in a pilot scale to produce thermomechanical and chemithermomechanical pulps

Pavan, Paulo César 11 August 2008 (has links)
Na escala evolutiva dos processos de polpação de alto rendimento (PAR), a mais recente promessa é a biopolpação, ou seja, o pré-tratamento microbiológico do cavaco de madeira utilizado na polpação. Esse pré-tratamento tem o potencial de reduzir o consumo de energia necessária ao refino em até 38%, e ainda, ou consequentemente, melhorar importantes propriedades mecânicas deficientes nas PAR, como rasgo, estouro, e tração. Enorme atenção foi dispensada ao assunto nos últimos 20 anos com importantes avanços na compreensão dos mecanismos envolvidos, e ainda, com a condução de testes em escala piloto (50 ton de cavacos) por inoculação direta do fungo. Entretanto, esses testes foram conduzidos e se mostraram eficazes num clima temperado, com madeira típica da América do Norte. O presente trabalho detalha o desenvolvimento, implantação e operação de uma planta piloto para biotratamento de cavacos (inoculação e incubação) de Eucalyptus grandis, usados num processo de escala industrial de polpação termimecânica (TMP) e quimiotermomecânico (CTMP). Também estão detalhados nessa tese os esforços para se alcançar a eficácia desejada desse biotratamento. Vários testes em diferentes escalas - incluindo 40-50 ton - foram conduzidos em diferentes épocas do ano, sob as condições normalmente encontradas nos pátios de cavacos da indústria de celulose. Diferentes fungos (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora e Phanerochaete chrysosporium) e sistemas de inoculação (inoculação por aspersão e inoculação por semente) foram testados, e o escalonamento de um processo anteriormente factível apenas em nível laboratorial foi desenvolvido. Os resultados mostram que os sistemas de inoculação de C. subvermispora por aspersão com micélio suspenso em água e um auxiliar de crescimento foram sujeitos à contaminação dos cultivos por bolores primários, de ocorrência natural no ambiente de pátios de cavacos de indústrias de celulose. Por outro lado, o sistema de inoculação com cavacos pré-cultivados (inoculação por semente) mostrou-se eficaz na escala piloto, pois não esteve sujeito a ocorrência de contaminantes durante a incubação dos cavacos. Esse sistema de inoculação gerou resultados condizentes com a literatura em termos de economia de energia de refino que foram de 18% e 27% nos processos TMP e CTMP, respectivamente. No caso da inoculação por aspersão com P. chrysosporium, os cultivos não apresentaram contaminação por bolores primários, provavelmente devido à temperatura de incubação que nesse caso foi de 38 oC. Nesse experimento foi possível reduzir o consumo de energia em 18,5% no processo CTMP. Uma avaliação da viabilidade financeira do processo é apresentada e simulações de benefícios econômicos foram feitas para diferentes cenários de custo de energia elétrica e níveis de redução no consumo de energia. As simulações mostraram que benefícios econômicos da ordem de R$10/ton de polpa produzida podem ser obtidos para uma redução no consumo de energia da ordem de 20% advinda do biotratamento. Embora esperados, ganhos de propriedades mecânicas das biopolpas quando comparadas às polpas convencionais não foram observados, fato que limitou a extensão da análise econômica de considerar um processo integrado com máquina de papel na substituição de polpa kraft por polpas bio-CTMP ou bio-TMP. / In the evolution of the high yield pulping processes (HYP) biopulping have been considered the latest promise. Biopulping, defined as the microbiological pretreatment of wood chips prior to the pulping process, have the potential to reduce the refining energy consumption in 38%. Besides this benefit, or consequently, it can also enhance important mechanical properties usually poor in HYP pulps like tear, burst and tensile strength. Considerable efforts have been deposited in this issue during the last 20 years with important advances on understanding the involved mechanisms. Between these efforts trials were conducted in a pilot scale (50 ton of wood chips) by the direct spraying of the fungus. However such successful tests were conducted in a region of temperate climate, with a wood typically found in North America. The present work details the development, installation and operation of a pilot plant to biotreat (inoculation and incubation) Eucalyptus grandis wood chips used in an industrial thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermomechanical (CTMP) mill. The efforts spent to reach the desired efficacy of this biotreatment are also presented. Several trials with different scales - including 40-50 ton trials - were conducted in different seasons, under the conditions normally found in woodyards of a tropical pulp mill. Different fungi (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and different inoculation systems (by direct spraying and by seed introduction) were tested, and one of them developed at the first time in this pilot scale. The results show that when C. subvermispora was used with the direct spraying systems of the mycelium suspended in water with corn steep liquor the pile was strongly contaminated by primary molds of natural occurrence at an industrial woodyard tropical environment. On the other hand, the inoculation using pre-cultivated wood chips (seed system) was successfully conducted in pilot scale since it does not showed expressive contamination during the incubation period. The refining of the wood chips prepared by seed inoculation resulted in energy savings of 18% and 27% for the TMP and CTMP processes, respectively. By using the P. chrysosporium the pile was not contaminated by primary molds either, probably due to the higher incubation temperature, around 38 oC. The CTMP processing of the wood chips incubated in this experiment refining energy saving of 18.5% was observed. An economic evaluation of the biopulping process is presented and saving of R$10/ton was simulated for a 20% reduction in refining energy saving. The enhancement of the mechanical properties of the biopulp compared to the reference was not observed, regardless being expected. This fact limited the extension of the economical simulation, since the replacement of kraft pulp by bio-TMP or bio-CTMP is usually considered in an integrated paper mill.
5

Desenvolvimento do processo de biopolpação de eucalipto em escala piloto para produção de polpas termomecânicas e quimiotermomecânicas / Development of the eucaliptus biopulping process in a pilot scale to produce thermomechanical and chemithermomechanical pulps

Paulo César Pavan 11 August 2008 (has links)
Na escala evolutiva dos processos de polpação de alto rendimento (PAR), a mais recente promessa é a biopolpação, ou seja, o pré-tratamento microbiológico do cavaco de madeira utilizado na polpação. Esse pré-tratamento tem o potencial de reduzir o consumo de energia necessária ao refino em até 38%, e ainda, ou consequentemente, melhorar importantes propriedades mecânicas deficientes nas PAR, como rasgo, estouro, e tração. Enorme atenção foi dispensada ao assunto nos últimos 20 anos com importantes avanços na compreensão dos mecanismos envolvidos, e ainda, com a condução de testes em escala piloto (50 ton de cavacos) por inoculação direta do fungo. Entretanto, esses testes foram conduzidos e se mostraram eficazes num clima temperado, com madeira típica da América do Norte. O presente trabalho detalha o desenvolvimento, implantação e operação de uma planta piloto para biotratamento de cavacos (inoculação e incubação) de Eucalyptus grandis, usados num processo de escala industrial de polpação termimecânica (TMP) e quimiotermomecânico (CTMP). Também estão detalhados nessa tese os esforços para se alcançar a eficácia desejada desse biotratamento. Vários testes em diferentes escalas - incluindo 40-50 ton - foram conduzidos em diferentes épocas do ano, sob as condições normalmente encontradas nos pátios de cavacos da indústria de celulose. Diferentes fungos (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora e Phanerochaete chrysosporium) e sistemas de inoculação (inoculação por aspersão e inoculação por semente) foram testados, e o escalonamento de um processo anteriormente factível apenas em nível laboratorial foi desenvolvido. Os resultados mostram que os sistemas de inoculação de C. subvermispora por aspersão com micélio suspenso em água e um auxiliar de crescimento foram sujeitos à contaminação dos cultivos por bolores primários, de ocorrência natural no ambiente de pátios de cavacos de indústrias de celulose. Por outro lado, o sistema de inoculação com cavacos pré-cultivados (inoculação por semente) mostrou-se eficaz na escala piloto, pois não esteve sujeito a ocorrência de contaminantes durante a incubação dos cavacos. Esse sistema de inoculação gerou resultados condizentes com a literatura em termos de economia de energia de refino que foram de 18% e 27% nos processos TMP e CTMP, respectivamente. No caso da inoculação por aspersão com P. chrysosporium, os cultivos não apresentaram contaminação por bolores primários, provavelmente devido à temperatura de incubação que nesse caso foi de 38 oC. Nesse experimento foi possível reduzir o consumo de energia em 18,5% no processo CTMP. Uma avaliação da viabilidade financeira do processo é apresentada e simulações de benefícios econômicos foram feitas para diferentes cenários de custo de energia elétrica e níveis de redução no consumo de energia. As simulações mostraram que benefícios econômicos da ordem de R$10/ton de polpa produzida podem ser obtidos para uma redução no consumo de energia da ordem de 20% advinda do biotratamento. Embora esperados, ganhos de propriedades mecânicas das biopolpas quando comparadas às polpas convencionais não foram observados, fato que limitou a extensão da análise econômica de considerar um processo integrado com máquina de papel na substituição de polpa kraft por polpas bio-CTMP ou bio-TMP. / In the evolution of the high yield pulping processes (HYP) biopulping have been considered the latest promise. Biopulping, defined as the microbiological pretreatment of wood chips prior to the pulping process, have the potential to reduce the refining energy consumption in 38%. Besides this benefit, or consequently, it can also enhance important mechanical properties usually poor in HYP pulps like tear, burst and tensile strength. Considerable efforts have been deposited in this issue during the last 20 years with important advances on understanding the involved mechanisms. Between these efforts trials were conducted in a pilot scale (50 ton of wood chips) by the direct spraying of the fungus. However such successful tests were conducted in a region of temperate climate, with a wood typically found in North America. The present work details the development, installation and operation of a pilot plant to biotreat (inoculation and incubation) Eucalyptus grandis wood chips used in an industrial thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermomechanical (CTMP) mill. The efforts spent to reach the desired efficacy of this biotreatment are also presented. Several trials with different scales - including 40-50 ton trials - were conducted in different seasons, under the conditions normally found in woodyards of a tropical pulp mill. Different fungi (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and different inoculation systems (by direct spraying and by seed introduction) were tested, and one of them developed at the first time in this pilot scale. The results show that when C. subvermispora was used with the direct spraying systems of the mycelium suspended in water with corn steep liquor the pile was strongly contaminated by primary molds of natural occurrence at an industrial woodyard tropical environment. On the other hand, the inoculation using pre-cultivated wood chips (seed system) was successfully conducted in pilot scale since it does not showed expressive contamination during the incubation period. The refining of the wood chips prepared by seed inoculation resulted in energy savings of 18% and 27% for the TMP and CTMP processes, respectively. By using the P. chrysosporium the pile was not contaminated by primary molds either, probably due to the higher incubation temperature, around 38 oC. The CTMP processing of the wood chips incubated in this experiment refining energy saving of 18.5% was observed. An economic evaluation of the biopulping process is presented and saving of R$10/ton was simulated for a 20% reduction in refining energy saving. The enhancement of the mechanical properties of the biopulp compared to the reference was not observed, regardless being expected. This fact limited the extension of the economical simulation, since the replacement of kraft pulp by bio-TMP or bio-CTMP is usually considered in an integrated paper mill.
6

Fractionation of thermomechanical pulp in pressure screening:an experimental study on the classification of fibres with slotted screen plates

Ämmälä, A. (Ari) 01 March 2001 (has links)
Abstract Pressure screening, nowadays the most widely used method for cleaning pulp, has been traditionally investigated as a debris removal process. The aim of this thesis, however, was to study it with a view to the fractionation of pulps, examining systematically and extensively the effects of screening parameters on fractionation under actual working conditions in order to provide an insight into its possibilities and limitations as a fractionation method. The experimental work was performed with a full-scale two-stage pressure screen connected to an industrial TMP process. Fractionation of the pulp was analysed in terms of consistency, freeness, optical fibre length distribution, coarseness index and Bauer-McNett fractions. Two sampling systems were used during the screening experiments, manual and semiautomatic. The latter was assessed to be more reliable, as reflected in lower stochastic variation and the absence of a systematic bias in the mass balance errors over the screen. The poorer reliability of the manual sampling system was offset by the large number of screening tests, however. The results of the screening experiments showed that with a given design of the screen plate, the separation of each fraction was dependent almost exclusively on the mass and volumetric reject rates. The mass flow of fines, defined as the Bauer-McNett P200 fraction, was dependent mostly on the volumetric reject rate, while the mass flow of fibrous fractions (R200, R50, R30, R16) depended mostly on the mass reject rate. The mass reject rate obtained in pressure screening was a result of the choice of operating parameters, but fractionation efficiency could not be affected by using different combinations of these parameters (feed consistency, rotor tip speed and slot velocity) if the mass and volumetric reject rates were kept constant. The slot width together with the contouring of the screen plate affected the fractionation efficiency as compared with the situation at constant mass and volumetric reject rate. Increased fractionation was obtained by reducing the slot width and contouring. The pulp passage ratio, which combines the mass and volumetric reject rates into one parameter, was found to be a expedient way of expressing the fractionation of pulp, as it was possible to present fractionation uniformly as a function of this ratio. The change in freeness was found to correlate quite well with that in Bauer-McNett fractions, and it was a good indicator of fractionation efficiency in screening. Apart from fractionation according to length (or Bauer-McNett fractions), the slotted pressure screen was also found to classify the fibres according to their coarseness. The coarseness difference was partially dependent on the fibre length, but additionally the coarseness in the accept pulp for any given fibre length class was always lower than that in the reject pulp. The difference obtained seemed to depend on the passage ratio of the pulp. This thesis provides new information for the modelling of pulp quality and the design of fractionation experiments, fractionation processes and screen room control strategies.
7

Wastewater Treatment Plant Optimization: Development of Membrane Bioreactor Fouling Monitoring Tool and Prediction of Transmembrane Pressure Using Artificial Neural Networks

Algoufily, Yasser 04 1900 (has links)
The construction and operation of central wastewater treatment plants started around the 20th century. With the advent of rigorous membrane research and development in the middle of the 20th century, more and more wastewater plants started incorporating a Membrane BioReactor, MBR, in their design. The MBR system however is far from perfect. Membrane systems continuously foul, and if fouling is incurred for a long period of time, maintenance and cleaning costs will rise in proportion. A Fouling monitoring and prediction tool has been designed in MATLAB\Simulink. The model takes states related to membrane fouling, and calculates the membrane total resistance based on deterministic and stochastic models. The tool is capable of predicting future TMP cycles based on older TMP performance via an artificial neural network algorithm. TMP data have been synthetically generated from a validated mathematical model. Finally, an artificial neural network controller is implemented to control temperature and MLSS around their desired setpoints. The controller is able to minimize disturbances in both states in a narrow band around their desired setpoints.
8

Improved energy efficiency in double disc chip refining

Muhic, Dino January 2010 (has links)
The electrical energy consumption in thermomechanical pulping (TMP) is very high, in the range of 2 – 3 MWh/adt depending on process solution and on the product quality specifications for the paper product. Both pulpwood and energy prices have increased rapidly for some time. Due to this, the main focus of the research and development is on ways to reduce the electrical energy consumption in wood chip refining. As a step towards a more energy and cost ‐ effective refining process, Holmen Paper AB has invested in a new mechanical pulping process at its Braviken mill. In this case the primary refining stage consists of high consistency (HC) double disc refiners ‐ RGP68DD (machines with two counter rotating discs). Earlier studies on the refining conditions, such as intensity and temperature, have indicated that it should be possible to improve the energy efficiency in double disc refining while maintaining the functional pulp properties such as tensile index. The main goal of this project was to improve the energy efficiency in double disc chip refining with 150 kWh/adt to corresponding pulp properties as measured on pulp samples after refiner. In order to further improve the basic understanding of what happens to the wood fibre material when changing the process conditions, the morphological and ultrastructural changes of fibres were also studied. This part of the research work was performed in cooperation with the research program; Collaborative Research on the Ultrastructure of Wood Fibres (CRUW). This licentiate project is a part of a large development project where different techniques to improve the energy efficiency has been evaluated by means of mill scale trials at the Holmen Paper Braviken Mill. The high consistency double disc chip refining part of the project was financed by The Swedish Knowledge Foundation, Metso Paper and Holmen Paper, in cooperation with FSCN (Fiber Science & Communication Network) at Mid Sweden University. The trials were made on one of the TMP lines at the Holmen Paper Braviken mill with Norway spruce as raw material. The influence of increased specific      refining energy on pulp properties were studied at different refining temperatures, refining intensity, pulp consistency and production rate. Results from these trials were later validated by means of long term trials. Intensity models and simulations for intensity changes by new segment design were made by Juha‐ Pekka Huhtanen from Tampere University of Technology, Finland. The results show that the specific energy consumption to same tensile index can be improved by means of increasing the refining pressure/temperature. The energy efficiency was improved by 80     ‐150 kWh/adt depending on load and the inlet‐ and housing pressure. The largest relative specific energy efficiency improvement was reached at low specific energy consumption levels. Similar fibre surface ultrastructure characteristics are gained by pulps with high pressure/temperature and low specific energy consumption compared to low pressure/temperature and high specific energy consumption pulps. High pressure/temperature and high specific energy consumption resulted in significantly increase in the delamination/internal fibrillation of pulp fibres. The surface ultrastructure of these fibres exhibited exposed S2 layer with long ribbontype fibrillation compared to pulps produced with lower temperature and lower specific energy consumption. When the refiner was operated at high pressure, the tensile index was preserved over the whole plate life. The specific light scattering coefficient increased with increasing pressure/temperature. A reason for this could be increased intensity caused by decreased plate gap. Increased intensity by means of refiner segment design changes resulted in large specific light scattering coefficient increase at similar tensile index, lower shives content, lower average fibre length and lower CSF at same specific energy consumption. The fresh steam consumption was reduced by the increased refiner ressure/temperature. / Den höga elenergiförbrukningen vid produktion av mekanisk massa har ställtkrav på mer forskning för att elenergieffektivisera raffineringsprocessen. Som ettsteg mot en mer energi‐ och kostnadseffektiv raffineringsprocess, har HolmenPaper AB investerat i en ny tillverkning av termomekanisk (TMP) massa vidBravikens pappersbruk. Dubbeldiskraffinörerna i den nya massalinjens primäraraffineringssteget studerades i detta projekt. Det finns goda indikationer på att enminskning av energiförbrukningen är möjlig genom att studerar och optimeraraffineringparametrar såsom intensitet och temperatur. Projektets huvudmål varatt energieffektivisera det primära dubbeldiskraffineringssteget med 150 kWh/adttill motsvarande massaegenskaper, så som dragstyrka, mätt på massa efterraffinör. Tillfälle gavs också till att studera morfologiska förändringar på fibrer föratt ytterligare förstå hur massa och fibrerna påverkas av dubbeldiskraffinering ochförändringar i raffineringssystemet.Detta licentiatprojekt är en del av ett större projekt där olika tekniker för attförbättra energieffektiviteten har utvärderats i industriell skala på Holmen PaperBravikens pappersbruk. Licentiatprojektet är finansierat av KK‐stiftelsen, MetsoPaper och Holmen Paper, i samarbete med Mittuniversitetet.Fullskaleförsök gjordes på en av TMP linjerna vid Bravikens pappersbruk, därgran används som råvara. Studien utfördes på dubbeldiskraffinörerna i detprimära raffineringssteget. Malkurvor, med ökande specifik raffineringsenergi,gjordes vid olika raffineringstemperaturer, intensitet, massakoncentration ochproduktion. Resultat som erhållits från malkurvorna bekräftades med längrestudier på raffinörerna. Intensitetsmodeller och simuleringar utfördes av Juha‐Pekka Huhtanen från Tampere University of Technology.De erhållna resultaten visar på att energiförbrukningen till ett visst dragindexkan minskas genom att öka raffineringstrycket/temperaturen. Medraffineringstryck menas inlopp och hustryck i raffinören. Energibesparingen är iintervallet 80‐150 kWh/adt. Den största förbättringen kan uppnås vid lågaenergiinsatser. Massor producerade med högt tryck och temperatur och lägrespecifik energiförbrukning uppvisar liknande ultrastrukturella ytegenskaper sommassor producerade med lågt tryck och temperatur och hög specifik energi. Högttryck och temperaturer med hög specifik energiinsats gav en signifikant förbättringav delaminering/intern fibrillering av massafibrer. Dessa fibrer uppvisadebildningar av långa band‐liknande fibriller från fibrernas S2 skikt, i jämförelse medmassor tillverkade med lägre tryck och temperatur och lägre specifik energi.5Om raffineringen genomförs vid högt tryck/temperatur bevaras dragindexunder hela segmentlivslängden.Den specifika ljusspridningskoefficienten påverkades positivt av ökat tryck ochtemperatur. En orsak till detta kan vara högre intensitet som orsakas av minskadmalspalt.Ökad intensitet genom förändrad segmentdesign leder till stora ökningar i denspecifika ljusspridningskoefficienten. Samtidigt uppnås samma dragindex, lägrespethalt, lägre genomsnittlig fiberlängd och CSF vid samma specifikaenergiförbrukning.Förbrukningen av färskångan sänktes vid tillämning av högre tryck ochtemperatur i raffinören.
9

Modellering av organiskt material i avloppsvatten vid mekanisk tillverkning av pappersmassa : Regressionsanalys baserad på COD- och TOC-analyser vid olika grader av blekning och raffinering

Carlström, Johan January 2012 (has links)
I avloppsreningen på Hallsta pappersbruk i Hallstavik reduceras dagligen tonvis med organiskt material innan avloppsvattnet släpps ut i den intilliggande Edeboviken. Bruket är ett så kallat integrerat pappersbruk vilket innebär att man tillverkar både pappersmassan och pappret på plats. Det är främst vid framställningen av massa som det organiska materialet löses ut ur veden och hamnar i processvattnet som så småningom når brukets avloppsreningsverk. På bruket tillverkas papper i olika ljusheter, vilket kräver olika stora insatser i form av blekkemikalier så som väteperoxid och hydrosulfit (även känt som ditionit). Blekningen varierar över tid i produktionscykler och det är sedan tidigare känt att en ökad blekning av massan löser ut mer organiska föreningar. I framtiden förväntas andelen högblekta produkter öka, vilket sannolikt leder till ökad belastning på reningsverket. Det finns även planer på att öka andelen papper av sådan kvalitet som kräver att massan raffineras hårdare (så att den blir finare mald) och frågan har lyfts huruvida denna behandling leder till mer organiskt material till avloppet. Ökad kunskap om hur flödet av organiskt material till avloppet varierar är då detta skrivs (2012) värdefull i minst två tillämpningar på Hallsta pappersbruk. Den ena tillämpningen är vid utredningen av potentialen för en biogasanläggning på bruket, där det organiska materialet utgör en begränsande resurs vid framställningen av biogas, varför det vore värdefullt att veta hur stora mängder organiskt material som kan förväntas vid olika produktionsfall. Den andra tillämpningen är vid doseringen av kväve och fosfor i reningsanläggningen som görs för att mikroorganismerna som används för att rena vattnet ska kunna arbeta optimalt. Huvudsyftet med detta arbete var att skapa en modell för hur mängden organiskt material i olika avloppsströmmar beror på graden av blekning, samt i viss mån raffineringen. Det organiska materialet analyserades som TOC (Total Organic Carbon) och COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand). Ett tydligt samband mellan blekning med väteperoxid och mängden organiskt material i avloppet observerades i en av delströmmarna. Hydrosulfitblekning sågs inte öka mängden organiskt material i avloppsvattnet. En modell för den totala belastningen på avloppsreningsanläggning sattes också ihop, som utifrån planerad dosering av väteperoxid ger en uppskattning av halten TOC i inflödet till anläggningen. Modellen fångar upp den cykliska variation i TOC som observerades över tid, men lämnar lite att önska i fråga om absoluta nivåer.
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Application of enzymes for pre-treatment of wood chips for energy efficient thermomechanical pulping

Mårtensson, Tomas January 2012 (has links)
Thermomechanical pulping (TMP) is a highly energy intensive process where most of the energy is used in therefining of chips to fibres. Various ways of reducing the energy consumption have earlier been studied, for examplechange of refiner pattern, addition of various chemicals, and also some biochemical implementation in the form of fungus and enzymes. This study includes pre-trials with the enzymes pectin lyase and pectin esterase,multipectinase, xylanase, and mannanase. The results are studied via a reducing sugar assay, an enzymatic assayusing spectrophotometry, and capillary zone electrophoresis. The study also includes results from a pilot scalerefining with multipectinase, xylanase, and mannanase, performed with a wing refiner at Helsinki University.Reductions of energy consumption in TMP by pre-treatment of Norwegian spruce chips are investigated and apotential reduction of energy consumption of 6 % is indicated.

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