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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Police as frontline mental health workers : the decision to arrest or refer to mental health agencies

Green, Thomas, 1937 January 1995 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1995. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 166-178). / Microfiche. / xv, 178 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
32

Peeling an Apple: Police Discretion from an Officer's Perspective in Terms of a Definition, Education, and the Process of Routinization

Beech, Andrew Evan 09 September 2008 (has links)
No description available.
33

Lokvalbetrapping in die Suid-Afrikaanse reg

Naude, Bobby Charles 10 1900 (has links)
Text in Afrikaans / Alhoewel die lokvalstelsel as misdaadbekampingsmetode lank reeds bestaan, is die toepassing daarvan nog altyd kontroversieE!I. Hierdie omstredenheid is die laaste paar jaar op die voorgrond gedryf deur 'n Regskommissie-ondersoek, sowel as deur die aanvaarding van 'n Handves van Menseregte. Ondersoek word ingestel na hierdie omstredenheid deur te kyk na die inhoud en toepassing van die stelsel, sowel as na die rol wat private persona, die polisie en die hot by die stelsel speeL Die gevolgtrekking waartoe gekom word, is dat die omstredenheid van die stelsel te danke is aan die feit dat dit verband hou met pro-aktiewe regshandhawing, wat in wese bestaan uit die gebruik van misleiding ten einde die pleging van 'n misdaad teweeg te bring. Die probleem met pro-aktiewe regshandhawing is dat dit 'n geleentheid skep vir die uitoefening van polisiediskresie wat grootliks sonder beheer geskied, met potensiele wanoptrede aan die kant van regshandhawers en die ondermyning van die publiek se vertroue in die billikheid van die strafregspleging. Ondersoek word gevolglik ingestel na metodes om diskresie-uitoefening by die lokvalstelsel te regverdig, aangesien daar wei ruimte is vir diskresionere magte wat behoorlik begrens, gestruktureer en gekontroleer is. Die vernaamste metodes van beheer oor diskresie­ uitoefening by die lokvalstelsel, naamlik die uitsluiting van getuienis en weerstand in 'n strafgeding, word grondig ondersoek met verwysing na die Engelse-, Amerikaanse- en Kanadese reg. Dit is egter die uitgangspunt van hierdie proefskrif dat wetgewende strukturering van diskresie-uitoefening by die lokvalstelsel die mees effektiewe oplossing bied vir meeste van die problema van die stelsel. Die enigste aanvaarbare basis waarop die lokvalstelsel kan funksioneer, is om deur middel van wetgewing die trefwydte van toelaatbare lokvaltegnieke en die beperkinge waarbinne regshandhawers regsonderdane mag beweeg om misdade te pleeg, te definieer. Daar is dus 'n behoefte aan die kodifisering van standaarde waaraan voldoen moet word voordat enige lokvaloperasie behoort te begin. / Although the system of trapping has long been used as a method of preventing crime, its employment has always been controversial. In the recent past, this controversy has come to the front due to an investigation by the South African Law Commission and the acceptance of a Bill of Rights. This thesis investigates this controversy by looking at the contents and application of the system, as well as the role which private persons, the police and the court play in the system. The conclusion arrived at, is that the controversy surrounding the system is due to the fact that it has to do with pro-active law enforcement, which consists of the use of deception to induce the performance of a criminal act. The problem with pro-active law enforcement is that it creates an opportunity for the exercise of police discretion which is mainly uncontrolled, with potentialmisconduct on the part of law enforcement officials and the subversion of public trust in the reasonableness of the criminal justice system. Consequently, methods by which the exercise of discretion in the system of trapping can be justified are investigated, since there is room for discretionary powers which are properly circumscribed, structured and controlled. The main methods of control over the exercise of discretion in the system of trapping, namely the exclusion of evidence and a defence in a criminal proceeding, are fully investigated with reference to English, American and Canadian law. Having considered the above, the conclusion is advanced that legislative structuring of the exercise of discretion in the system of trapping offers the most effective solution for most of the problems underlying the system. The only acceptable basis on which the system can function, is to define the scope of acceptable trapping techniques and the confines within which law enforcement officials may prevail on someone to commit a crime. This must be done by means of legislation. Accordingly, there is a need for codification of standards which have to be complied with before any trapping operation may commence. / Criminal & Procedural Law / LL.D. (Criminal & Procedural Law)
34

O poder de polícia: um estudo sobre as percepções dos policiais militares do Estado do Rio de Janeiro sobre o poder de polícia / Police power: a study on the police power perceptions of the Rio de Janeiro military police officers

Verônica Almeida dos Anjos 26 April 2010 (has links)
Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar uma discussão sobre o poder de polícia materializado na prática policial cotidiana dos policiais da Polícia Militar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para desenvolver o tema poder de polícia foi imprescindível abordar os elementos que o constituem, que são: a discricionariedade da atividade de polícia, os termos do mandato de polícia, as formas de controle da ação policial e os aspectos da autonomia e subordinação da força policial. / This study intends to present a discussion about police power based on the daily police work developed by the police officers of the Military Police of the state of Rio de Janeiro. In order to accomplish this proposal it was fundamental to focus in its constitutional elements, which are: police discretion, the terms of the mandate of the police, control of police work and aspects of both autonomy and subordination of the police force.
35

Public-Police Relations: Officers' Interpretations of Citizen Contacts

Hardin, Donal Alfred 01 January 2015 (has links)
Perceptual differences in how citizens and police view police-initiated contacts can result in individual and communal tension, mistrust, and social strife, which complicate the relationships needed in order to thrive and promote safe environments. To examine how police officers interpret these contacts, this case study sought to explore the nature of citizen-police relations from the perspective of police officers in a city in the northwest part of the United States. Social contract and procedural justice theories were used to examine the circumstances that officers cited for taking enforcement actions, including operational definitions of police fairness and legitimacy from the Queensland Community Engagement Trial. Data were collected from interviews with 10 officers during police ride-alongs and from departmental data related to officer performance. These data were inductively coded and then analyzed using a naturalistic inquiry approach. Findings suggest that police officers were amenable to creating formal, quasi-contractual agreements between police and citizens based on a shared understanding of how police exercised power and discretion to guide the citizen-police interaction. Participants perceived that, under certain circumstances, explaining police discretion to citizens may decrease the level of community tension police officers experience. These findings support the theoretical constructs of procedural justice and have implications for social contract theory. This type of arrangement encourages positive social change by strengthening the ties with community members, which in turn promotes officer and public safety.
36

Lokvalbetrapping in die Suid-Afrikaanse reg

Naude, Bobby Charles 10 1900 (has links)
Text in Afrikaans / Alhoewel die lokvalstelsel as misdaadbekampingsmetode lank reeds bestaan, is die toepassing daarvan nog altyd kontroversieE!I. Hierdie omstredenheid is die laaste paar jaar op die voorgrond gedryf deur 'n Regskommissie-ondersoek, sowel as deur die aanvaarding van 'n Handves van Menseregte. Ondersoek word ingestel na hierdie omstredenheid deur te kyk na die inhoud en toepassing van die stelsel, sowel as na die rol wat private persona, die polisie en die hot by die stelsel speeL Die gevolgtrekking waartoe gekom word, is dat die omstredenheid van die stelsel te danke is aan die feit dat dit verband hou met pro-aktiewe regshandhawing, wat in wese bestaan uit die gebruik van misleiding ten einde die pleging van 'n misdaad teweeg te bring. Die probleem met pro-aktiewe regshandhawing is dat dit 'n geleentheid skep vir die uitoefening van polisiediskresie wat grootliks sonder beheer geskied, met potensiele wanoptrede aan die kant van regshandhawers en die ondermyning van die publiek se vertroue in die billikheid van die strafregspleging. Ondersoek word gevolglik ingestel na metodes om diskresie-uitoefening by die lokvalstelsel te regverdig, aangesien daar wei ruimte is vir diskresionere magte wat behoorlik begrens, gestruktureer en gekontroleer is. Die vernaamste metodes van beheer oor diskresie­ uitoefening by die lokvalstelsel, naamlik die uitsluiting van getuienis en weerstand in 'n strafgeding, word grondig ondersoek met verwysing na die Engelse-, Amerikaanse- en Kanadese reg. Dit is egter die uitgangspunt van hierdie proefskrif dat wetgewende strukturering van diskresie-uitoefening by die lokvalstelsel die mees effektiewe oplossing bied vir meeste van die problema van die stelsel. Die enigste aanvaarbare basis waarop die lokvalstelsel kan funksioneer, is om deur middel van wetgewing die trefwydte van toelaatbare lokvaltegnieke en die beperkinge waarbinne regshandhawers regsonderdane mag beweeg om misdade te pleeg, te definieer. Daar is dus 'n behoefte aan die kodifisering van standaarde waaraan voldoen moet word voordat enige lokvaloperasie behoort te begin. / Although the system of trapping has long been used as a method of preventing crime, its employment has always been controversial. In the recent past, this controversy has come to the front due to an investigation by the South African Law Commission and the acceptance of a Bill of Rights. This thesis investigates this controversy by looking at the contents and application of the system, as well as the role which private persons, the police and the court play in the system. The conclusion arrived at, is that the controversy surrounding the system is due to the fact that it has to do with pro-active law enforcement, which consists of the use of deception to induce the performance of a criminal act. The problem with pro-active law enforcement is that it creates an opportunity for the exercise of police discretion which is mainly uncontrolled, with potentialmisconduct on the part of law enforcement officials and the subversion of public trust in the reasonableness of the criminal justice system. Consequently, methods by which the exercise of discretion in the system of trapping can be justified are investigated, since there is room for discretionary powers which are properly circumscribed, structured and controlled. The main methods of control over the exercise of discretion in the system of trapping, namely the exclusion of evidence and a defence in a criminal proceeding, are fully investigated with reference to English, American and Canadian law. Having considered the above, the conclusion is advanced that legislative structuring of the exercise of discretion in the system of trapping offers the most effective solution for most of the problems underlying the system. The only acceptable basis on which the system can function, is to define the scope of acceptable trapping techniques and the confines within which law enforcement officials may prevail on someone to commit a crime. This must be done by means of legislation. Accordingly, there is a need for codification of standards which have to be complied with before any trapping operation may commence. / Criminal and Procedural Law / LL.D. (Criminal & Procedural Law)
37

O poder de polícia: um estudo sobre as percepções dos policiais militares do Estado do Rio de Janeiro sobre o poder de polícia / Police power: a study on the police power perceptions of the Rio de Janeiro military police officers

Verônica Almeida dos Anjos 26 April 2010 (has links)
Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar uma discussão sobre o poder de polícia materializado na prática policial cotidiana dos policiais da Polícia Militar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para desenvolver o tema poder de polícia foi imprescindível abordar os elementos que o constituem, que são: a discricionariedade da atividade de polícia, os termos do mandato de polícia, as formas de controle da ação policial e os aspectos da autonomia e subordinação da força policial. / This study intends to present a discussion about police power based on the daily police work developed by the police officers of the Military Police of the state of Rio de Janeiro. In order to accomplish this proposal it was fundamental to focus in its constitutional elements, which are: police discretion, the terms of the mandate of the police, control of police work and aspects of both autonomy and subordination of the police force.
38

Why do they resist? Exploring dynamics of police-citizen violence during arrest encounters

Belvedere, Kimberly Joy 01 January 2003 (has links)
This study seeks to identify a relationship between Rational Choice/Classical thought and resisting arrest among criminal offenders. It seeks also to fill the gap that currently exists with regard to the effects of situational dynamics and police-citizen violence.
39

The Effects of Attributional Styles on Perceptions of Severely Mentally Ill Offenders: a Study of Police Officer Decision-making

Steadham, Jennifer A. 08 1900 (has links)
Police officers are allowed considerable discretion within the criminal justice system in addressing illegal behaviors and interpersonal conflicts. Broadly, such resolutions fall into two categories: formal (e.g., arrest) and informal outcomes. Many of these interventions involve persons who have historically faced stigmatization, such as those who have mental disorders, criminal histories, or both (i.e., mentally disordered offenders). On this point, stigma generally includes discriminatory behavior toward the stigmatized person or group and can be substantially influenced by internal and external attributions. In addition, researchers have suggested that internal attributions lead to punishing behaviors and external attributions lead to helping behaviors. The current study examined attributions about offender behavior made by police officers in an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of Corrigan’s model. Specifically, this study investigated the effects of officer attributions on their immediate decisions in addressing intentionally ambiguous and minor offenses. Officers provided one of two vignettes of a hypothetical offender who was either mentally disordered or intoxicated and provided their anticipated resolution of the situation. Encouragingly, disposition decision differed by offender condition, with a substantially higher rate of arrests for the intoxicated offender (i.e., the external condition). Corrigan’s model was initially successful for both offender conditions, but was overall more successful for the mentally disordered condition. Results are discussed within the broader context of police policy, such as crisis intervention training, and identification of officers who could benefit from additional mental health trainings.
40

Souplesse et méfiance de la coopération policière transnationale

Perras, Chantal 06 1900 (has links)
Même si la coopération policière transnationale est l’objet ces dernières années d’un engouement souvent attribué à des vertus d’efficacité, il reste que relativement peu d’informations sont disponibles sur le processus en lui-même. L’objectif général de la thèse était de fournir une analyse englobant à la fois les préoccupations des autorités politiques et celles des acteurs judiciaires et policiers. Ces acteurs occupent tous des rôles nécessaires dans le système de la coopération policière transnationale, mais outre cette constatation, les études à leur sujet ne se recoupent pas véritablement. C’est donc dire que, d’une part, les études sur les acteurs politiques se concentrent sur les décisions prises par ceux-ci, sur l’élaboration de concepts et sur la signature de conventions. D’autre part, les études sur les acteurs policiers et judiciaires mettent l’accent sur le déroulement quotidien des activités policières transnationales et sur ce qui s’ensuit, c’est-à-dire les procédures judiciaires. À l’aide de concepts tels que la discrétion et la souplesse, la familiarité, la confiance, la méfiance, le scepticisme et l’évitement, nous tentons de rallier les récents concepts de reconnaissance mutuelle et de confiance mutuelle avec ce qui se passe effectivement dans le monde opérationnel. La thèse, qui s’intéresse principalement à la coopération policière transnationale en matière de trafic de drogues, s’appuie sur deux types de données. Tout d’abord, des entrevues qualitatives semi-dirigées ont été menées auprès de 21 policiers et procureurs. Ensuite, une analyse documentaire a été effectuée sur des documents canadiens, soit les sept jurisprudences sur l’extranéité et un guide rédigé par un procureur à l’intention des enquêteurs œuvrant dans les enquêtes. Nous allons présenter rapidement les résultats les plus importants de la thèse. Dans le premier chapitre, il a été question de deux niveaux de structures de pouvoir, qui n’évoluent pas en vases clos, mais qui s’influencent mutuellement. C’est dire que le levier d’influence des acteurs étatiques sur les acteurs du policing transnational peut être relativement puissant, mais que des parades peuvent toujours être utilisées par les policiers dans des cas spécifiques. Nadelmann (1993) avait raison lorsqu’il a soutenu qu’une norme adoptée au niveau transnational n’est pas nécessairement utile à la réalisation des objectifs communs des États, c’est-à-dire l’immobilisation des criminels. La norme est le produit d’une négociation politique et d’un jeu de pouvoir. Au final, elle n’influe pas énormément sur les décisions prises par les policiers dans les enquêtes à composantes transnationales. Au mieux, elle est un guide de règles à ne pas violer ouvertement et impunément. De plus, alors que les pays et les organisations utilisent un système de récompense, d’incitatifs ou de menace de sanctions pour favoriser la coopération policière transnationale en vu d’une participation à une enquête à composantes transnationales, les individus qui travaillent dans les enquêtes à composantes transnationales utilisent la familiarité et valorisent la confiance comme moyen pour établir et maintenir des liens. Ces individus ne peuvent pas s’obliger entre eux, alors qu’il existe la possibilité d’imposer des sanctions réelles entre acteurs étatiques. Il s’agit donc de deux niveaux d’analyse, dans lesquelles la configuration des relations est différente. Dans le deuxième chapitre d’analyse, nous avons examiné les jurisprudences canadiennes et le guide d’un procureur à l’intention des policiers, ce qui nous a amené à constater la discrétion laissée par les agents judiciaires aux policiers travaillant au sein d’enquêtes à composantes transnationales. En fait, nous avons trouvé que les agents judiciaires sont conscients des difficultés des enquêtes à composantes transnationales et qu’ils sont plus flexibles dans ces cas que dans les enquêtes nationales. Le troisième chapitre d’analyse a montré que de nombreux moyens sont à la disposition des agents de l’enquête, et qu’une certaine logique sous-tendait les choix des policiers. Plus particulièrement, c’est la gestion des incertitudes, la nature de l’information et son utilisation envisagée qui importe pour les agents de l’enquête à composantes transnationale. Finalement, le dernier chapitre d’analyse illustre les différents types de relations entretenues entre agents de l’enquête. Nous avons trouvé que le scepticisme est prépondérant mais que la coopération demeure le plus souvent possible, lorsque les acteurs ont des intérêts en commun. Une certaine familiarité entre les acteurs est nécessaire, mais la confiance n’est pas toujours essentielle à la mise en œuvre des activités policières transnationales. En fait, cela dépend du niveau d’échanges nécessaires et du contexte. Gambetta (1988) avait d’ailleurs montré qu’une structure sociale relativement stable puisse se maintenir dans un contexte généralisé de méfiance. / In recent years, transnational police cooperation has been the subject of much attention, often with a prioritization on efficiency. However, relatively little information is available on the process itself. The main objective of the thesis is to formulate an analytical framework that integrates the concerns of political authorities and those of judicial and law-enforcement actors. Past research has illustrated that such actors are all pivotal in the transnational police cooperation system. Yet, in spite of such findings, researchers have generally approached this setting without placing the consistent overlap and interactions between such actors at the forefront. This has left us with a separate set of studies on political actors and the decisions taken by them in regard to the development of concepts and the signing of agreements and studies on police and judicial actors that are more concerned with the daily conduct of transnational policing and what follows (i.e., court proceedings). Using concepts and terms such as discretion, flexibility, familiarity, (dis)trust, scepticism, and avoidance, this thesis proposes an integrative framework designed to rally more recent concepts of mutual recognition and mutual trust with what actually happens in real life police operations. The study focuses primarily on transnational drug trafficking cases within the Canadian context and is based on two types of data. First, qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 police investigators and prosecutors. Next, a content analysis was performed on seven jurisprudences on transnational cases and a guide written by an attorney for investigators. The most important results of the thesis are presented here. In the first chapter, two power structures that are in constant interaction are revealed. Such interaction illustrates that the lever of influence of state actors on transnational policing actors can be quite powerful, but facades can still be used by police officers in specific cases. This supports Nadelmann (1993), who argued that a standard adopted at the transnational level is not necessarily helpful to achieve the common goal of states, which is to contain and immobilize offenders. The norm is the product of political negotiations and an ongoing power struggle, which, in the end, does not have a strong influence on the decisions taken by the police in transnational investigations. At best, formal agreements between states serve as an impunity guide for police actors on what not to violate openly. Furthermore, as countries and organizations use a system of rewards, incentives or threats of sanctions to promote cooperation in transnational policing, individuals working in transnational investigations uses familiarity and trust as a means to establish and maintain relationships. These individuals cannot bind themselves. On the contrary, there is the possibility to impose real sanctions between state actors. This problem is approached with two levels of analysis that reveal different relational patterns. In the second chapter of analysis, Canadian jurisprudence and a prosecutorial guide that was written for investigators are examined. These documents demonstrate the discretion left by judicial actors on those working in transnational police investigations. In fact, we found that judicial actors are well aware of the difficulties related to transnational investigations. They are more flexible in those cases than in national investigations. The third chapter pursues such discretion and highlights the many paths available to police actors involved in transnational cooperation. In particular, it is the management of uncertainty, the nature of information and its intended use that are important to them. Finally, the last chapter of analysis assesses the different types of relationships maintained between actors in transnational investigations. We found that, while scepticism overrides most relationships, cooperation continues as often as possible, at least when actors have interests in common. A level of familiarity between actors is necessary, but trust is not always essential to achieve transnational policing. In fact, it depends on the requested level of exchanges and in the context and is consistent with previous work by Gambetta (1988), who shows that even in a generalized context of distrust, a relatively stable social structure can maintain itself.

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