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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

The maternal insulin-like growth factor system and fetal growth

Holmes, Robert January 1999 (has links)
No description available.
2

Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole Transfer in the in Vitro Perfused Human Cotyledon

Bawdon, Roger E., Maberry, Mark C., Fortunato, Stephen J., Gilstrap, Larry C., Kim, Sung 01 January 1991 (has links)
Utilizing the in vitro human placental model, we studied the placental transfer of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. At trimethoprim concentrations of 7.2 μg/ml, only 1.4 μg/ml was transported across the placenta after 1 h, and at concentrations of 1.0 μg/ml, one half the usual serum level, only 0.08 μg/ml was transported across the placenta. Maternal concentrations of sulfamethoxazole of 29.6 and 127.7 μg/ml resulted in concentrations of 5.1 and 14.8 pg/ml on the fetal side, respectively. Thus, it would appear that trimethoprim is slowly transported across the placenta and in low concentrations whereas sulfamethoxazole readily crosses the placenta. The combination of these drugs is useful for treatment of bacteriuria. It may also prove to be especially useful for Pneumocystis carinii infections in pregnant women with AIDS. With a half-life of 13 h for trimethoprim and 6 h for sulfamethoxazole, the drugs are not likely to achieve toxic levels in the fetal compartment. Thus, it would appear that trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole may be both efficacious and safe for the treatment of both these infections during pregnancy.
3

Human health implications of exposure to xenoestrogens from food

Thomson, Barbara Mary January 2005 (has links)
This thesis aims to assess the human health impact of exposure to estrogenic compounds from the diet. A multi-disciplinary approach is taken to address various aspects of this issue. An introduction to xenoestrogens, including international research priorities, wildlife and human health effects, mechanisms of action, structure activity relationships and additivity of estrogenic effects is provided as background information. An assessment of exposure to a range of naturally occurring and synthetic estrogenic compounds found in food is derived in Chapter 2. The assessment combines new and existing data on food concentration, food consumption and serum levels for each xenoestrogen. Exposure is combined with relative estrogenic potency data from published bioassasy data to estimate risk relative to normal circulating levels of estradiol. Assuming additivity of xenoestrogens, for an average New Zealand male and for post-menopausal women, xenoestrogens in the diet contribute an additional 12-90% of estrogenicity above normal circulating levels. For a pre-menopausal female, the contribution from the diet represents in the order of an additional 2%. The level of exposure determined in this thesis would seem to be of pharmacological relevance, especially for men with low levels of estrogen and for post-menopausal women. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important monomer used in the manufacture of epoxy resins for internal food can linings. A survey of the BPA content of a range of 80 canned foods available to the New Zealand consumer was undertaken and the results used in the exposure and risk assessments. BPA was detected in all foods analysed except soft drinks, at concentrations ranging from <10-29 µg/kg, except for individual samples of tuna, corned beef and coconut cream that were 109, 98 and 191 µg/kg respectively. None, of over 4000 individual exposure scenarios, exceeded the temporary Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 10 µg/kg body weight per day set by the Scientific Committee on Food in 2002. Intestinal microflora influence the bioavailability of the naturally occurring xenoestrogens genistein and daidzein that contribute significantly to total estrogenicity from the diet. The degradation of genistein and daidzein by the faecal microfloral of 5 human subjects was variable and unpredictable between individuals and within an individual. These findings have important implications for the promotion and prescription of soy foods and supplements for disease prevention and health benefits. The "yeast assay" is one of a number of methods available to measure estrogenicity. This assay was established and validated. In utero exposure to estrogenic compounds at critical periods of sexual differentiation and endocrine development may imprint for health effects observed later in life. Placental transfer of estrogenicity, from 17β-estradiol was studied using the human placental perfusion model and the yeast assay. The placenta provides a protective barrier to the transfer of estrogenicity. Experiments with genistein showed that 5-15% placental transfer occurred, suggesting that in utero exposure might be in the order of 10% of maternal exposure. The thesis concludes with consideration of a genomic approach to substantiate, or refute, the mechanistic link between exposure to xenoestrogens and claimed human health effect. Such an approach offers exciting opportunity to clarify the mode of action of the synthetic versus the naturally occurring xenoestrogens, to confirm or dispute additivity of effect that is an important premise of the exposure assessment, to identify key genes involved in the many possible health effects and thence risk to the individual from dietary exposure to xenoestrogens.
4

Assessment of Environmental Pollutants in Humans from Four Continents : Exposure levels in Slovakia, Guinea-Bissau, Nicaragua and Bangladesh

Linderholm, Linda January 2010 (has links)
Humans are continuously exposed to complex mixtures of anthropogenic chemicals. This thesis focus on human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). POPs ability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify together with the extensive historical use of POPs in e.g. agriculture and industry have resulted in detection of these compounds in humans and animals from all over the world. Adverse health effects caused by POPs are of particular concern for newborns and young individuals. The objective of this thesis is to assess human exposure to a selected set of POPs and their metabolites. More specifically, one aim of my thesis is to determine the exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and in particular their methylsulfonyl and hydroxylated metabolites in humans from a “hot-spot” area of PCB contamination in eastern Slovakia. The maternal transfer of these chemicals is studied. Further, another specific aim is to determine occurrence, levels and, when possible, temporal trends of POPs in children and adults from three developing countries, Nicaragua, Guinea-Bissau and Bangladesh. High concentrations of PCBs and their metabolites are shown in men and women from Michalovce in eastern Slovakia. Placental transfer of methylsulfonyl-metabolites of PCBs and 4,4’-DDE was observed for the first time. Decreasing temporal trends of the majority of POPs are shown in serum from a cohort of policemen from Guinea-Bissau. In contrast, the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) show an increasing time trend. Within five years, decreasing levels of POPs were also shown in children working and living at a waste disposal site in Nicaragua. Children working and living at waste disposal sites in Bangladesh have considerably lower levels of POPs compared to the children from Nicaragua except for 4,4’-DDT and 4,4’-DDE that are present at very high concentrations, indicating ongoing use of technical DDT. There are many studies on levels and trends of environmental pollutants from the developed industrial countries in the world, whereas data from developing countries is still scarce. This thesis contributes to partly fill this data gap since it includes assessments of POPs in children and adults from four countries on four continents. / At the time of doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript. Paper 6: Manuscript.
5

Pharmacocinétique de population des antirétroviraux chez la femme enceinte / Population pharmacokinetic of antiretrovirals in pregnant women

Benaboud, Nedjma Sihem 26 November 2012 (has links)
Des modifications physiologiques importantes interviennent au cours de la grossesse. Ces modifications ont un impact sur la pharmacocinétique et/ou la pharmacodynamique des traitements administrés. Chez la femme infectée par le virus du VIH, un traitement antirétroviral adéquat et efficace est indispensable pour la santé de la mère et pour assurer la prévention de la transmission du virus au nouveau-né. Pour un traitement optimal, en termes d’efficacité et de non-toxicité, la connaissance de l’effet de la grossesse sur les concentrations des antirétroviraux chez la mère ainsi que leur passage transplacentaire est primordiale. Dans cette thèse nous avons utilisé une méthodologie adaptée pour cette population : la modélisation non linéaire à effets mixtes. Des données de suivi thérapeutique pharmacologique, ainsi que les données d’un essai clinique multicentrique (TEmAA) ont été analysées grâce à deux logiciel : NONMEM et Monolix.Dans la première étude présentée, nous nous sommes intéressés à la pharmacocinétique dutenofovir chez la femme enceinte. Nous avons mis en évidence un effet relativement important de la grossesse, en effet une augmentation de 39% de la clairance est observée chezla femme enceinte et la femme parturiente. Une augmentation de la dose serait donc souhaitable chez ces femmes. Dans la deuxième étude, nous avons mis en évidence une légère augmentation de l’exposition à la lamivudine au cours de la grossesse, ne nécessitant pas d’adaptation de posologie. Dans la troisième étude, les concentrations de névirpaine chez la mère et son nouveau-né ont été analysées et le schéma d’administration a été évalué.Dans la dernière étude, à partir des concentrations de tenofovir et d’emtricitabine dans le lait maternel qui sont ici reportées pour la première fois chez l’homme, nous avons simulé les profils de concentrations obtenus chez le nourrisson. / Important physiological changes occur during pregnancy. These changes may affect the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of the administered medication. In HIV infected women, antiretroviral treatment adequacy and effectiveness is essential for the health of the mother and for the prevention of HIV transmission to the newborn. For optimal treatment interms of efficacy and tolerance, the effect of pregnancy on antiretroviral concentrations in themother and their transplacental passage have to be assessed.In this work we used the appropriate methodology in this population: non linear mixed effects modeling. Data from therapeutic drug monitoring, as well as data from a multicenter clinical trial (TEmAA) were analyzed using: NONMEM or Monolix. In the first study presented, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir in pregnant women. We observed a relatively large effect of pregnancy, a 39% increase of the apparent clearance in pregnant and parturient woman. A dose increase should be therefore investigated in these women. In the second study, we demonstrated a slight increase in lamivudine exposure during pregnancy. This increase does not require dose adjustment. In the third study, the concentration of nevirapinein the mother and her newborn were analyzed and the administration scheme was evaluated.In the last study, based on concentrations of tenofovir and emtricitabine in breast milk that arereported here for the first time in humans, we simulated the concentration profiles obtained ininfants.
6

FACTORS INFLUENCING PLACENTAL TRANSFER OF LOPINAVIR: BINDING, UPTAKE AND EFFLUX

Gulati, Abhishek 15 June 2009 (has links)
HIV protease inhibitors are an important component of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy used to treat HIV infected pregnant women. They have a low placental transfer and are highly plasma protein bound. The purpose of this thesis was to characterize the factors limiting placental passage and fetal exposure to lopinavir. These factors include lopinavir plasma protein binding and uptake, cellular binding, and efflux of lopinavir in the placental trophoblast cells. First, we determined the unbound fraction of lopinavir in cord blood and characterized the binding of lopinavir to α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) and human serum albumin (HSA), and displacement by ritonavir. Serum was obtained from cord blood from placentae obtained after cesarean section of healthy non-HIV infected women (n=4). The unbound fraction of lopinavir in serum obtained from this cord blood was 0.02 ± 0.01. The unbound fraction of lopinavir in separately obtained maternal serum samples (n=4) was 0.009 ± 0.001, which was not significantly different from that observed with cord serum samples. Varying concentrations of lopinavir, AAG, and HSA in buffer solutions were then used to characterize the lopinavir binding. The data were fit to obtain the number of binding sites (N) and equilibrium dissociation constant (KD). Binding of lopinavir to AAG (7-23 µM) was saturable with KD of 5.0 ± 1.1 µM and N of 1.2 ± 0.2. At low HSA concentrations (15-152 µM), lopinavir binding KD was 24.3 ± 8.7 µM and N was 1.1 ± 0.4; however at 758 µM, lopinavir binding was essentially unsaturable. Additionally, lopinavir binding to AAG and HSA was not sensitive to ritonavir within the range of therapeutic concentrations. Next, we examined lopinavir uptake, binding and efflux using the BeWo human trophoblast cell culture model. BeWo cells were treated with 3H-lopinavir in the absence or presence of inhibitors of ATP- Binding Cassette transporters. The radioactivity was then measured in the buffer and the cells after incubating for different time intervals and at two temperatures. Verapamil (100µM) stimulated apparent efflux of 3H lopinavir by two fold, possibly due to ABCC2. In addition, this efflux process was 75% inhibited by reduced temperature (4°C). Ritonavir (10 µM) also stimulated 3H-lopinavir efflux, whereas GF120918 (1 µM) had no effect. Reduced temperature (4°C), verapamil (100 µM) or ritonavir (10 µM) individually did not significantly affect the binding of 3H-lopinavir to cell homogenates. However, slight but significant binding displacement by verapamil at 4°C was observed. 3H lopinavir uptake was not sensitive to verapamil, bromosulfophthalein, taurocholate or to reduced temperature suggesting uptake involves diffusion rather than Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide transporters. The results suggested that interplay between cellular binding and ABC efflux transporters, in addition to simple diffusion, determines the extent of 3H-lopinavir distribution into BeWo cells.
7

Disposição cinética e transferência placentária dos enantiômeros da bupivacaína em parturientes portadoras do HIV em tratamento com antirretrovirais / Kinetic disposition and placental transfer of bupivacaine enantiomers in HIV-infected pregnant women in antiretroviral therapy

Marília Cristina Oliveira Souza 06 March 2015 (has links)
A bupivacaína, um anestésico usado na anestesia e analgesia obstétrica, é disponível comercialmente como mistura racêmica dos enantiômeros (R)-(+)-bupivacaína e (S)-(-)-bupivacaína, os quais apresentam diferença na farmacocinética, eficácia e toxicidade. A bupivacaína é altamente ligada às proteínas plasmáticas, é substrato do transportador de efluxo glicoproteína-P (P-gp) e apresenta eliminação dependente do CYP3A4. Considerando que a infecção pelo HIV aumenta a expressão da P-gp na placenta, enquanto o tratamento com antirretrovirais (ARV) inibe o CYP3A4 e a P-gp, o presente estudo avalia a disposição cinética dos enantiômeros da bupivacaína em parturientes portadoras do HIV em tratamento com antirretrovirais (ARV). No presente estudo, foram investigadas 10 parturientes portadoras do HIV em tratamento com zidovudina, lamivudina, lopinavir e ritonavir. A anestesia ou analgesia foi realizada através da administração de cloridrato de bupivacaína 0,5% com epinefrina 1:200000 em espaço epidural, em doses de 2,5-22,5 mg. As amostras seriadas de sangue foram obtidas nos tempos imediatamente antes, 5, 15, 30, 45 e 60 min e em 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 14h após a administração do anestésico bupivacaína. No momento do parto também foram coletadas amostras de sangue materno e sangue do cordão umbilical, para estudos de transferência placentária. Os métodos desenvolvidos e validados para a análise sequencial dos enantiômeros (+)-(R)-bupivacaína e (-)-(S)-bupivacaína como concentração total e como concentração livre em plasma empregando LC-MS/MS são compatíveis com a aplicação em estudo de farmacocinética em parturientes por apresentar as vantagens do baixo volume de plasma (200 ?L), corrida cromatográfica de aproximadamente 8 minutos, simples procedimento de extração líquido-líquido, baixo LIQ (0,25 ng de cada enantiômero/mL de plasma como concentração total e 0,125 ng de cada enantiômero/mL de plasma como concentração livre), extensa linearidade (0,25-500 ng de cada enantiômero/mL de plasma como concentração total e 0,125-10 ng de cada enantiômero/mL de plasma como concentração livre) e estabilidade assegurada em estudos de curta duração, ciclos de congelamento e pós-congelamento e pós-processamento. Os parâmetros farmacocinéticos dos enantiômeros da bupivacaína foram calculados com base nas curvas de concentração plasmática total versus tempo empregando o programa WinNonlin. A farmacocinética da bupivacaina é enantiosseletiva com acúmulo plasmático do enantiômero (S)-(-)-bupivacaína, com razão AUC (R)/(S) igual a 0,91 (p <0,05). A fração livre no plasma (Fu) é maior para o enantiômero (R)-(+)-bupivacaína, 9% (6 - 12), quando comparado ao enantiômero (S)-(-)-bupivacaína, 6 % (4 - 9) (p < 0,05). O tratamento com ARV, incluindo o ritonavir, infere interação enantiosseletiva entre os enantiômeros da bupivacaína e a P-gp placentária, com observação de maior inibição para o enantiômero (R)-(+)-bupivacaína. / Bupivacaine, an anesthetic used in obstetric anesthesia and analgesia is commercially available as a racemic mixture of (R)-(+)-bupivacaine and (S)-(-)-bupivacaine, which exhibit differences in pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity. Bupivacaine is highly bound to plasma proteins, is a substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and presents elimination dependent on CYP3A4. Whereas HIV infection increases the expression of P-gp in the placenta, while treatment with antiretroviral (ARV) inhibits CYP3A4 and P-gp, this study evaluates the kinetic disposition of the enantiomers of bupivacaine in pregnant women with HIV in antiretroviral therapy (ARV). In the present study, we investigated 10 pregnant women with HIV in treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine, lopinavir and ritonavir. Anesthesia or analgesia was performed using 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine administration of 1:200,000 in the epidural space, in doses of 2.5 to 22.5 mg. The serial blood samples were taken immediately before the time, 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14h after administration of the anesthetic bupivacaine. At delivery were also collected samples of maternal blood and cord blood, placental transfer studies. The methods developed and validated for sequence analysis of the enantiomers (+)-(R)-bupivacaine and (-)-(S)-bupivacaine and the total concentration as the free plasma concentration using LC-MS/MS spectra are consistent with the application of pharmacokinetic study in pregnant women to present the advantages of low plasma volume (200 ?L), chromatographic run approximately 8 minutes, simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure, low LLQ (0.25 ng each enantiomer/mL of plasma and total concentrations of each enantiomer 0.125 ng/mL as free plasma concentration), extended linearity (0.25 to 500 ng of each enantiomer/mL of plasma and the total concentration of each enantiomer from 0.125 to 10 ng/mL as concentration of plasma free), and ensured stability in short-term studies, cycles of freezing and post-freeze and post-processing. The pharmacokinetic parameters of bupivacaine enantiomers were calculated based on total plasma concentration curves versus time using WinNonlin program. Pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine is enantioselective with plasma accumulation of enantiomer (S)-(-)-bupivacaine with AUC ratio (R)/(S) equal to 0.91 (p <0.05). The free fraction in plasma (Fu) is higher for the enantiomer (R)-(+)-bupivacaine, 9% (6-12) enantiomer compared to the (S)-(-)-bupivacaine, 6% (4 - 9) (p <0.05). The ARV treatment, including ritonavir, infers enantioselective interaction between the enantiomers of bupivacaine and P-gp placental, highlighting greater inhibition of the enantiomer (R)-(+)-bupivacaine.
8

Estudo farmacocinético e análise da distribuição transplacentária da fluoxetina e seu metabólito em gestantes saudáveis / Pharmacokinetic study and analysis of transplacental distribution of fluoxetine and its metabolite in healthy pregnant women

Daniela Miarelli Carvalho 19 August 2016 (has links)
A fluoxetina, um fármaco quiral disponível para uso clínico, como uma mistura racêmica de (S)-(+)-fluoxetina e (R)-(-)-fluoxetina, é a droga mais utilizada no tratamento de estados depressivos durante a gravidez. N-desmetilação de fluoxetina por CYP2D6, CYP2C9 e CYP3A4 produz o seu metabólito ativo, norfluoxetina com os enantiômeros (S)-(+)-e (R)-(-)- norfluoxetina. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a farmacocinética, distribuição transplacentária e metabolismo da fluoxetina e norfluoxetina, em gestantes saudáveis. Foram avaliadas nove gestantes sem comorbidades. Todas receberam dose única de 20 mg de fluoxetina via oral em duas ocasiões distintas, sendo a primeira com 32 semanas e a segunda no dia do parto. Após a administração do fármaco, foram coletadas amostras seriadas de sangue materno para avaliação da concentração dos enantiômeros da fluoxetina, nos tempos de zero a 672 horas. No dia do parto, após receber a medicação, foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas materna no momento do nascimento, de sangue de vasos umbilicais, espaço interviloso, líquido amniótico para avaliação da transferência placentária. Vinte e quatro horas após o parto, foi coletada uma amostra de 3 mL de leite materno para avaliação de excreção. A análise dos enantiômeros da fluoxetina e norfluoxetina em plasma humano foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (LC-MS/MS). O método de análise foi desenvolvido e validado de acordo com a RDC 27, ANVISA. As medianas dos parâmetros farmacocinéticos dos enantiômeros (S)-(+)- e (R)-(-)- da fluoxetina foram, respectivamente: Cmax 6,05 vs 5,94 ng/mL, t1/2 ? 1,94 vs 2,33 h, AUC0-? 97,81 vs 209,20 ng.h/mL, Cl/f 1,45 vs 0,66 L/h/kg, Vd/f 19,00 vs 23,25 L/kg. E dos parâmetros farmacocinéticos dos (S)-(+)- e (R)-(-)-norfluoxetina foram, respectivamente: Cmax 6,29 vs 3,29 ng/mL, t1/2 ? 83,48 vs 95,15 h, AUC0-? 942,70 vs 498,6 ng.h/mL. O método para análise dos enantiômeros da fluoxetina e norfluoxetina mostraram limites compatíveis com a aplicação de um estudo clínico envolvendo a administração de uma dose única. Foi observada enantiosseletividade em alguns parâmetros na farmacocinética e transferência placentária da fluoxetina e norfluoxetina em gestantes. / Fluoxetine, a chiral drug available for clinical use as a racemic mixture of (S)-(+)-fluoxetine and (R)-(-)-fluoxetine, is the most widely used drug in the treatment of depressive states during pregnancy. N-demethylation of fluoxetine by CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 produce its active metabolite norfluoxetine as the enantiomers S-(+) and (R)-(-)-norfluoxetine. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, transplacental distribution and metabolism of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in healthy pregnant women. A total of nine pregnant women without comorbidities received a single oral dose of 20 mg fluoxetine on two separate occasions, the first in the 32 gestation weeks and the second at the day of delivery. After drug administration during the first sequential samples of maternal blood were collected at time zero until 672 hours. On the day of delivery, after receiving the medication maternal blood sample was collected at birth, umbilical blood vessels, intervillous space, and amniotic fluid sample for evaluation of placental drug transfer. Twenty-four hours after delivery was collected a sample of 3 ml of breast milk for analysis of excretion by this way. The analysis of the enantiomers of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human plasma was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS) .The analytical method was developed and validated in accordance with the RDC 27, ANVISA. Median pharmacokinetic parameters of (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-fluoxetine enantiomers were: Cmax 6.05 vs 5.94 ng/mL, t1/2 ? 1.94 vs 2.33 h, AUC 0-? 97.81 vs 209.20 ng.hr/mL, Cl/f 1.45 vs 0.66 L/h/kg, Vd/f 19.00 vs 23.25 L/kg. The values of (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-norfluoxetine enantiomers were: Cmax 6.29 vs 3.29 ng/mL, t1/2 ? 83.48 vs 95.15 h, AUC 0-? 942.70 vs 498.6 ng.h/mL. Confidence method for sequence analysis of the enantiomers of fluoxetine and its active metabolites showed limits compatible with the application of a clinical study involving the administration of a single dose of pregnant women. Enantioselectivity was observed in some parameters of pharmacokinetics and placental fluoxetine and norfluoxetine transfer in healthy pregnant women.
9

Estudo farmacocinético e análise da distribuição transplacentária da fluoxetina e seu metabólito em gestantes saudáveis / Pharmacokinetic study and analysis of transplacental distribution of fluoxetine and its metabolite in healthy pregnant women

Carvalho, Daniela Miarelli 19 August 2016 (has links)
A fluoxetina, um fármaco quiral disponível para uso clínico, como uma mistura racêmica de (S)-(+)-fluoxetina e (R)-(-)-fluoxetina, é a droga mais utilizada no tratamento de estados depressivos durante a gravidez. N-desmetilação de fluoxetina por CYP2D6, CYP2C9 e CYP3A4 produz o seu metabólito ativo, norfluoxetina com os enantiômeros (S)-(+)-e (R)-(-)- norfluoxetina. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a farmacocinética, distribuição transplacentária e metabolismo da fluoxetina e norfluoxetina, em gestantes saudáveis. Foram avaliadas nove gestantes sem comorbidades. Todas receberam dose única de 20 mg de fluoxetina via oral em duas ocasiões distintas, sendo a primeira com 32 semanas e a segunda no dia do parto. Após a administração do fármaco, foram coletadas amostras seriadas de sangue materno para avaliação da concentração dos enantiômeros da fluoxetina, nos tempos de zero a 672 horas. No dia do parto, após receber a medicação, foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas materna no momento do nascimento, de sangue de vasos umbilicais, espaço interviloso, líquido amniótico para avaliação da transferência placentária. Vinte e quatro horas após o parto, foi coletada uma amostra de 3 mL de leite materno para avaliação de excreção. A análise dos enantiômeros da fluoxetina e norfluoxetina em plasma humano foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (LC-MS/MS). O método de análise foi desenvolvido e validado de acordo com a RDC 27, ANVISA. As medianas dos parâmetros farmacocinéticos dos enantiômeros (S)-(+)- e (R)-(-)- da fluoxetina foram, respectivamente: Cmax 6,05 vs 5,94 ng/mL, t1/2 ? 1,94 vs 2,33 h, AUC0-? 97,81 vs 209,20 ng.h/mL, Cl/f 1,45 vs 0,66 L/h/kg, Vd/f 19,00 vs 23,25 L/kg. E dos parâmetros farmacocinéticos dos (S)-(+)- e (R)-(-)-norfluoxetina foram, respectivamente: Cmax 6,29 vs 3,29 ng/mL, t1/2 ? 83,48 vs 95,15 h, AUC0-? 942,70 vs 498,6 ng.h/mL. O método para análise dos enantiômeros da fluoxetina e norfluoxetina mostraram limites compatíveis com a aplicação de um estudo clínico envolvendo a administração de uma dose única. Foi observada enantiosseletividade em alguns parâmetros na farmacocinética e transferência placentária da fluoxetina e norfluoxetina em gestantes. / Fluoxetine, a chiral drug available for clinical use as a racemic mixture of (S)-(+)-fluoxetine and (R)-(-)-fluoxetine, is the most widely used drug in the treatment of depressive states during pregnancy. N-demethylation of fluoxetine by CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 produce its active metabolite norfluoxetine as the enantiomers S-(+) and (R)-(-)-norfluoxetine. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, transplacental distribution and metabolism of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in healthy pregnant women. A total of nine pregnant women without comorbidities received a single oral dose of 20 mg fluoxetine on two separate occasions, the first in the 32 gestation weeks and the second at the day of delivery. After drug administration during the first sequential samples of maternal blood were collected at time zero until 672 hours. On the day of delivery, after receiving the medication maternal blood sample was collected at birth, umbilical blood vessels, intervillous space, and amniotic fluid sample for evaluation of placental drug transfer. Twenty-four hours after delivery was collected a sample of 3 ml of breast milk for analysis of excretion by this way. The analysis of the enantiomers of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human plasma was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS) .The analytical method was developed and validated in accordance with the RDC 27, ANVISA. Median pharmacokinetic parameters of (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-fluoxetine enantiomers were: Cmax 6.05 vs 5.94 ng/mL, t1/2 ? 1.94 vs 2.33 h, AUC 0-? 97.81 vs 209.20 ng.hr/mL, Cl/f 1.45 vs 0.66 L/h/kg, Vd/f 19.00 vs 23.25 L/kg. The values of (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-norfluoxetine enantiomers were: Cmax 6.29 vs 3.29 ng/mL, t1/2 ? 83.48 vs 95.15 h, AUC 0-? 942.70 vs 498.6 ng.h/mL. Confidence method for sequence analysis of the enantiomers of fluoxetine and its active metabolites showed limits compatible with the application of a clinical study involving the administration of a single dose of pregnant women. Enantioselectivity was observed in some parameters of pharmacokinetics and placental fluoxetine and norfluoxetine transfer in healthy pregnant women.
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Disposição cinética e transferência placentária dos enantiômeros da bupivacaína em parturientes portadoras do HIV em tratamento com antirretrovirais / Kinetic disposition and placental transfer of bupivacaine enantiomers in HIV-infected pregnant women in antiretroviral therapy

Souza, Marília Cristina Oliveira 06 March 2015 (has links)
A bupivacaína, um anestésico usado na anestesia e analgesia obstétrica, é disponível comercialmente como mistura racêmica dos enantiômeros (R)-(+)-bupivacaína e (S)-(-)-bupivacaína, os quais apresentam diferença na farmacocinética, eficácia e toxicidade. A bupivacaína é altamente ligada às proteínas plasmáticas, é substrato do transportador de efluxo glicoproteína-P (P-gp) e apresenta eliminação dependente do CYP3A4. Considerando que a infecção pelo HIV aumenta a expressão da P-gp na placenta, enquanto o tratamento com antirretrovirais (ARV) inibe o CYP3A4 e a P-gp, o presente estudo avalia a disposição cinética dos enantiômeros da bupivacaína em parturientes portadoras do HIV em tratamento com antirretrovirais (ARV). No presente estudo, foram investigadas 10 parturientes portadoras do HIV em tratamento com zidovudina, lamivudina, lopinavir e ritonavir. A anestesia ou analgesia foi realizada através da administração de cloridrato de bupivacaína 0,5% com epinefrina 1:200000 em espaço epidural, em doses de 2,5-22,5 mg. As amostras seriadas de sangue foram obtidas nos tempos imediatamente antes, 5, 15, 30, 45 e 60 min e em 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 14h após a administração do anestésico bupivacaína. No momento do parto também foram coletadas amostras de sangue materno e sangue do cordão umbilical, para estudos de transferência placentária. Os métodos desenvolvidos e validados para a análise sequencial dos enantiômeros (+)-(R)-bupivacaína e (-)-(S)-bupivacaína como concentração total e como concentração livre em plasma empregando LC-MS/MS são compatíveis com a aplicação em estudo de farmacocinética em parturientes por apresentar as vantagens do baixo volume de plasma (200 ?L), corrida cromatográfica de aproximadamente 8 minutos, simples procedimento de extração líquido-líquido, baixo LIQ (0,25 ng de cada enantiômero/mL de plasma como concentração total e 0,125 ng de cada enantiômero/mL de plasma como concentração livre), extensa linearidade (0,25-500 ng de cada enantiômero/mL de plasma como concentração total e 0,125-10 ng de cada enantiômero/mL de plasma como concentração livre) e estabilidade assegurada em estudos de curta duração, ciclos de congelamento e pós-congelamento e pós-processamento. Os parâmetros farmacocinéticos dos enantiômeros da bupivacaína foram calculados com base nas curvas de concentração plasmática total versus tempo empregando o programa WinNonlin. A farmacocinética da bupivacaina é enantiosseletiva com acúmulo plasmático do enantiômero (S)-(-)-bupivacaína, com razão AUC (R)/(S) igual a 0,91 (p <0,05). A fração livre no plasma (Fu) é maior para o enantiômero (R)-(+)-bupivacaína, 9% (6 - 12), quando comparado ao enantiômero (S)-(-)-bupivacaína, 6 % (4 - 9) (p < 0,05). O tratamento com ARV, incluindo o ritonavir, infere interação enantiosseletiva entre os enantiômeros da bupivacaína e a P-gp placentária, com observação de maior inibição para o enantiômero (R)-(+)-bupivacaína. / Bupivacaine, an anesthetic used in obstetric anesthesia and analgesia is commercially available as a racemic mixture of (R)-(+)-bupivacaine and (S)-(-)-bupivacaine, which exhibit differences in pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity. Bupivacaine is highly bound to plasma proteins, is a substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and presents elimination dependent on CYP3A4. Whereas HIV infection increases the expression of P-gp in the placenta, while treatment with antiretroviral (ARV) inhibits CYP3A4 and P-gp, this study evaluates the kinetic disposition of the enantiomers of bupivacaine in pregnant women with HIV in antiretroviral therapy (ARV). In the present study, we investigated 10 pregnant women with HIV in treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine, lopinavir and ritonavir. Anesthesia or analgesia was performed using 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine administration of 1:200,000 in the epidural space, in doses of 2.5 to 22.5 mg. The serial blood samples were taken immediately before the time, 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14h after administration of the anesthetic bupivacaine. At delivery were also collected samples of maternal blood and cord blood, placental transfer studies. The methods developed and validated for sequence analysis of the enantiomers (+)-(R)-bupivacaine and (-)-(S)-bupivacaine and the total concentration as the free plasma concentration using LC-MS/MS spectra are consistent with the application of pharmacokinetic study in pregnant women to present the advantages of low plasma volume (200 ?L), chromatographic run approximately 8 minutes, simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure, low LLQ (0.25 ng each enantiomer/mL of plasma and total concentrations of each enantiomer 0.125 ng/mL as free plasma concentration), extended linearity (0.25 to 500 ng of each enantiomer/mL of plasma and the total concentration of each enantiomer from 0.125 to 10 ng/mL as concentration of plasma free), and ensured stability in short-term studies, cycles of freezing and post-freeze and post-processing. The pharmacokinetic parameters of bupivacaine enantiomers were calculated based on total plasma concentration curves versus time using WinNonlin program. Pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine is enantioselective with plasma accumulation of enantiomer (S)-(-)-bupivacaine with AUC ratio (R)/(S) equal to 0.91 (p <0.05). The free fraction in plasma (Fu) is higher for the enantiomer (R)-(+)-bupivacaine, 9% (6-12) enantiomer compared to the (S)-(-)-bupivacaine, 6% (4 - 9) (p <0.05). The ARV treatment, including ritonavir, infers enantioselective interaction between the enantiomers of bupivacaine and P-gp placental, highlighting greater inhibition of the enantiomer (R)-(+)-bupivacaine.

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