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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
51

The bacterial diversity in a KaoPing River constructed wetland for wastewater treatment

Cheng, Shu-Hsun 14 July 2008 (has links)
Constructed wetlands had been used for water treatment worldwide. The efficiency of wastewater treatment in a constructed wetland depends on its design, types of aquatic plants and microbial community present in this wetland. The goal of this study is to analyze the microbial populations in KaoPing River Rail Bridge constructed wetland which was designed to remove the polluted material from municipal sewage and industrial wastewater. Sediment and water samples were collected every 3 months from April, 2007 to April, 2008. The bacterial community diversities were analyzed by PCR-DGGE of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Results show approximately 60% BOD, 41% COD, 46% nitrate, 22% total nitrogen, and 97% coliforms were removed by this wetland system. DGGE profiles revealed the bacterial community diversities shifted progressively from the entry to the exit of both A and B systems in this wetland. The microbial populations in water, sediment, biofilms on plants, and soil were quite different from each others. The fecal indicator Escherichia coli was used as a marker to monitor the fecal contamination in all samples. From PCR-DGGE profiles, E. coli could be successfully removed by this wetland system. In conclusion, this constructed wetland is a very successful system for wastewater treatment and is able to remove most of the pollutants before they are discharged into KaoPing River. The results of this study provided useful suggestions for the government to assess the bacterial diversities and the efficiency of this wetland system, to protect people from hazardous risks, and to manage a constructed wetland in the future.
52

Phosphorus retention in a constructed wetland - the role of sediment accretion

Johannesson, Karin January 2008 (has links)
<p> </p><div><table style="height: 340px;" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="639" align="left"><tbody><tr><td style="padding: 0cm 7.1pt;" height="289" align="left" valign="top"><div style="border: 1pt solid windowtext; padding: 1pt;"><p class="MsoNormal" style="border: medium none; padding: 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;" lang="EN-GB">A low-loaded constructed wetland was investigated with respect to phosphorus retention. Since the main long-term phosphorus retention mechanism is sedimentation and sediment accretion, the study focused on these processes. The purpose of the study was 1) to investigate how the calculated value of phosphorus retention (P<sub>in</sub> – P<sub>out</sub>), corresponded with the measured amount of phosphorus in the sediment, 2) to find out where in the wetland the phosphorus had accumulated, and in what form it was retained, and 3) to investigate the role of vegetation. The calculated value was 12 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and the measured value was 104 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, which indicated the importance of internal phosphorus circulation, where plants probably take phosphorus from the underlying clay. Hence, vegetation could possibly increase the total phosphorus content in the wetland. The composition of phosphorus in the sediment was analysed using sequential fractionation. The dominating form of phosphorus in the sediment was iron-bound phosphorus (29 %). In total, 48 % of the phosphorus was stable, i.e. tightly bound in the sediment, and 35 % was relatively stable. The bioavailable fraction, which could cause eutrophication in downstream waters, was 17 % of the total phosphorus content, or 41 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The amount of total phosphorus was significantly higher near the inlet, compared to the outlet, which is explained by rapid sedimentation of particulate phosphorus entering the wetland. The phosphorus amount near the inlet represented 80 % of the total phosphorus load – which indicates the importance of internal circulation of phosphorus, both biological and geochemical. </span></p></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
53

Modeling Nitrogen Transformations in a Pilot Scale Marine Integrated Aquaculture System

Mccarthy, Brian 01 January 2013 (has links)
Integrated aquaculture systems (IAS) are a type of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) where the wastewater is treated and returned to the fish tanks. The important difference between the two is that in an IAS, wastes from the aquaculture component are recovered as fertilizer to produce an agricultural product whereas in an RAS, waste organics, nutrients and solids are treated and discharged. A pilot marine IAS at Mote Aquaculture Research Park in Sarasota, FL was studied for this project. Water quality monitoring, measurements of fish health and growth rates of fish and plants were performed over a two-year period to determine the effectiveness of the system in producing fish and plant products and removing pollutants. The goal of this portion of the project was to develop, calibrate and evaluate a model of the system, to understand the nitrogen transformations within the Mote IAS and to investigate other potential configurations of the Mote IAS. The model was divided into the various compartments to simulate each stage of the system, which included fish tanks, a drum filter for solids removal, and moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) for nitrification and disinfection. A solids tank after the drum filter was used to store the drum filter effluent slurry, which was then divided between three treatment processes: a geotube, a sand filter followed by a plant bed, and a plant bed alone. Nitrogen species modeled were particulate organic nitrogen (PON), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), ammonium and nitrate. Of the physical components of the IAS, models of the MBBR and the two plant raceways included physical, chemical and biological nitrogen transformation processes. The sand filter, solids tank and geotube models were simple mass balances, incorporating factional removals of each species based on the observed data. Other variables modeled included temperature, dissolved oxygen, volatile suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand concentrations. The model was built in a computer program, STELLATM, to simulate the Mote IAS. The model calibration involved experimental, literature and calibrated parameters. Parameters were adjusted until the model's output was a best fit to the observed data by minimizing the sum of the squared residuals. During the sensitivity analysis, two model parameters caused large variations in the model output. The denitrifier constant caused the most variation to the model's output followed by the denitrifier fraction of volatile suspended solids. Of the removal processes, denitrification was the largest nitrogen removal mechanism from the model, accounting for 59% and 55% of the nitrogen removed from the south and north plant raceways respectively. Plant and soil uptake represented only 0.2% of the overall nitrogen removal processes followed by 0.1% by sedimentation. Finally, the model was used to investigate other treatment designs if the Mote IAS was redesigned. The first option involved a geotube and one plant raceway in series to treat the solid waste while the second option did not have a geotube, but two plant raceways. The first option was the most effective at removing nitrogen while the second was as effective as the original system and would cost less.
54

Agricultural nonpoint source pollution management: Water quality impacts of Balm Road Treatment Marsh, Hillsborough County, Florida

Malone, Sarah J 01 June 2009 (has links)
Balm Road Treatment Marsh is a 12 ha constructed wetland treatment system in south-central Hillsborough County, Florida created to improve water quality in Bullfrog Creek and ultimately Tampa Bay. The treatment system was designed to treat runoff from approximately 741 ha of upstream agricultural land prior to discharging into the creek, with the primary goals of reducing sediment and nutrient loads. Water quality data from four sites on Bullfrog Creek were analyzed to determine impacts to ambient water quality and pollutant load reductions downstream. Results were compared to the performance of other wetlands to treat both nonpoint and point source pollution. Impacts to ambient water quality in the creek were found to be minimal, if any, and although significant load reductions were found downstream, they could not be attributed to wetland treatment affects with confidence. In general, nonpoint source pollution, particularly from agriculture, was found to be treated less effectively than point sources. The importance of monitoring the performance of stormwater projects while employing a strategic sample design and including receiving water impacts is highlighted.
55

Research on the wastewater treatment efficiency in the vertical flow constructed wetland with the dolomite used as the filter media / Nuotekų valymo efektyvumo tyrimai vertikalios filtracijos augalų grunto filtruose su dolomito įkrova

Kazakevičienė, Jurgita 04 March 2013 (has links)
Aim of the research The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of the constructed wetlands of vertical filtration with various fractions of dolomite used as the filter media to remove pollutants from the wastewater under the laboratory and industrial conditions and using experimental methods and after the research to prepare the calculation methodology for the filters with dolomite chippings used as the filter media. Objectives of the research In order to reach the aim of the research it was necessary: 1. To perform the analysis of the scientific experiments on the wastewater treatment efficiency in the constructed wetlands with various materials used as the filter media, to perform the analysis of the results of the industrial experiments and to make the analysis of various calculation methodologies of the parameters of the constructed wetlands. 2. To perform the comparative experiments on the efficiency of the sand and various dolomite fractions to remove the pollutants from the wastewater under the changing hydraulic and pollution load in the laboratory model. 3. To perform the research on the pollutant removal efficiency in the industrial object. 4. To specify the calculation methodology of the parameters of the constructed wetlands. This methodology will enable to calculate the parameters of the filters with the dolomite used as the filter media. / Šio darbo tikslas – analitiniais, laboratoriniais ir eksperimentiniais metodais nustatyti organinių ir biogeninių teršalų šalinimo iš nuotekų efektyvumą vertikalios filtracijos augalų-grunto filtre su dolomito įkrova esant skirtingai frakcinei sudėčiai ir apkrovai teršalais, o taip pat atlikus tyrimus patikslinti augalų-grunto filtrų skaičiavimo metodiką, kuri leistų skaičiuoti filtrus su dolomito įkrova. Darbo uždaviniai Darbo tikslui pasiekti reikėjo: 1. Atlikti nuotekų valymo efektyvumo naudojant įvairias įkrovas mokslinių darbų, gamybinių bandymų rezultatų ir augalų-grunto filtrų skaičiavimo metodikų analizę. 2. Atlikti laboratoriniame modelyje įvairių dolomito frakcijų ir smėlio nuotekų valymo efektyvumo prie įvairių hidraulinių ir taršos apkrovų palyginamuosius bandymus. 3. Atlikti teršalų šalinimo iš nuotekų efektyvumo gamybiniame objekte tyrimus. 4. Patikslinti augalų-grunto filtrų skaičiavimo metodiką, kuri leistų skaičiuoti filtrus su dolomito įkrova.
56

Performance of a Surface-Flow Constructed Wetland Treating Landfill Surface-Water Runoff

Hick, Justin 11 June 2013 (has links)
Landfills are a major potential source of groundwater and surface-water contamination. The compounds that can leach from landfilled materials include dissolved organic matter, inorganic macrocomponents, heavy metals, and xebobiotic organic compounds. Landfill surface-water runoff poses a threat to the environment due to high mobility, but has not been rigorously characterized with regards to common pollutants found in landfills. It is well documented that constructed wetlands can serve as an effective treatment option for many pollutants found in landfills. The Napanee Landfill has constructed a wetland in order to treat surface-water runoff coming off the landfill. The objectives of this study were to: 1) characterize the water chemistry of surface-water runoff for an inactive landfill; 2) evaluate the treatment potential for the constructed wetland system at the Napanee Landfill; and, 3) recommend design, maintenance, and operative improvements to enhance effluent water quality. The analysis of the landfill surface-water runoff entering the Napanee Landfill constructed wetland included the pollutants nitrate, ammonia, sulphate, phosphorus, and chloride. The median inflow and outflow concentrations for all of the observed pollutants did not exceed Canadian federal or provincial water quality guidelines. There were sampling days where ammonia, phosphorus, and chloride exceeded guidelines at the inflow and days where ammonia and chloride exceeded guidelines at the outflow. The only pollutant that saw a statistically significant decrease in concentrations was sulphate, with a change of 38% from the inflow to the outflow. Other changes of note were nitrate and phosphorus concentrations increasing by 50% and 23% respectively from the inflow to the outflow. There are a variety of improvements that can be made to the Napanee Landfill constructed wetland that would increase the treatment efficiency of ammonia. Incorporating a vertical-flow wetland would increase available surface area for nitrifying bacteria growth and would provide more oxygen for nitrification processes; both would increase the potential for significant ammonia treatment. Overall, the concentrations of the pollutants found in the surface-water runoff coming off of the Napanee Landfill constructed wetland did not pose a significant threat to the environment at the time of sampling and treatment processes were only successful in reducing sulphate pollutant concentrations.
57

Användning av anlagd våtmark för efterpolering av rökgaskondensat : en studie vid Brista kraftvärmeverk i Sigtuna

Elleby, Rasmus January 2015 (has links)
I Brista kraftvärmeverk i Sigtuna förbränns träflis och utsorterat avfall från hushåll och industri för att utvinna och exportera el och fjärrvärme. När rökgasen kyls ner, som en del av återvinningen av energi till fjärrvärmenätet, bildas rökgaskondensat. Direkt efter produktionen har kondensatet en temperatur av cirka 30 °C och innehåller höga halter av bland annat ammoniumkväve och vissa metaller. Efter rening av kondensatvattnet inuti verket efterpoleras det i en nyanlagd våtmark. Syftet med arbetet var främst att undersöka kvävereningen i våtmarken men även om riktvärden för utsläpp uppsatta av miljödomstolen efterlevs med avseende på total- och ammoniumkväve samt As och tungmetallerna Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Tl och Zn. Arbetet syftade även på att bestämma våtmarkens area, volym och uppehållstid, undersöka eventuella skillnader i vattenföring mellan in- och utlopp samt undersöka vattentemperaturens effekt på kvävereningen. För att undersöka reningen togs veckovisa prover i våtmarkens in- och utlopp under nio veckor under hela oktober och november 2014. Proverna analyserades med jonkromatografi för bestämning av nitrat-, nitrit- och ammoniumhalt. Vidare användes data från Fortum, som driver verket, för att undersöka halter av kväve och olika metaller i våtmarken. Höjdmätningar med avvägningsinstrument användes för att bestämma våtmarkens volym och GPS för att bestämma våtmarkens längd och area. Vattentemperaturmätningar i våtmarkens utlopp genomfördes med hjälp av en logger under en tvåmånadersperiod. Vattenföring ut ur våtmarken räknades ut med hjälp av nivådata från en pumpbrunn vid utloppet. Resultaten visade att halterna av alla de studerade ämnena i både egna prover och från Fortum klarade riktvärdena för utsläpp till recipient. Halterna var även låga i rökgaskondensatet som lämnade Bristaverket vilket tyder på att reningen inuti verket fungerar bra. Våtmarkens area uppmättes till 2300 m2 och volymen till 940 m3. Den beräknade vattenföringen ut var i genomsnitt cirka 100 m3/dygn högre än inflödet. Fel i beräkningsmodellen kunde dock inte uteslutas som orsak till skillnaden. Vid låga lufttemperaturer verkade våtmarken klara av att kyla betydligt högre temperaturer hos rökgaskondensat än vad som vanligtvis skickas ut från verket. Därför rekommenderas att Fortum undersöker möjligheterna för minskad kylning av rökgaskondensatet för att möjliggöra en ökad reningsgrad av temperaturberoende processer i våtmarken, så som kväveavskiljning. / At the Brista combined heat and power plant in Sigtuna, wood chips and municipal and industrial waste are incinerated to generate and export electricity and distric heating. When the flue gas is cooled as a part of recycling its energy for distric heating, condensate is formed. Directly after production, the flue gas condensate has a temperature of approximately 30°C and contains relatively high levels of ammonia and certain heavy metals. After treatment inside the plant, the condensate is post-treated in a newly constructed wetland. The main aim of the study was to investigate the nitrogen removal in the wetland but also if current guideline values for effluents established by the environmental court are fulfilled in regard to levels of total and ammonia nitrogen as well as As and heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg , Ni, Pb, Tl  and Zn. The study also aimed to measure the wetland area, volume and retention time, investigate differences in water flow between the inlet and outlet as well as study the effect of water temperature on nitrogen removal. Water samples were taken weekly for nine weeks in October and November 2014 in the inlet and outlet of the wetland. The samples were analysed for nitrate, nitrite and ammonium ions using ion chromatography. Data from Fortum, the company that runs the heat and power plant, were also used to study levels of nitrogen and metals in the wetland. An optical leveling instrument was used to calculate the wetland volume and GPS was used to calculate its length and area. Measurements of water temperature in the outlet of the wetland were conducted using a logger during a two-month period. Water flow out of the wetland was calculated using water level data from a pump well connected to the outlet. The results showed that the levels of the studied compounds in samples collected in this study and by Fortum were all below guideline values. The levels were also low in the flue gas condensate leaving the combined heat and power plant, indicating that the treatment inside the plant is working well. The area of the wetland was measured to 2300 m2 and the volume 940 m3. The calculated water flow out of the wetland was at an average approximately 100 m3/day higher than the inflow, but an error in the calculation model is a possible cause of the difference. At low air temperatures, the wetland showed a capacity of cooling significantly higher temperatures of the flue gas condensate than what is usually released from the plant. Because of this, Fortum is recommended to investigate the possibility of reducing the cooling of the flue gas condensate and thus enabling a higher efficiency of temperature dependent treatment processes in the wetland such as nitrogen removal.
58

Tratamento de efluentes de piscicultura utilizando sistema tipo wetland povoado com espécies de macrófitas aquáticas de três tipos ecológicos diferentes /

Assunção, Argos Willian de Almeida. January 2011 (has links)
Orientador: Luiz Augusto do Amaral / Banca: Antônio Fernando Monteiro Camargo / Banca: Irineu Bianchini Júnior / Resumo: A aquicultura é uma atividade impactante para o meio ambiente, podendo causar eutrofização de corpos hídricos, introdução de espécies exóticas, transmissão de doenças e competição pelo uso da água. Os efluentes de criações de organismos aquáticos são ricos em matéria orgânica e nutrientes, nitrogênio e fósforo, decorrente de adubação, restos de ração e excreção. A partir de um viveiro de criação de pacu "Piaractus mesopotamicus" foi avaliado o impacto ambiental causado pela criação, a presença de organismos indicadores de contaminação fecal (Escherichia coli), e avaliada a eficiência de um sistema de tratamento tipo wetland construída utilizando três espécies de macrófitas aquáticas de tipos ecológicos diferentes: Eichhornia crassipes (flutuante), Ceratophyllum demersum(submersa) e Typha dominigensis (emersa). As variáveis analisadas foram temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica, alcalinidade, dureza total, demanda química e bioquímica de oxigênio (DQO e DBO), nitrogênio (total, amoniacal, nitrito e nitrato), fósforo (total e ortofosfato) e o NMP de Escherichia coli, como ferramenta de análise foi aplicada uma análise multivariada de fatores. Os resultados demonstraram que a criação de pacu apresentou impacto ambiental significativo na qualidade da água do efluente do viveiro, gerando elevação da concentração de fósforo total, nitrogênio total e material particulado suspenso, aumento nos níveis de turbidez e demanda bioquímica e química de oxigênio. O sistema de tratamento foi eficiente no tratamento do efluente e todas as etapas do tratamento foram significativas para a remoção das variáveis relacionadas com o impacto ambiental. Todas as amostras apresentaram número mais provável de Escherichia coli dentro dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira / Abstract: Aquaculture is responsible for various types of environmental impacts, causing eutrophication of water bodies, introduction of exotic species, disease transmission and competition for water use. The effluents from aquatic organisms breeding are rich in organic matter and nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus, due to fertilization, food leftovers and excretion. From a pacu "Piaractus mesopotamicus" breeding pond was evaluated the environmental impact in the water, the presence of fecal indicator organisms (Escherichia coli) and evaluated the effluent treatment by a constructed wetland using three species aquatic macrophytes of different ecological types: Eichhornia crassipes (floating), Ceratophyllum demersum (submerged) and Typha dominigensis (onshore). The analyzed variables were temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, total hardness, chemical demand and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), nitrogen (total, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate) and phosphorus (total and orthophosphate), for data analysis was applied a multivariate factor analysis. The results demonstrated that the pacu breeding showed significant environmental impact on water quality of the effluent, causing elevation of total phosphorus, total nitrogen and suspended particulate material, an increase in turbidity and chemical and biochemical oxygen demand. The treatment system was effective in the treatment of effluent and all stages of treatment were significant for the removal of variables related to environmental impact. The most probable number of E. coli was in accordance with Brazilian law in all samples / Mestre
59

Odstraňování olova z odpadní vody za využití umělého mokřadu / Removal of lead from wastewater using a constructed wetland

JAHODOVÁ, Jana January 2017 (has links)
Removal of lead from municipal wastewater using a constructed wetland with a horizontal subsurface flow was studied. Wastewater, wetland plant and sediment samples were analyzed using an AAS Thermo Scientific iCE 3500. Average concentrations of lead in inflow and outflow water in 2015 were 1.47 and 0.74 ?g/l, respectively. Average concentrations of lead in inflow and outflow water in 2016 were 0.75 and 0.38 ?g/l. The average efficiency of lead removal was 49.2 %. Lead concentrations in vegetation (Phragmites australis) varied in the range of 0.081-0.087 mg/kg and 0.48-0.17 mg/kg for the above and belowground biomass, respectively. Lead concentration in sediments were 9.79 and 4.86 mg/kg at distances of 1 and 10 m from inflow zone. Lead and other heavy metals were predominantly removed from wastewater at the initial part of the wetland bed.
60

Ecosystem age affects nitrate removal in created wetlands

Nilsson, Josefin January 2018 (has links)
This study investigates the effect of ecosystem age on the nitrate removal efficiency, nitrate removal rate and first-order area-based removal rate coefficients (both with and without temperature adjustment) of created wetlands. Data was collected from the first to eleventh year after wetland creation in an experimental wetland facility in south-west Sweden. The 18 small (22-29 m2) free water surface wetlands were divided into three groups based on initial planting: EVW (emergent vegetation wetlands), SVW (submerged vegetation wetlands) and CW (unplanted control wetlands). Summer and winter values from the 11 studied years were analysed separately in the repeated measures ANOVA. Over these 11 years the mean nitrate removal efficiency was 12 % and the mean nitrate removal rate was 0.17 g m-2 d-1. Mean removal rate coefficient (K) was 0.020 g d-1 and mean temperature adjusted removal rate coefficient (Ka) was 0.042 g d-1. The best performing wetlands were those initially planted with, and after four years almost completely covered by, emergent vegetation (EVW). This study indicates a positive correlation between wetland age and nitrate removal potential. It further indicates aging may be hastened by initial planting of wetland vegetation.

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