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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON THE COMMUNITY DYNAMICS OF BIOFERTILIZER MICROORGANISMS

Shannon M Calder (8801099) 06 May 2020 (has links)
Biofertilizers are broths containing beneficial microorganisms that are applied to soils to enhance crop production and soil fertility. The microbes in a biofertilizer enhance and drive natural processes such as nutrient transformation and cycling, organic matter decomposition, and gas emission. Environoc 401 manufactured by Biodyne-USA is described as an agricultural soil enhancer that is comprised of a consortium of beneficial microorganisms. Production of Environoc 401 is achieved by an incubation that begins with a concentrated lyophilized microbial consortium. The focus of this study is to try to understand the community dynamics that occur during the incubation process to help predict the proportions of individual strains and the overall metabolic activity of the microbial community in Environoc 401 under different conditions. In order to quantify individual strains in Environoc 401, species-specific primers were developed for use in quantitative-PCR. These primers were then used to quantify target strains in Environoc 401 broth stored at 22 °C and 27 °C for 1 month and sampled at time 0, 1 week, and 1 month to evaluate the effect of storage conditions on the microbial community. In general, Environoc 401 stored at 22 °C had greater substrate utilization richness compared to Environoc 401 stored at 27 °C, but only after 1 month. The microbial community within Environoc 401 stored at 27 °C after 1 month did not utilize any amines or phenolic compounds, while the communities stored at 22 °C did use these substrates. To evaluate the overall effect of Environoc 401 on plants and on the microbial activity in potting medium, the product was used in the potting soil of soybean plants grown in an environmental growth chamber. This study contained five treatments upon unifoliate emergence: a no treatment control, pesticide and chemical fertilizer, pesticide and biofertilizer (as Environoc 401), biofertilizer only, and chemical fertilizer only. Soil medium samples were collected from each treatment at the time of seed planting, 24 hrs before application, 24 hrs after application, 2 weeks after application, and 1 month after application. The soybean plants treated with Environoc 401 generally had the highest average total plant height, average number of leaves, average dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots, and the least acidic pH. Samples from both studies were also used to inoculate Biolog EcoPlates to assess changes in carbon-source utilization patterns for each condition and to generate Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPPs). Principle Component Analysis was performed on the CLPPs and diversity was also assessed using Shannon’s diversity indices for samples from both studies. The CLPPs for the storage samples clustered tightly after 1 week of storage, however, after 1 month of storage the two temperatures diverged greatly. The CLPPS for the soybean plant treatment samples clustered tightly 24 hours prior to treatment but varied greatly after treatment application. <a>These results indicate that treatment application, storage time, and temperature affect carbon utilization within the microbial communities. These results are a reflection on the activity and health of the microbial community and future studies should explore changes taking place on a finer scale by targeting specific carbon sources or conditions.</a>
2

Harvesting and utilizing beach cast on Gotland : A study of the benefits, challenges and opportunities of turning a waste into a resource / Skörd och användning av uppspolad marin biomassa på Gotland : En studie om nyttor, utmaningar och möjligheter av att omvandla ett avfall till en resurs

Dessle, Filip January 2017 (has links)
Accumulation of beach cast biomass on coastal zones around Gotland is an increasing problem that reduce the recreational value of beaches and cause environmental degradation of coastal environments. Beach cast was once regularly harvested on Gotland, as it was considered a valued biofertilizer, but as it seized to be used in combination with the eutrophication of the Baltic sea, beach cast accumulation has increased in scale. The use of beach cast as a resource for bioenergy and agriculture does not only provide important services that can replace the use of greenhouse gases and finite resources but can also mitigate eutrophication and increase the quality of coastal zones as nutrients are retrieved from the water. Macroalgae and seaweeds are hyperaccumulators of heavy metals which pose a challenge for the utilization of beach cast as a fertilizer. Especially cadmium, a heavy metal that is harmful for human consumption, is strictly regulated and limits the amount of beach cast that can be used for agriculture. This thesis has analysed the potential benefit of beach cast harvesting and three potential utilization strategies of beach cast; fertilizer to food crops, fertilizer to fast growing energy forest (Salix) and biogas production with digestate utilization. The result indicate that all strategies are possible and viable utilization strategies under certain conditions. Because of the complex and site specific factors that affect beach cast utilization, adapting strategies depending on the conditions and needs of the local coastal zones is required. Cadmium uptake is affected by a range of factors that can be controlled so that beach cast can provide nutrients and improve soil structure without contaminating the soil. Especially promising is the prospect of fertilizing Salix with beach cast as the cadmium absorption and growth rate of Salix enables large amounts of beach cast to be spread without risk for it accumulating in the soil. The cadmium contained within the Salix can later be removed from the environment entirely as it is collected from the ash when Salix is converted to bioenergy. Recent studies also indicate that food crops can be safely fertilized with beach cast without cadmium being transferred if specific crops are chosen. Cadmium uptake to crops can also be limited if specific beach cast with low cadmium content are used and if the beach cast is pre-composted with other substrates. Both for Salix and food crops its instead legal restraints on cadmium spreading that limits the use of beach cast. When abiding by the set cadmium restrictions, beach cast can only marginally supply the macronutrient requirement of the average food crop on Gotland. Biogas production and digestate utilization from beach cast provides many environmental benefits as clean renewable energy is generated that can replace fossil fuels and the nutrients contained in the digestate can be spread on arable land. From the conducted energy balance of the system on Gotland it was found that beach cast has theoretically good conditions to ferment beach cast. However, beach cast isn’t practically viable on Gotland because the substrate can’t compete financially with other available substrates and it requires costly pre-treatments. Regardless of which beach cast utilization strategy chosen, harvesting is concluded to have a positive effect on mitigating coastal eutrophication and beach and water quality. Although it cannot on its own mitigate a net nutrient loading to coastal zones in Gotland, harvesting easily available beach cast can reduce the nutrient loading to coastal zones on Gotland with up to 27 % and 4,5 % phosphorus and nitrogen respectively.
3

Biofertilizante na produção do capim Cynodon dactylon cv. Tierra Verde: Amanda de Castro Correia. -

Correia, Amanda de Castro [UNESP] 14 October 2011 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:27:18Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2011-10-14Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:56:08Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 correia_ac_me_araca.pdf: 344579 bytes, checksum: 0f954ba0a1db857e840c7ba7a8a57821 (MD5) / Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de matéria seca (MS), da parte aérea e raízes do capim Tierra Verde e os atributos químicos do solo e da parte aérea submetida à adubação com biofertilizante orgânico, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal da UNESP, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Campus de Araçatuba-SP, de janeiro a setembro de 2010. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, adubados com seis doses de biofertilizante (0, 33, 66, 132, 264, 528 m 3 ha -1 ) e com cinco repetições durante três cortes. Utilizou-se o modelo de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, sendo as doses de biofertilizante consideradas como tratamentos principais e os cortes como sub-parcelas. Foi observado aumento na produção de MS da parte aérea e raízes a partir das doses de 66 até 528 m 3 ha -1 de N. A adubação nitrogenada influenciou nos atributos químicos do solo nos teores da matéria orgânica, enxofre, boro e manganês. A adubação nitrogenada influenciou a composição química do capim Tierra Verde, nos teores foliares de fósforo, potássio e cobre. Os teores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido não foram alterados pela influência das doses de biofertilizante orgânico aplicado ao solo / In order to evaluate the production of dry matter (DM) of shoots and roots of grass Tierra Verde and chemical attributes of soil and subjected to aerial fertilization with organic biofertilizer, an experiment was performed in house vegetation Support Department, Animal Production and Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, UNESP, Araçatuba-SP, from January to September 2010. The treatments were arranged in completely randomized design with six fertilized biofertilizer doses (0, 33, 66, 132, 264, 528 m 3 /ha) and five repetitions for three cuts. We used the model split plot in time, and the doses of biofertilizers considered as main treatments and cuts as sub-plots. We observed increase in DM yield of shoots and roots from the doses of 66 to 528 m 3 /ha of N. Nitrogen fertilization influenced the soil chemical properties in the levels of organic matter, sulfur, boron and manganese. Nitrogen fertilization influenced the chemical composition of grass Tierra Verde in foliar concentrations of phosphorus, potassium and copper. The crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were not affected by the influence of the organic biofertilizer doses applied to the soil
4

Avaliação técnica e econômica de um biodigestor de fluxo tubular: estudo de caso do modelo implantado na etec "orlando quagliato" em Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, SP / Technical and economic evaluation of a tubular continuous flow biodigestor: model case study built at etec "orlando quagliato" in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo State, Brazil

Silva, José Eder Pereira [UNESP] 24 March 2016 (has links)
Submitted by JOSE EDER PEREIRA DA SILVA null (eder.jeps@terra.com.br) on 2016-05-21T00:05:06Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Dissertação_José_Ede_P_Silva_com_ficha (1).pdf: 2003164 bytes, checksum: d776b0516852a32e5763381a780cbe16 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Felipe Augusto Arakaki (arakaki@reitoria.unesp.br) on 2016-05-24T12:16:24Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 silva_jep_me_bot.pdf: 2003164 bytes, checksum: d776b0516852a32e5763381a780cbe16 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-05-24T12:16:24Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 silva_jep_me_bot.pdf: 2003164 bytes, checksum: d776b0516852a32e5763381a780cbe16 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2016-03-24 / Tendo em vista os problemas ambientais relativos as contaminações do solo e da agua oriundas dos dejetos produzidos em propriedades rurais, objetivou-se avaliar economicamente um biodigestor de fluxo contínuo, instalado na Escola Técnica Estadual “Orlando Quagliato”, situada no município de Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo-SP, bem como o processo de biodigestão anaeróbia e consequente produção de biofertilizante e biogás, oriundos dos dejetos de suínos e humanos. Os dejetos foram provenientes da suinocultura, que conta com 15 matrizes totalizando 148 animais, e dejetos humanos referente aos blocos de alojamentos para 200 alunos residentes, os quais diariamente são enviados para o biodigestor. O biodigestor em questão foi instalado com intuito de diminuir a contaminação do meio ambiente, produzir biogás e biofertilizante para utilização nos projetos produtivos da própria instituição escolar. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas do biofertilizante com a finalidade de avaliar a sua qualidade, no que tange a composição química e presença de microorganismos patogênicos para definição de sua utilização na agricultura. Considerando a produção de dejetos, realizou-se estimativa da produção de biogás, objetivando o potencial das receitas do processo. Foram analisados os custos de implantação, manutenção e depreciação. Os benefícios anuais foram dados pelo valor econômico dos nutrientes presentes no biofertilizante e pela produção de biogás estimada. Também foram estimados indicadores de viabilidade econômica, como Valor Presente Líquido (VPL), Taxa Interna de Retorno (TIR), PayBack (PB) e Ponto de Equilíbrio, utilizando uma taxa de desconto de 10,38% a.a. O investimento inicial para implantação atualizado foi de R$ 184.601,84 e os custos anuais do sistema foram de R$ 1.218,12 com manutenção e R$ 18.460,00 com depreciação. O benefício obtido com o emprego do biofertilizante foi de R$ 6.267,05.ano-1 e com produção de biogás equivalente estimada em R$ 24.594,86.ano-1, totalizando uma receita de R$ 30.861,91, expondo benefícios superiores aos custos anuais. Ficou evidenciado que tanto o biogás quanto o biofertilizante não são aproveitados plenamente, demonstrando ainda que o projeto foi superdimensionado na sua implantação considerando o plantel de suínos existentes, embora existam perspectivas para aumento do setor suinícola. / In view of the environmental problems of soil contamination to and from the water coming from the waste produced in farms aimed to economically evaluate a continuous flow digester, installed in the State Technical School "Orlando Quagliato", located in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo-SP, as well as the process of anaerobic digestion and consequent production of bio-fertilizer and biogas, derived from pig manure and human. The waste came from pig farming, which has 15 arrays totaling 148 animals, and human waste relating to the accommodation blocks for 200 resident students, who every day are sent to the digester. The biodigester in question was installed in order to reduce contamination of the environment, produce biogas and biofertilizers for use in productive projects of their own educational institution. physico-chemical and microbiological analyzes of biofertilizers were conducted in order to assess their quality, with respect to chemical composition and the presence of pathogenic microorganisms to define its use in agriculture. Considering the production of waste, there was estimated biogas production, aiming the potential revenue in the process. deployment costs, maintenance and depreciation were analyzed. The annual benefits were given the economic value of the nutrients present in biofertilizers and the estimated biogas production. Were also estimated economic viability indicators, such as net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), Payback (PB) and Balance, using a discount rate of 10.38% p.a. The initial investment was estimated at R$ 184,601.84 and the system annual costs were R$ 1.218,12 with maintenance and R$ 18.460,00 with depreciation. The benefit obtained by biofertilizer use was R$ 6.267,05.ano-1 and biogas production equivalent around R$ 24.594,86.ano-1, totaling a revenue of R$ 30.861,91, exhibiting superior benefits annual costs. This study revealed that as much biogas as biofertilizers are not used fully, further demonstrating that the project was oversized in its implementation, considering the amount of existing animals, although there are prospects for increased this sector.
5

Estudo comparativo de respostas da banana Ãs aplicaÃÃes de fertilizante mineral e biofertilizante na Chapada do Apodi - CE / Comparative study on the responses of the banana to mineral fertilizer and biofertilizer applications

Josà Wilson Gomes dos Santos 29 November 2011 (has links)
Banco do Nordeste do Brasil / Os biofertilizantes lÃquidos vÃm sendo utilizados com relativo sucesso na recuperaÃÃo de bananais que apresentam baixa produtividade, apÃs longo tempo de cultivo. Essa Ãrea ainda carece de estudos, porque sÃo poucas as informaÃÃes existentes relacionadas a tratos culturais que visem ao aumento da vida Ãtil do bananeiral. O objetivo deste trabalho foi fazer um estudo comparativo em Ãreas de bananais degradados que receberam aplicaÃÃo do biofertilizante por um perÃodo de 2 e 5 anos e Ãrea onde a cultura nÃo recebeu esse tipo de aplicaÃÃo. Foram avaliados os efeitos do tempo de aplicaÃÃo sobre as caracterÃsticas quÃmicas do solo, medidas biomÃtricas da planta (altura, nÃmero, comprimento e largura das folhas), produÃÃo de matÃria seca, extraÃÃo e exportaÃÃo de N, P e K pela touceira (planta mÃe, filha e neta) e o aporte de resÃduos vegetais ao solo. Os estudos foram realizados nas Fazendas Frutacor Ltda e Damami na chapada do Apodi municÃpio de QuixerÃ-CE, onde trÃs Ãreas foram selecionadas em bananais de produÃÃo comercial: 1- uma Ãrea controle (AC) irrigada com Ãgua de canal e utilizando-se somente adubaÃÃo mineral; 2- uma Ãrea com 2 anos de aplicaÃÃo do biofertilizante mais adubaÃÃo mineral (A2) e irrigada com Ãgua de poÃo e 3- outra Ãrea com 5 anos de aplicaÃÃo do biofertilizante mais adubaÃÃo mineral (A5) tambÃm irrigada com Ãgua de poÃo. Todas essas Ãreas eram cultivadas com bananeira da cultivar Pacovan com 13 anos de cultivo, plantadas em fileira dupla e densidade de 1400 plantas por hectare. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com trÃs repetiÃÃes. O biofertilizante aumentou os teores de matÃria orgÃnica, K e Ca trocÃveis nas trÃs profundidades do solo. Os nÃveis de P extraÃvel e Mg trocÃvel foram superiores somente na camada superficial. O biofertilizante e a Ãgua da irrigaÃÃo de poÃo aumentaram o pH, a CE e o Na do solo. As plantas que receberam aplicaÃÃo do biofertilizante foram mais altas, com maior peso e n de folhas. A Ãrea A5 que recebeu mais tempo de aplicaÃÃo do biofertilizante apresentou maior produtividade, acumulou 20% mais matÃria seca que a Ãrea controle, extraiu mais N, P e K do solo, exportou mais nutrientes atravÃs da colheita e aportou maior quantidade de resÃduos vegetais ao solo. O sistema de manejo e adubaÃÃo influenciou no desenvolvimento e produÃÃo da bananeira, contribuindo na recuperaÃÃo de bananais degradados. Palavras-Chave: Bananeira; Biofertilizante; ExtraÃÃo de Nutrientes. / The liquid biofertilizers have been used with relative success in the recovery of banana plantations that have low productivity due to long time of cultivation. The area of the present study needs further investigations because there is little information available related to the cultural practices that could increase the time of the crop yield. The objective of the present study was to compare the areas of degraded banana plantations that received application of fertilizer for a period of 2 e 5 years with the areas where the crop did not receive fertilizer application. It was studied the effects of time of application on soil chemical characteristics, biometric measurements of the plant (height, number, length and width of leaves), dry matter production, extraction and export of N, P and K by the plants ( the mother, the daughter and the granddaughter banana plants) and amount of incorporated of plant residues into the soil. The studies were conducted in the localities of Frutacor. and Damami Farms Ltd at the Apodi plateau (county of QuixerÃ-CE, Brazil), where three areas were selected with commercial production of banana. The areas were: 1) - a control area (CA) irrigated with river water and using only mineral fertilizer; 2) - an area that received biofertilizer applications during two years plus mineral fertilization (A2) and being irrigated with well water; and 3) - another area that received 5 years of biofertilizer application plus mineral fertilization (A5) also irrigated with well water. All these areas were planted with banana Pacovan for 13 consecutive years of cultivation following a planting spacing with double rows and density of 1400 plants per hectare. The experimental design was a completely randomized blocks with three replications. The biofertilizer application increased the content of organic matter, exchangeable Ca and K contents in the three soil depths. The levels of extractable P and exchangeable Mg contents were higher only at the surface layer. The irrigation with well water and application of biofertilizer increased soil pH, soil EC and soil Na. Plants that received application of biofertilizer were higher, with both greater weight and number of leaves. The A5 area that has received the application of biofertilizer for more time showed higher productivity, accumulated 20% more dry matter than the control area, extracted more N, P and K from soil, exported more nutrients through harvesting and deposited larger amounts or plant residues on the soil. Key words: Banana; Biofertilizer; Extraction of Nutrients.
6

Estudo comparativo da produ??o de abacaxi em manejo org?nico versus manejo convencional / Comparative study of pineapple production organic management versus conventional management

BRITO, Raimundo Filho Freire de 24 April 2017 (has links)
Submitted by Jorge Silva (jorgelmsilva@ufrrj.br) on 2018-09-25T18:43:14Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2017 - Raimundo Filho Freire de Brito.pdf: 2031633 bytes, checksum: 962c3fdf9a60155a161e8d2d14cccf3a (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2018-09-25T18:43:14Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2017 - Raimundo Filho Freire de Brito.pdf: 2031633 bytes, checksum: 962c3fdf9a60155a161e8d2d14cccf3a (MD5) Previous issue date: 2017-04-24 / Pineapple farming has economic and social importance for the generation of employment and income. The indicators of organic pineapple production are basically non-existent. The objective of this work was to generate basic indicators on the effect of aerobic biofertilizer on the production and control of fusariosis in pineapple Ananas comosus cv. P?rola in an organic system comparing the results, from the nutritional point of view, with conventional fertilizers used. The experiment was installed in Miracema do Tocantins / TO in randomized blocks with four replicates, five treatments (4 doses of biofertilizer, control). The treatments are: (T1) biofertilizer applications every 7 days, (T2) biofertilizer applications every 14 days, (T3) biofertilizer applications every 21 days, (T4) biofertilizer application every 28 days and (T5) ) The control with conventional fertilization without biofertilizer. The variables evaluated were: Total Mass of Plants, Stem Mass, Puppy Mass, D Leaf Mass, Length and stem diameter, Peduncle and mute length, Number of Live Sheets, Number of pups, Length and Width of leaf D, Number of seedlings, vegetative and reproductive phases, in the percentage of plants with natural floral induction, fruit mass, crown mass, crown length, fruit length and diameter, number of fruit and soluble solids content. From the results obtained, the length of leaf D presented in the treatments and control values greater than 100 cm, not being influenced by the treatments, as well as the weight of leaf D, which presented average weight in the treatments of 82 g. Treatment T1 provided greater accumulation of fresh stem mass with 0.401 kg, but did not differ from T2 treatment with 0.332 kg, however, only application of the biofertilizer every seven days exceeded the Control treatment, with conventional fertilization. From the results obtained, the length of leaf D presented in the treatments and control values greater than 100 cm, not being influenced by the treatments, as well as the weight of leaf D, which presented average weight in the treatments of 82 g. Treatment T1 provided greater accumulation of fresh stem mass with 0.401 kg, but did not differ from T2 treatment with 0.332 kg, however, only application of the biofertilizer every seven days exceeded the Control treatment, with conventional fertilization. It is possible to conclude that the nutrient supply, in the vegetative phase of the pineapple, can be realized by the aerobic biofertilizer instead of the industrial soluble fertilizers; The length and mass of the leaf D, at the moment of the Artificial Floral Induction in organic cultivation, were superior to 100 cm and 80 g; The index of the weight / width ratio of the leaf D can be indicator for the accomplishment of the treatment of artificial floral induction in organic cultivation to obtain fruit of 1,2 kg or more; The weight of the fruit in organic cultivation was over 1.2 kg. / A abacaxicultura possui import?ncia econ?mica e social pela gera??o de emprego e renda. Os indicadores de produ??o do abacaxi em sistema org?nico s?o basicamente inexistentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi gerar indicadores b?sicos sobre o efeito do biofertilizante aer?bico na produ??o e controle da fusariose no abacaxizeiro Ananas comosus cv. P?rola em sistema org?nico comparando os resultados, no ponto de vista nutricional, com aduba??es convencionais utilizadas. O experimento foi instalado em Miracema do Tocantins/TO em blocos casualizados com quatro repeti??es, sendo cinco tratamentos (4 doses de biofertilizante, controle). Os tratamentos s?o: (T1) aplica??es do biofertilizante a cada 7 dias, (T2) aplica??es do biofertilizante a cada 14 dias, (T3) aplica??es de biofertilizante a cada 21 dias, (T4) aplica??o do biofertilizante a cada 28 dias e (T5) o controle com aduba??o convencional sem biofertilizante. As vari?veis avaliadas foram: Massa Total das Plantas, Massa do caule, Massa da muda filhote, Massa da Folha D, Comprimento e di?metro do caule, Comprimento do ped?nculo e da muda filhote, N?mero de Folhas Vivas, N?mero de mudas filhote, Comprimento e largura da folha D, N?mero de muda rebent?o, Sintomas da fusariose na fase vegetativa e reprodutiva, no percentual de plantas com indu??o floral natural, Massa do fruto, Massa da coroa, Comprimento da coroa, Comprimento e di?metro do fruto, N?mero de frutilhos e Teor de s?lidos sol?veis. Pelos resultados obtidos, o comprimento da folha D apresentou nos tratamentos e controle valores superiores a 100 cm, n?o sendo influenciado pelos tratamentos, assim como o peso da folha D, que apresentou peso m?dio nos tratamentos de 82g. O tratamento T1 proporcionou maior ac?mulo de massa fresca do caule com 0,401 kg, mas n?o se diferenciou do tratamento T2 com 0,332 kg, no entanto, somente aplica??o do biofertilizante a cada sete dias superou o tratamento Controle, com aduba??o convencional. Os resultados mostram n?o haver diferen?a significativa para os valores da Massa do Fruto entre os tratamentos, sendo que todos os tratamentos com biofertilizante apresentaram valores superiores ao convencional. A baixa incid?ncia da doen?a, nas condi??es avaliadas e de padr?o aleat?rio entre os tratamentos, evidencia que doen?a, muito ocorrente na regi?o, n?o afetou os tratamentos. A rela??o entre o ?ndice: peso da folha D/Largura da folha D com o peso do fruto ? positiva e linear e, portanto, o valor para este ?ndice m?nimo de 11,7 pode-se estimar frutos com peso igual ou acima de 1,2Kg. ? poss?vel concluir que o fornecimento de nutrientes, na fase vegetativa do abacaxizeiro, pode ser realizado pelo biofertilizante aer?bio em substitui??o aos fertilizantes sol?veis industriais; o comprimento e massa da folha D, no momento da Indu??o Floral Artificial em cultivo org?nico, foram superiores a 100 cm e 80 g; o ?ndice da rela??o massa/largura da folha D pode ser indicador para realiza??o do tratamento da indu??o floral artificial em cultivo org?nico para a obten??o de frutos igual ou superior a 1,2 kg; o peso do fruto em cultivo org?nico foi superior a 1,2 kg.
7

Growth Of Agriculturally Important Pseudomonas Spp. And Azotobacter Chroococcum On Beer Waste And Observation Of Their Survival In Peat

Abat, Benek 01 September 2006 (has links) (PDF)
In this study agriculturally important Pseudomonas spp. which may solubilize phosphate and Azotobacter chroococcum which can fix atmospheric nitrogen were grown on waste beer with 4 different concentrations and conditions for best growth were determined. Having potential of use as biofertilizers, they were put in the carrier material peat and survivals of them were observed for 3 months at three different temperatures. Biofertilizer can be defined as a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seed, plant surface, or soil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by replacing soil nutrients or making nutrients more available or increasing plant access to nutrients. In order to benefit from the biofertilizers, viable and active microorganisms in high numbers must be present which requires high quality inoculants. The carrier substrate is a critical part of the product formulation and must be capable of supporting high numbers of the intended microbe(s). It was found that Pseudomonas spp. can solubilize phosphate. Furthermore, conditions for best growth for both bacteria were determined as 30 % of waste beer. Peat was found as an appropriate carrier due to preservation of viable cells for 3 months at 0 &ordm / C, 20 &ordm / C and 30 &ordm / C. However, peat couldn&rsquo / t support high numbers of Pseudomonas spp. at 30 &ordm / C.
8

Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu adubada com água residuária de suinocultura

Serafim, Renata Soares [UNESP] 12 July 2010 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:33:39Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2010-07-12Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T19:44:35Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 serafim_rs_dr_jabo.pdf: 486435 bytes, checksum: 6c363e092a0ef3c41e066dbc9bdc61b8 (MD5) / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes doses de água residuária de suinocultura na produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, no período de 12 de fevereiro de 2008 a 29 de abril de 2009. Os tratamentos consistiram de: tratamento 1 = testemunha (0 m³ de água residuária de suinocultura ha-1); tratamento 2 = 100 m³ ha-1; tratamento 3 = 200 m³ ha-1; tratamento 4 = 300 m³ ha-1 e tratamento 5 = 600 m³ ha-1. As adubações foram divididas em oito aplicações, a cada 60 dias e o corte da forragem realizou-se quando a mesma atingia altura de 30 cm. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo. As médias foram comparadas pelo programa “SISVAR” e o teste utilizado foi o de Tukey. O experimento consistiu na avaliação do terceiro ano da aplicação de água residuária de suinocultura na Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, e iniciou-se em fevereiro de 2008 com o corte de uniformização das parcelas e a primeira aplicação de água residuária de suinocultura. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: produção de massa seca (kg MS ha-1), forragem acumulada (kg MS ha-1 ano-1), taxa de acúmulo de forragem (kg MS ha-1 dia-1), teores médios de massa seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, hemicelulose, cálcio, fósforo, magnésio e potássio. Foram observadas interações entre as doses de água residuária de suinocultura e os cortes em todos os parâmetros avaliados. Quanto à produção de massa seca, as doses de 300 e 600 m³ apresentaram os maiores valores e diferiram-se das demais (P<0,05). A taxa de acúmulo de forragem foi influenciada pela produção de forragem acumulada, e apresentou o mesmo comportamento, sendo superior nas doses de 300 e 600 m³... / In the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different quantities of swine wastewater in the production and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, from February 12, 2008 to April 29, 2009. The treatments were: treatment 1 = control (0 m³ of swine wastewater ha-1); treatment 2 = 100 m³ ha-1; treatment 3 = 200 m³ ha-1; treatment 4 = 300 m³ ha-1 and treatment 5 = 600 m³ ha-1. Fertilization was divided into eight applications every 60 days and cut the grass held up when it reached a height of 30 cm. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications and five treatments in a split plot in time. Means were compared by SISVAR and the test used was Tukey. The experiment consisted in evaluating the third year of application of swine wastewaster in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, and began in February 2008 with the unification of cutting portions and the first swine wastewater application. The parameters evaluated were: dry matter production (kg DM ha-1), accumulated forage (kg DM ha-1 yr-1), rate of forage accumulation (kg DM ha-1 day-1), mean levels dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and hemicellulose, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium. Interactions were observed between the levels of swine wastewater and cuts across all parameters. The production of dry weight, the quantities of 300 and 600 m³ showed the highest values and differed from the others (P <0.05). The rate of forage accumulation was influenced by forage production and accumulated had the same pattern, with higher quantities of 300 and 600 m³. The average content of crude protein were higher (P <0.05) at quantities of 300 and 600 m³ when compared to the control, indicating proportional increase in function of quantities. The lowest NDF and ADF were obtained with the application of the highest dose of swine wastewater... (Complete abstract click electronic access below)
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Produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu adubada com água residuária de suinocultura /

Serafim, Renata Soares. January 2010 (has links)
Orientador: João Antonio Galbiatti / Banca: Jorge de Lucas Junior / Banca: Leonardo de Oliveira Fernandes / Banca: Luís César Drumond / Banca: Rouverson Pereira da Silva / Resumo: No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes doses de água residuária de suinocultura na produção e composição química da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, no período de 12 de fevereiro de 2008 a 29 de abril de 2009. Os tratamentos consistiram de: tratamento 1 = testemunha (0 m³ de água residuária de suinocultura ha-1); tratamento 2 = 100 m³ ha-1; tratamento 3 = 200 m³ ha-1; tratamento 4 = 300 m³ ha-1 e tratamento 5 = 600 m³ ha-1. As adubações foram divididas em oito aplicações, a cada 60 dias e o corte da forragem realizou-se quando a mesma atingia altura de 30 cm. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo. As médias foram comparadas pelo programa "SISVAR" e o teste utilizado foi o de Tukey. O experimento consistiu na avaliação do terceiro ano da aplicação de água residuária de suinocultura na Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, e iniciou-se em fevereiro de 2008 com o corte de uniformização das parcelas e a primeira aplicação de água residuária de suinocultura. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: produção de massa seca (kg MS ha-1), forragem acumulada (kg MS ha-1 ano-1), taxa de acúmulo de forragem (kg MS ha-1 dia-1), teores médios de massa seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, hemicelulose, cálcio, fósforo, magnésio e potássio. Foram observadas interações entre as doses de água residuária de suinocultura e os cortes em todos os parâmetros avaliados. Quanto à produção de massa seca, as doses de 300 e 600 m³ apresentaram os maiores valores e diferiram-se das demais (P<0,05). A taxa de acúmulo de forragem foi influenciada pela produção de forragem acumulada, e apresentou o mesmo comportamento, sendo superior nas doses de 300 e 600 m³ ...(Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: In the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different quantities of swine wastewater in the production and chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, from February 12, 2008 to April 29, 2009. The treatments were: treatment 1 = control (0 m³ of swine wastewater ha-1); treatment 2 = 100 m³ ha-1; treatment 3 = 200 m³ ha-1; treatment 4 = 300 m³ ha-1 and treatment 5 = 600 m³ ha-1. Fertilization was divided into eight applications every 60 days and cut the grass held up when it reached a height of 30 cm. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications and five treatments in a split plot in time. Means were compared by "SISVAR" and the test used was Tukey. The experiment consisted in evaluating the third year of application of swine wastewaster in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, and began in February 2008 with the unification of cutting portions and the first swine wastewater application. The parameters evaluated were: dry matter production (kg DM ha-1), accumulated forage (kg DM ha-1 yr-1), rate of forage accumulation (kg DM ha-1 day-1), mean levels dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and hemicellulose, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium. Interactions were observed between the levels of swine wastewater and cuts across all parameters. The production of dry weight, the quantities of 300 and 600 m³ showed the highest values and differed from the others (P <0.05). The rate of forage accumulation was influenced by forage production and accumulated had the same pattern, with higher quantities of 300 and 600 m³. The average content of crude protein were higher (P <0.05) at quantities of 300 and 600 m³ when compared to the control, indicating proportional increase in function of quantities. The lowest NDF and ADF were obtained with the application of the highest dose of swine wastewater... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Doutor
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Sustainability Assessment for Small Scale Biogas in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

Naihma, Dintani Yudhitya Noorzakiah January 2017 (has links)
The study evaluates sustainability aspects of small scale biogas production in Yogyakarta Province of Indonesia. Growing number of livestock (i.e. cows, sheep, chicken, pigs, and other domestic animals) in the region brings opportunity to produce biogas from livestock manure, leading to improve energy security especially in household, while contributing to renewable energy target which is 31% from Total Primary Energy Demand (TPES) in all sectors by 2050. Biogas potential from cattle, horse, buffalo, pig, sheep, goat, chicken and duck which own by household in all regencies within the province of Yogyakarta (i.e. Bantul, Gunung Kidul, Kulon Progo, Sleman, and City of Yogyakarta) are calculated. Biogas digesters types and options for biogas utilization are evaluated by set of indicators in terms of technical, economic and environmental dimensions. Performance of the four types of digesters (i.e. fixed dome, floating drum, polyethylene tubular and concrete tubular digester) are examined based on the dimensions. For digester assessment, the dimensions are divided into several indicators, such as the lifetime, process efficiency, capital cost, operation and maintenance cost, feed-to-water ratio. The assessment would ensure that installation of biogas have optimum technical performance, attractive investment for the owner, and does not exploit too much natural resources. Equal weighted sum method is used to compare the digesters performance. The second assessment is to evaluate options for off-grid electricity use and cooking based on several indicators which are levelized cost of energy (LCOE), Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-to-Cost Ratio (BCR), Payback period and emissions saving. The production of biofertilizer, which is not part of the current system, is taken into account for additional income for biodigester’s user. The study estimates 1,211.35 TJ/year of biogas energy can be produced from livestock manure or equals to 44.72% of the total energy consumption in the household sector in Yogyakarta province in 2013. Gunung Kidul Regency has the most potential biogas from livestock, followed by Kulon Progo, Sleman, Bantul, then City of Yogyakarta. Utilization of biogas for household cooking could reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the province up to 1,260.66 MtCO2e per year while biogas for electricity reduce 1,562.144 3   MtCO2e annually. The fixed dome digester obtains the highest score in the most of indicators assessed. For biogas utilization, biogas for cooking shows better performance in economic and environmental aspects. Biogas for cooking requires lower capital cost (US$ 850 less) and get higher NPV (US$ 2,000 more) than biogas for electricity. Yet, biogas for electricity save 301.48 MtCO2e more GHG emission than biogas for cooking. From digester and biogas utilization assessments, household biogas in Yogyakarta has been used the sustainable option for digester, which is fixed dome digester, and biogas utilization, which is biogas for cooking. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is done to know parameters that affect NPV for biogas for cooking and biogas for electricity. Biogas yields, fertilizer price, and LPG price are shown as the top three parameters that affect NPV for biogas for cooking utilization. While for biogas for electricity, the affecting parameter are electricity price, biogas yields, fertilizer price, and generator efficiency. From the sensitivity analysis, several recommendations were developed to maximize the current project. The recommendations are improvement of biogas stove efficiency, recommendation for biogas installation system, creating market demand for biogas by diminishing LPG subsidy, suggestion for progress monitoring and institutional recommendation for the program. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource done several monitoring to check whether the digester is still operating. However, there is no follow-up action for digester that is not operating anymore. On the other hand, Yayasan Rumah Energi (YRE), the main provider of biogas installation and service in Yogyakarta Province, conduct annual user survey. This survey focuses on satisfaction level of digester’s user after installation. Investigation regarding the impact of biogas project, such as energy shift from LPG to biogas and digestate utilization, is missing. Besides biogas for cooking, there are opportunity to develop biogas for electricity since several regencies in Yogyakarta does not have 100% electrification ratio, such as Gunung Kidul (82%) and City of Yogyakarta (69%). Due to available biogas potential, development of biogas for electricity in Gunung Kidul is more promising than in City of Yogyakarta. Additionally, research of biogas in Indonesia should be integrated with industries and private sector. For instance, by mass production of low cost generator which had been developed by Indonesian Institute for Sciences (LIPI) and by developing mini grid installation for biogas.

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