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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

System Design and Analysis for Creating a 3D Virtual Street Scene for Autonomous Vehicles using Geometric Proxies from a Single Video Camera

Wong, Timothy 01 June 2019 (has links)
Self-driving vehicles use a variety of sensors to understand the environment they are in. In order to do so, they must accurately measure the distances and positions of the objects around them. A common representation of the environment around the vehicle is a 3D point cloud, or a set of 3D data points which represent the positions of objects in the real world relative to the car. However, while accurate and useful, these point clouds require large amounts of memory compared to other representations such as lightweight polygonal meshes. In addition, 3D point clouds can be difficult for a human to visually understand as the data points do not always form a naturally coherent object. This paper introduces a system to lower the memory consumption needed for the graphical representation of a virtual street environment. At this time, the proposed system takes in as input a single front-facing video. The system uses the video to retrieve still images of a scene which are then segmented to distinguish the different relevant objects, such as cars and stop signs. The system generates a corresponding virtual street scene and these key objects are visualized in the virtual world as low poly, or low resolution, models of the respective objects. This virtual 3D street environment is created to allow a remote operator to visualize the world that the car is traveling through. At this time, the virtual street includes geometric proxies for parallel parked cars in the form of lightweight polygonal meshes. These meshes are predefined, taking up less memory than a point cloud, which can be costly to transmit from the remote vehicle and potentially difficult for a remote human operator to understand. This paper contributes a design and analysis of an initial system for generating and placing these geometric proxies of parked cars in a virtual street environment from one input video. We discuss the limitations and measure the error for this system as well as reflect on future improvements.
2

Representação geométrica de intervalos / Graphical approach to intervals

Franciosi, Beatriz Regina Tavares January 1999 (has links)
Neste trabalho e apresentada uma nova abordagem para a representação gráfica de intervalos. Segundo esta abordagem é possível realizar a análise visual de intervalos a partir da associação entre propriedades geométricas do piano cartesiano e de conjuntos de intervalos representados como pontos desse piano. Esta nova abordagem possibilita a representação da interpretação dual de intervalos, assim como a analise visual de relacionamentos em (IR, <=) e (IR, C). Neste contexto, a representação gráfica do conjunto de intervalos degenerados, representado pela reta y = x, constitui um caso especial desta representação,"o. Por sua vez, a relação (IR, representada pelo semiplano superior a reta y = x, denotado piano IR. A interpretação visual de operações intervalares é obtida diretamente através da aplicação da representação gráfica proposta. Além disto, operandos e operadores podem ser estudados diretamente a partir desta representação. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos de analise visual de intervalos utilizando a abordagem proposta e resultados bastante promissores foram obtidos. Estes experimentos possibilitaram a identificação de novas propriedades de intervalos assim como interpretações não usuais para operações intervalares. Esta representação pode ser utilizada também para observar o comportamento de seqüências de intervalos gerados a partir de programas baseado na aplicação da aritmética intervalar. Nesta caso, pode ser observado como os intervalos desta seqüência variam com relação ao seu ponto médio e o raio, assim como a relação entre eles. Esta representação foi utilizada com sucesso para obter a solução geométrica da equação intervalar afim e efetuando sua validação. Finalmente, analisamos a contribuição efetiva deste trabalho no contexto da aritmética intervalar. / This thesis presents a framework enabling the visual analysis of intervals, obtained by mapping geometric properties of the cartesian plane into interval sets to obtain a graphical representation. This new approach makes possible a dual interval representation and the immediate visual analysis of several relationships in (IR, <=) and (IR, C). In this sense, the set of degenerated intervals is a special case of this approach as they are represented by the straight line y=x. In turn, the order relation in (IR, C) is represented through the half-plane above the straight line y = x, denoted IR plane. Applying this framework, the visual interpretation of most interval operations is obtained directly from the graphical representation of the operands and the operations being studied. On the other hand, some experiments on interval visual analysis were developed with good final results. Thus, new properties and unusual interpretations for known operations can be developed with rather small effort. Moreover, this representation can be easily embedded into a running algorithm, to observe convergence and behavior of interval iterations, as one can easily see how intervals change with respect to midpoint and radius, as well as with respect to each other. The validation of this new approach was carried through the geometric solution of linear interval equations. This result was analyzed in order to verify the effective contribution of this geometrical representation in the context of interval arithmetic.
3

Representação geométrica de intervalos / Graphical approach to intervals

Franciosi, Beatriz Regina Tavares January 1999 (has links)
Neste trabalho e apresentada uma nova abordagem para a representação gráfica de intervalos. Segundo esta abordagem é possível realizar a análise visual de intervalos a partir da associação entre propriedades geométricas do piano cartesiano e de conjuntos de intervalos representados como pontos desse piano. Esta nova abordagem possibilita a representação da interpretação dual de intervalos, assim como a analise visual de relacionamentos em (IR, <=) e (IR, C). Neste contexto, a representação gráfica do conjunto de intervalos degenerados, representado pela reta y = x, constitui um caso especial desta representação,"o. Por sua vez, a relação (IR, representada pelo semiplano superior a reta y = x, denotado piano IR. A interpretação visual de operações intervalares é obtida diretamente através da aplicação da representação gráfica proposta. Além disto, operandos e operadores podem ser estudados diretamente a partir desta representação. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos de analise visual de intervalos utilizando a abordagem proposta e resultados bastante promissores foram obtidos. Estes experimentos possibilitaram a identificação de novas propriedades de intervalos assim como interpretações não usuais para operações intervalares. Esta representação pode ser utilizada também para observar o comportamento de seqüências de intervalos gerados a partir de programas baseado na aplicação da aritmética intervalar. Nesta caso, pode ser observado como os intervalos desta seqüência variam com relação ao seu ponto médio e o raio, assim como a relação entre eles. Esta representação foi utilizada com sucesso para obter a solução geométrica da equação intervalar afim e efetuando sua validação. Finalmente, analisamos a contribuição efetiva deste trabalho no contexto da aritmética intervalar. / This thesis presents a framework enabling the visual analysis of intervals, obtained by mapping geometric properties of the cartesian plane into interval sets to obtain a graphical representation. This new approach makes possible a dual interval representation and the immediate visual analysis of several relationships in (IR, <=) and (IR, C). In this sense, the set of degenerated intervals is a special case of this approach as they are represented by the straight line y=x. In turn, the order relation in (IR, C) is represented through the half-plane above the straight line y = x, denoted IR plane. Applying this framework, the visual interpretation of most interval operations is obtained directly from the graphical representation of the operands and the operations being studied. On the other hand, some experiments on interval visual analysis were developed with good final results. Thus, new properties and unusual interpretations for known operations can be developed with rather small effort. Moreover, this representation can be easily embedded into a running algorithm, to observe convergence and behavior of interval iterations, as one can easily see how intervals change with respect to midpoint and radius, as well as with respect to each other. The validation of this new approach was carried through the geometric solution of linear interval equations. This result was analyzed in order to verify the effective contribution of this geometrical representation in the context of interval arithmetic.
4

Representação geométrica de intervalos / Graphical approach to intervals

Franciosi, Beatriz Regina Tavares January 1999 (has links)
Neste trabalho e apresentada uma nova abordagem para a representação gráfica de intervalos. Segundo esta abordagem é possível realizar a análise visual de intervalos a partir da associação entre propriedades geométricas do piano cartesiano e de conjuntos de intervalos representados como pontos desse piano. Esta nova abordagem possibilita a representação da interpretação dual de intervalos, assim como a analise visual de relacionamentos em (IR, <=) e (IR, C). Neste contexto, a representação gráfica do conjunto de intervalos degenerados, representado pela reta y = x, constitui um caso especial desta representação,"o. Por sua vez, a relação (IR, representada pelo semiplano superior a reta y = x, denotado piano IR. A interpretação visual de operações intervalares é obtida diretamente através da aplicação da representação gráfica proposta. Além disto, operandos e operadores podem ser estudados diretamente a partir desta representação. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos de analise visual de intervalos utilizando a abordagem proposta e resultados bastante promissores foram obtidos. Estes experimentos possibilitaram a identificação de novas propriedades de intervalos assim como interpretações não usuais para operações intervalares. Esta representação pode ser utilizada também para observar o comportamento de seqüências de intervalos gerados a partir de programas baseado na aplicação da aritmética intervalar. Nesta caso, pode ser observado como os intervalos desta seqüência variam com relação ao seu ponto médio e o raio, assim como a relação entre eles. Esta representação foi utilizada com sucesso para obter a solução geométrica da equação intervalar afim e efetuando sua validação. Finalmente, analisamos a contribuição efetiva deste trabalho no contexto da aritmética intervalar. / This thesis presents a framework enabling the visual analysis of intervals, obtained by mapping geometric properties of the cartesian plane into interval sets to obtain a graphical representation. This new approach makes possible a dual interval representation and the immediate visual analysis of several relationships in (IR, <=) and (IR, C). In this sense, the set of degenerated intervals is a special case of this approach as they are represented by the straight line y=x. In turn, the order relation in (IR, C) is represented through the half-plane above the straight line y = x, denoted IR plane. Applying this framework, the visual interpretation of most interval operations is obtained directly from the graphical representation of the operands and the operations being studied. On the other hand, some experiments on interval visual analysis were developed with good final results. Thus, new properties and unusual interpretations for known operations can be developed with rather small effort. Moreover, this representation can be easily embedded into a running algorithm, to observe convergence and behavior of interval iterations, as one can easily see how intervals change with respect to midpoint and radius, as well as with respect to each other. The validation of this new approach was carried through the geometric solution of linear interval equations. This result was analyzed in order to verify the effective contribution of this geometrical representation in the context of interval arithmetic.
5

Programming paradigms, information types and graphical representations : empirical investigations of novice program comprehension

Good, Judith January 1999 (has links)
This thesis describes research into the role of various factors in novice program comprehension, including the underlying programming paradigm, the representational features of the programming language, and the various types of information which can be derived from the program. The main postulate of the thesis is that there is no unique method for understanding programs, and that program comprehension will be influenced by, among other things, the way in which programs are represented, both semantically and syntactically. This idea has implications for the learning of programming, particularly in terms of how theses concepts should be embodied. The thesis is focused around three empirical studies. The first study, based on th so-called "information types" studies, challenged the idea that program comprehension is an invariant process over languages, and suggested that programming language will have a differential effect on comprehension, as evidenced by the types of information which novices are able to extract from a program. Despite the use of a markedly different language from earliier studies, the results were broadly similar. However, it was suggested that there are other factors additional to programming notation which intervene in the comprehension process, and which cannot be discounted. Furthermore, the study highlighted the need to tie the hypotheses about information extraction more closely to the programming paradigm. The second study introduced a graphical component into the investigation, and looked at the way in which visual representations of programs combine with programming paradigm to influence comprehension. The mis-match conjecture, which suggests that tasks requiring information which is highlighted by a notation will be facilitated relative to tasks where the information must be inferred, was applied to programming paradigm. The study showed that the mis-match effect can be overridden by other factors, most notably subjects' prior experience and the programming culture in which they are taught. The third study combined the methodologies of the first two studies to look at the mis-match conjecture within the wider context of information types. Using graphical representations of the control flow and data flow paradigms, it showed that, despite a bias toward one paradigm based on prior experience and culture, programming paradigm does influence the way in which the program is understood, resulting in improved performance on tasks requiring information which the paradigm is hypothesised to highlight. Furthermore, this effect extends to groups of information which could be said to be theoretically related to the information being highlighted. The thesis also proposes a new and more precise methodology for the analysis of students' accounts of their comprehension of a program, a form a data which is typically derived from the information types studies. It then shows how an analysis of this qualitative data can be used to provide further support for the quantitative results. Finally, the thesis suggests how the core results could be used to develop computer based support environments for novice visual programming, and provides other suggestions for further work.
6

Formulação do método dos elementos de contorno para análise de chapas com enrijecedores / Formulation of the boundary elements method for analysis of stiffned plates

Wilson Wesley Wutzow 23 May 2003 (has links)
Neste trabalho, a formulação linear do método dos elementos de contorno - MEC, para elasticidade bidimensional, é empregada para estudo de domínios enrijecidos sendo os enrijecedores abordados de duas formas, a primeira muito conhecida trata-se da técnica de sub-região ou acoplamento MEC/MEC e a segunda também pelo mesmo tipo de acoplamento, mas agora condensando-se as variáveis do contorno para a linha central do enrijecedor. Esta técnica juntamente com a integração completamente analítica dos termos da equação Somigliana proporcionam bons resultados eliminando perturbações em enrijecedores finos. Com o intuito de obter melhores resultados aplica-se ainda a técnica de suavização do contorno por mínimos quadrados. Aspectos gráficos são abordados na criação do pré e pós processador, sendo o pré-processador um interpretador de arquivos de formato dxf e o pós-processador destinado a representação gráfica dos resultados através de mapas e isolinhas de tensão, deformação e deslocamentos. / In this work, the boundary element method - BEM, for two-dimensional elasticity, is used to analyse reinforced domains. The rigidity stiffener contribution are taking into account by two different ways: the first one by the sub-region technique or BEM/BEM coupling, and the second one, also based on BEM/BEM coupling, but now considering the variables defined along the central line of the stiffer. Analytical expressions were found to perform the integrals along boundary and interface elements, providing very good results characterized by the elimination of some perturbations that might occur when using stiffener with small rigidity. In order to obtains better and smooth results the least square method was used. Pre- and post-processors were developed and implemented for visualization of the input data and the final results. The pre-processor was written as a dxf reader program, while the post-processor as a counter map stress, strain and displacement iso-lines.
7

[en] HOW TO REPRESENT THE PRODUCT DESIGN: ORDINARY AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS WAYS / [pt] A REPRESENTAÇÃO DO PROJETO DE PRODUTO: MEIOS TRADICIONAIS E O USO DA COMPUTAÇÃO GRÁFICA

HELENA CAVALCANTI DE ALBUQUERQUE 27 November 2003 (has links)
[pt] Representações gráficas bidimensionais - tais como o desenho - e modelos tridimensionais físicos (maquetes, mock- ups ou protótipos) são recursos tradicionalmente utilizados por designers para comunicar a idéia de um projeto. Com a crescente inserção do computador no cotidiano e o desenvolvimento do CAD (Computer Aided Design), as áreas projetuais ganharam mais um recurso de representação gráfica: o desenho auxiliado por computador. Diante deste panorama, esta pesquisa procurou investigar junto a alunos e professores do curso de Desenho Industrial com Habilitação em Projeto de Produto do Departamento de Artes e Design da PUC-Rio como se dá a representação e apresentação de seus projetos. A partir da análise do discurso dos entrevistados verificou-se a necessidade de se investigar não só como as diferentes habilidades e processos de representação bidimensional e tridimensional da idéia são utilizadas em paralelo, tais como a habilidade em desenhar à mão, a elaboração de modelos físicos, e a modelagem digital, mas também de se dar o devido destaque ao questionamento, por parte dos entrevistados, da estrutura curricular atual do curso, e sua demanda por novas frentes de atuação da disciplina de Computação Gráfica, de forma a permitir maior capacitação profissional aos alunos de projeto de produto. / [en] Two-dimensional graphic representation - such as drawings - and physical three-dimensional models - such as mock-ups and prototypes - are resources traditionally used by designers to communicate the idea of a project. With the growth of computer use and the development of CAD (Computer Aided Design), project areas gained one more graphic representation resource. Considering this scenario, this research work has investigated how Product Design students at Pontificia Universidade Católica in Rio de Janeiro do the representation and presentation of their projects. The research was based on interviews with teachers and students and concluded that both human varied capabilities and two- dimensional or three-dimensional representation are relevant - hand drawing ability, drawing practice, physical models manufacturing and digital modeling are equally important. It was also verified that there is a strong aspiration between the interviewees for a revision of the present course structure and for the development of new areas of Computer Graphics utilization, so that the Product Design students can achieve a better level of professional capability.
8

Nematomo žymens registravimo prekių ženklu teisinė problematika / Legal problems of registering a trade mark consisting of a non-visible sign

Zmejauskaitė, Rūta 18 April 2013 (has links)
Disertacijoje analizuojama, kokiomis sąlygomis nematomi žymenys atlieka pagrindinę prekių ženklo funkciją, t.y. atskiria vieno asmens prekes ir paslaugas nuo kito asmens prekių ir paslaugų. Atsakant į šį klausimą aptariamos pagrindinės kvapo, skonio ir garso charakteristikos, išskiriamos pagrindinės kvapo, skonio ir garso žymenų rūšys, identifikuojami nematomų žymenų funkcionalumo aspektai, identifikuojami pagrindiniai konkurenciniai aspektai, analizuojami išeikvojimo doktrinos taikymo ypatumai nematomų prekių ženklų atžvilgiu. Taip pat disertacijoje analizuojama nematomo žymens galimybės būti pavaizduotam grafiškai problematika. Aptariama grafinio pavaizdavimo reikalavimo esmė, paskirtis ir vieta absoliučių reikalavimų prekių ženklui sistemoje, analizuojami atskirų tipų nematomų žymenų grafinio pavaizdavimo ypatumai, atskirai aptariant šiuo metu žinomus nematomų žymenų grafinio pavaizdavimo metodus: žodinį žymenų aprašymą, cheminę formulę, nematomų žymenų pavyzdžių (angl. specimen) tinkamumą, atvaizdą, kvapo diagramas, kvepalų radarą, muzikinę penklinę ir garso diagramas. / This dissertation investigates the conditions under which a non-visible sign performs the primary function of a trade mark, i.e. to distinguish the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. To answer this question, the dissertation identifies the main characteristics of smell, taste, and sound, the main types of smell, taste and sound signs, the functionality of non-visible signs, the main competitive aspects, and the peculiarities applying the depletion doctrine with respect to non-visible signs. The dissertation deals with the capability of a non-visible sign to be represented graphically. It describes the essence, purpose and role of the graphical representation requirement in the array of absolute requirements for a trade mark, also analyses the peculiarities of representation of different types of non-visible signs, by focusing more on graphical representation methods known today, such as verbal description of signs, chemical formula, relevance of specimen of non-visible signs, image, diagrams of smell, perfume radar, musical staves, and diagrams of sound.
9

Chemical sense marks : expanding the boundaries of registrability frequent concerns when applying for registration at the office for harmonisation in the internal market (trade marks and designs) (OHIM)

Covarrubia, Patricia January 2010 (has links)
The harmonisation of the European Trade Mark laws and the introduction of unconventional marks under this regime have encouraged interested parties to seek registration of chemical senses (scent and taste) as trade marks. This thesis studies the current state of affairs of these types of marks. It discusses in general, the panorama that these types of marks have when registrability is at issue. The purpose of this research is therefore to scrutinise the trade mark legal system, including a discussion of the origins and rationale underlying it, to try to understand the burdens presented when registering chemical sense marks. The starting point of this thesis is that the European Regulation and the Directive of the Trade Mark law open the door to the protection of chemical senses under the Trade Mark law regime. Yet, despite some early successful registration, their fate is still burdened with uncertainty and therefore the rationale for this study is to try to find whether chemical sense marks are truly marks and therefore protectable under the trade mark system. The approach chosen addresses the examination of all requirements for a sign to be protected under the trade mark system. The reason is that protection of chemical senses might be granted if such marks are recognised as signs, are graphically represented and are capable of distinguishing products of one undertaking from those of another undertaking. By examining the aforementioned requirements, the study reveals that while chemical senses marks might be seen as marks, they find that registration is not quite feasible. The thesis emphasises that graphic representation is only one of the many issues that chemical sense marks are confronted with. Issues such as distinctiveness, the need to keep free and functionality remain problematic. Moreover, the scope of protection afforded to chemical sense marks are yet untested. Case law will ascertain that the intent behind the trade mark regime to grant registration to chemical senses is unresolved. Still, the significant interest in chemical senses as trade marks appears to be not softening by this notion.
10

A representação gráfica das unidades de paisagem no zoneamento ambiental : um estudo de caso no município de Ourinhos SP /

Zacharias, Andréa Aparecida. January 2006 (has links)
Orientador: Maria Isabel Castreghini de Freitas / Banca: Cenira Luppinacci da Cunha / Banca: Adler Guilherme Viadana / Banca: Marcello Martinelli / Banca: José Manuel Mateo Rodrigues / Possui anexo em volume separado / Resumo: Esta Tese propõe um estudo sobre A Representação Gráfica das Unidades de Paisagem no Zoneamento Ambiental, adotando como estudo de caso o Município de Ourinhos-SP. Sistematizada em seis capítulos, explicita no Capítulo I Introdução - as considerações iniciais acerca deste trabalho, discorrendo acerca das principais reflexões que motivaram o desenvolvimento da pesquisa; descreve, ainda, os objetivos (geral e específicos), a localização da área de estudo, as justificativas e as hipóteses que consistem no desafio deste trabalho. No Capítulo II A Importância do Zoneamento Ambiental no Planejamento Físico-Territorial discute-se sobre os dédalos dos termos Planejamento, Gerenciamento, Gestão e Zoneamento Ambiental, atualmente percebidos nos trabalhos científicos. Apontam-se, também, os grandes desafios que o Zoneamento assume enquanto um dos instrumentos legais para efetivar o Planejamento Ambiental. O Capítulo III O Estudo e a Representação da Paisagem no Contexto Ambiental pretende uma reelaboração teórica acerca da representação gráfica, sobretudo a cartografia das paisagens, descrevendo as etapas da evolução dos estudos envolvendo a dinâmica da paisagem. Neste aspecto, são revisitados os preceitos das principais Teorias utilizadas na atualidade em trabalhos que visam o Planejamento Ambiental. O Capítulo IV Comunicação Cartográfica e Representação Gráfica das Unidades de Paisagem: uma proposta metodológica - discute os princípios da Comunicação Cartográfica na Geografia, com maior destaque à semiologia gráfica, propondo uma metodologia para a representação e leitura da paisagem, baseada em três níveis diferenciados. O Capítulo IV Comunicação Cartográfica e Representação Gráfica das Unidades de Paisagem: uma proposta metodológica - discute os princípios da Comunicação Cartográfica na Geografia, com maior destaque à semiologia... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo). / Abstract: This Thesis considers a study on the Graphical Representation of the Units of Landscape in the Ambient Zoning , adopting as case study the City of Ourinhos-SP. Systemize in six chapters, explicit in Chapter I Introduction - the initial concepts concerning this work, discoursing on the main reflections that had motivated the development of the research; it describes, still, the objectives (general and specific), the localization of the study area, the justifications and the hypotheses that consist of the challenge of this work. In Chapter II the Importance of the Ambient Zoning in the Physicist-Territorial Planning argues on the masses of the terms Planning, Management, Management and Ambient Zoning, currently perceived in the scientific works. They are pointed, also, the great challenges that the Zoning assumes while one of the legal instruments to accomplish the Ambient Planning. Chapter III the Study and the Representation of the Landscape in the Ambient Context intends a theoretical rework concerning the graphical representation, over all the cartography of the landscapes, describing the stages of the evolution of the studies involving the dynamics of the landscape. In this aspect, the rules of the main Theories used in the present time in works are revisited that aim at the Ambient Planning. Chapter IV Cartographic Communication and Graphical Representation of the Units of Landscape: considering one methodology - it argues the principles of the Cartographic Communication in Geography, with bigger prominence to the graphical semiology, considering a methodology for the representation and reading of the landscape, based in three differentiated levels. In Chapter V the Ambient Zoning of the City of Ourinhos-SP proceeds it the execution from the Zoning of the City, using it synthesis cartography as Geoambiental document, for the diagnosis of the ambient characteristics of the different... (Complete abstract, click electronic address below). / Doutor

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