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Virginia Elementary School Principals' Experiences with the Unintended Consequences of Implementing Inclusion of Students with DisabilitiesGriffin, Amy 10 January 2010 (has links)
In order to meet the instructional, accountability, and staffing requirements of No Child Left Behind legislation (NCLB, 2001) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004, elementary school principals are being challenged to include all students with disabilities into general education settings. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze a sample of elementary school principals'experiences and views of the unintended consequences of implementing inclusion of students with disabilities in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Data were collected through a qualitative design, using focus group methodology and document analysis. Three focus groups were conducted consisting of elementary school principals from Virginia. Participants were asked to provide school and/or division level documents stating the philosophy or procedures regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. The researcher also reviewed information and documents on the school and division websites of participants prior to focus group sessions. These documents were analyzed in regards to the role of the principal in relation to the inclusion of students with disabilities. Research questions and data collected were framed and analyzed using an educational system capacity framework developed by Florian, Hange, and Copeland (2000). The researcher interpreted and described how elementary school principals experience inclusion as affecting the role of the principal through the lens of human, organizational, structural, and resource capacities. Major findings that emerged included the following challenges that elementary school principals experience: (a) the inclusion/LRE debate; (b) their own lack of knowledge of special education and inclusion as well as the lack of knowledge of other key players; (c) limited staffing and scheduling options that offer the continuum of special education services in order to meet the unique needs of students with disabilities; (d) co-teaching conflicts; and (e) discipline concerns related to including students with disabilities in the general education setting. / Ed. D.
Negative Unintended Consequences of Innovation- a case study regarding innovation and sustainability : The new Extended Value Creation Mechanism for Global Sustainability, the SNE SFI GS-frameworkAli Rashed, Chra, Mouyiasis, George January 2013 (has links)
Innovation is often related to positive outcomes for the majority to enjoy that enhances welfare and facilitates everyday activities. In different fields of study (economics, management, sociology, history and science and technology) it is becoming a field of magnitude (Malerba and Brusoni, 2007). Fagerberg and Verspagen (2009) discuss the emerging interest of innovation in the field of social science. Although the interest within the subject of innovation is high, very little research has been done regarding the aim to contribute to the design innovation policy, developed by scholars studying the field of innovation. One often so neglected study within innovation is in the field of negative unintended consequences of innovation (NUCoI) (Sveiby et al, 2012). One main contributor of innovative activities is organizational operations leading to value for end customers. While firms often have the aim to create value with innovation for the greater benefit in society, sometimes these value-creating mechanisms may create unintended negative consequences in addition to the positive effects. While innovations are increasing in rapidness and numbers of output produced, the effects on society and the natural environment needs to be highlighted. With assumptions regarding vague CSR implementation in corporations (Newell, 2005), this research tries to grasp understanding on how NUCoI is perceived from the managerial perspective in organizations regarding their stakeholder viewpoint. As a starting point, the authors use Charlie Chaplin’s famous quote “More than machinery, we need humanity” from the movie “The Great Dictator” indicating the importance of caring for various stakes. Purpose: The aim of this research is to highlight the new field of study in social science; Negative unintended consequences of innovation (NUCoI) in relation to the societal natural environment (society and the natural environment). The research contributes to the existing frameworks on organizational value creation mechanisms in innovation policy to incorporate the aspect of negative consequences of innovation (NCoI), in terms of sustainability to highlight the importance of secondary stakeholders. Results: The new Extended Value Creation Mechanism for Global Sustainability, the Societal-Natural-Environment Stakeholder Framework of Innovation and Global Sustainability framework (SNE SFI GS-framework), aims to contribute in the long-term perspective for research in innovation policy by highlighting one aspect of a field of the often so neglected societal natural environment perspective, when competing rivalry becomes too fierce. The framework highlights the importance of secondary stakeholders, where primary stakeholders may act as a “link” between the organization and secondary stakeholders. Additionally, the authors suggest going to basic practices regarding sustainability with valuating the natural resources for a prospering sustainable society. The aspects in the research include stakeholder-theory, value-creation in terms of the societal natural environment, and innovation as a field of social science, negative consequences and organizational sense-making.
This formative research examines the effects of health promotion on girls' and young women's health behaviours. Health promotion campaigns targeting women have previously had variable success. Some have been criticised for containing unhelpful values and messages, for example, those that were seen to cause harm to women outside the target population or use of stereotypical symbolism to support the message. Within this study these are called 'unintended consequences'. The Young Women and Health Promotion (YW&HP) study examines the potential for unintended consequences (both negative and positive) of health promotion in general. The focus is then narrowed to examine in more detail whether the use of specific methodologies (such as social marketing), contribute to unintended consequences when promoting physical activity, nutrition and non- smoking messages to girls' and young women. These health behaviours were specifically targeted as they are known to be the major modifiable risk factors for women in the prevention of many chronic illnesses. / This formative research involved the collection and analysis of qualitative and quantitative data from 132 girls and young women across three age categories. These were Year 7 girls (Children - 11-12 years), Year 10 girls (Adolescents - 14-15 years) and young adults (18-25 years). Eighteen focus groups and 15 in-depth interviews were conducted to elicit responses to examine the effects of health promotion on girls' and young women's health behaviours, with particular focus on unintended effects. Current and past health promotion materials, plus a selection of commercial campaigns were utilized to prompt discussion within the groups. The discussion allowed the exploration of girls' and young women's motivators (enabling and reinforcing factors) for personal health behaviours, attitudes and responses to health promotion materials, and the longer-term impacts of health promotion campaigns. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed at the commencement of each focus group, which provided additional information and was later triangulated with the qualitative data. Limitations due to the cross-sectional nature and sampling process of the study mean the results cannot be generalized beyond the study population. However the findings demonstrated that young women are motivated by a complex set of factors. The most common factors influencing the study groups were body image, self-esteem, media and role models. / In addition young women of all age groups had a high awareness of the available messages in the areas studied. All groups discussed the increasing volume of health information available that is targeted at women. Participants noted much of the information originated from commercial sources. This in addition to public health initiatives resulted in increased 'health noise' to which they 'switched off. Furthermore the YW&HP study revealed the importance of written media for women. The young women in this study appreciated the need for mass media advertising, however, preferred to have take-home advice to process at their own time. Discussion of how women process information revealed these young women to be a critical and analytical audience that are often skeptical of health information. Prior to making a decision, therefore, most of the women underwent a process of internal and external validation which included cross referencing information with peers, friends, family and health professionals to establish its accuracy, credibility and validity. Hence the findings of this study would support the need for further exploration of media such as women's magazines to promote health to young women which may in turn prompt discussion with peers and therefore expedite the validation process. / Due to study limitations, results from this formative research need to be interpreted with caution. The results, however, would indicate the area of health promotion and how it communicates health information to young women would benefit from further investigation. The findings suggest many types of media currently being used to communicate health information to young women were useful and appropriate, specifically the use of social marketing media, which, was seen as a worthwhile and necessary strategy for this target group. Methods routinely used by commercial companies were also viewed as effective especially the use of women's magazines. As part of a comprehensive health promotion approach, this is a strategy, which may be an equally useful vehicle for public health messages. In conclusion, discussion with participants revealed a number of negative and positive unintended consequences. This would, therefore, support the need for further research in this area. Furthermore, the research has highlighted the importance of a comprehensive approach to the delivery of health information to young women. Best practice suggests this approach should adhere to ethical communication principles, which would enhance the intended outcomes of the communications whilst also assisting to maximize positive unintended consequences and minimize negative unintended consequences.
Läsvänlig litteratur som skildrar utanförskap : En studie om oavsiktliga konsekvenser och symboliskt våld i skolanOlterman, Hillevi, Kingstedt, Janina January 2015 (has links)
Denna uppsats belyser oavsiktliga konsekvenser som kan uppstå när skolpersonal rekommenderar läsvänliga böcker som skildrar utanförskap. Uppsatsen ämnar söka svar på om skolans pedagogiska åtgärd att rekommendera läsvänliga böcker kan ses som en oavsiktlig symbolisk våldföring samt undersöka vilka etiska dilemman som kan uppstå på grund av att böckerna skildrar utanförskap. Pierre Bourdieu och Jean-Claude Passerons teori om symboliskt våld och Donald Broadys teori om ”Den dolda läroplanen” visar att det finns en maktutövning mellan elever och lärare. Robert K. Mertons teori om oavsiktliga konsekvenser visar vilka konsekvenser som kan uppstå till följd av målmedvetna sociala handlingar. Den tidigare forskning som presenteras i uppsatsen pekar bland annat på att ungdomar ser ett samband mellan skolmisslyckanden och socialt utanförskap. Efter textanalys av Kim Olins bokserie samt blogginlägg skrivna av lärare och skolbibliotekarier har resultaten visat att tillhandahållandet av denna typ av läsvänlig litteratur kan ses som en form av symbolisk våldföring samt att det finns ett etiskt dilemma i böckernas innehåll i relation till den tänkta läsaren. / The aim of this essay is to seek an answer to if a schools educational measures in their recommendation of reader-friendly books can be seen as an utterance of symbolic violence and to examine what kind of ethical dilemmas can arise from a book that portrays social exclusion. Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron’s theories of symbolic violence and Donald Broady’s theory of the hidden curriculum show that teachers wield and exercise a kind of power against and in relation to their students. Robert K. Merton’s theory about unintended consequences exemplifies the kinds of consequences that purposive social action can have. Previous research presented in this essay show that young people often see a correlation between academic failures and social exclusion. After a textual analysis of Kim Olin’s book series about Simon, and blog posts written by teachers and school librarians, our results show that a provision of this type of reader-friendly literature can be seen as an action of symbolic violence against the reciever, and that there is an ethical dilemma to be found in the books subject matter in relation to the intended reader.
Politika legálně držených střelných zbraní v ČR / Policy of legally held firearms in the Czech Republic.Chrastil, Pavel January 2016 (has links)
The aim of this dissertation is to present the issue of legal possession of firearms in the Czech Republic and identify problematic areas within this topic. Dissertation examines whether the current policy of legal possession of firearms is adequate, considering all consequences that this possession brings. Considerable attention is paid to this policy tools and unintended consequences. Dissertation uses the method of desk- research. Within its boundaries content analysis and comparison of available data and documents is made. In the empirical part semi-standardized questionnaire with experts selected from specific areas was conducted as well as a questionnaire survey with license applicants and holders. The main bodies of theory are cultural theory of risk and other heuristics describing distorted risk perception, as well as ethnic security dilemma, which is relevant considering the current threats. Particular empirical support was found, which suggests misperception of risks, when insignificant risks -as driving force for firearms acquisition - are overrated. Firearms holders and applicant are therefore influenced by unfounded fear. Dissertation shows new perspective on the impact of weapons in dealing with emergencies and coexistence with migrants. Examined group of firearms license holders and...
Sterrett, Emily C., M.D.
20 October 2016
No description available.
Scaling down flagship projects : Exploring the reverberations of large-scale projects in Stockholm / Nedskalning av flaggskeppsprojekt : Utforskning av storskaliga projekts efterdyningar i StockholmVlachaki- Stamatopoulou, Eleni- Konstantina January 2020 (has links)
Drawing from the ever-evolving processes that reproduce and re-define our everyday life in our living environment, this study explores the reverberations of flagship projects in the wider urban landscape. The power structures that formulate spatial production are discussed. Flagships are viewed as tangible representations of governmental and public authorities’ strategies. In-depth understanding of the consequences that stem from such implementations evidence the power dynamics in urban development processes. Stockholm’s vision for 2040 envisages the reinforcement of democratically sustainable development. This study delves into the socio-spatial earmarks that emerge from leading urban development projects in the wider urban landscape and more specifically in the adjoining to the project areas. To do so, this research looks into the urban development of the districts adjoining two large-scale projects, the Hammarby Sjöstad and the Royal Seaport.
Duplicate systems : investigating unintended consequences of information technology in organizationsWimelius, Henrik January 2011 (has links)
The organizational consequences of information technology (IT) constitutes a core focus in information systems (IS) research. The relationship between organizations and IT has received considerable attention by IS researchers in order to develop knowledge related to how and why organizations and IT are related. While organizational use of IT continues to increase in practice, previous research has shown that the effects of IT at best are difficult to predict. Consequently, the adoption and assimilation of IT in organizational settings must be recognized as complex and challenging processes, which makes the production of knowledge related to such processes important and pressing. This dissertation identifies, characterizes and explains a paradoxical outcome of the adoption and assimilation of an enterprise content management (ECM) system in a context of organizational information management. The outcome, labeled the duplicate systems paradox, is constituted by a situation in which an organization continuously allows multiple, overlapping, partially competing and largely incompatible information systems to persist and continue to evolve over time, despite continued awareness of the adverse consequences on organizational information management capabilities. A qualitative case study approach was used as the primary means for data collection. The case study was conducted in the administrative divisions of HealthOrg, a large organization in the medical- and health care sector. To this end, the main objective of this dissertation is to investigate how this paradox was formed, and furthermore, how and why it was able to persist. In order to do this, dialectical theory is combined with contextualism and theory on organizational information processing to form a comprehensive theoretical perspective used to inform the analytical efforts. By using a dialectical approach, the analysis presents empirical evidence of the existence and composition of three overarching contradictions found to affect the formation and persistence of the duplicate systems paradox. More specifically, the resulting explanatory model demonstrates how three pairs of opposites, control versus support at the requirements level, options versus practices at the solutions level, and top-down versus bottom-up approaches at the transformations level, along with contextual tensions, were essential components in the formation and persistence of the paradox. Thus, the duplicate systems paradox could form and continue to evolve due to contradictory forces present at, and interconnected between, different vertical and horizontal levels within the organization. Through the identification and explanation of the duplicate systems paradox, this study provides a detailed example of how, and why, unintended consequences of IT in organizations may emerge and continue over time. In terms of implications for research and practice, the findings of this dissertation point to six important observations. First, this research suggests that understanding and characterizing the context in which IT is to be implemented is crucial and challenging. Thus, organizations should pay careful attention to the practical side of context, rather than to the somewhat theoretical boundaries of organizations. It is suggested that the concepts of ‘inner’ and ‘outer’ context may be useful in analyzing and understanding context. Second, this research suggests that organizations should attempt to identify potentially conflicting requirements, and devise clear strategies to decide how to prioritize between such requirements as the identification and explication of requirements present at different levels in the organization may reveal problems that need to be considered when choosing information system (IS). Third, organizations need to pay careful attention to what the adoption of a new IS means in terms of adaptation and/or realignment, and to what extent organizational activities, technological functionalities, or both, should be adapted. Organizations should furthermore be aware that the adoption of systems that can also be used as development platforms may cause a cascade of effects and dependencies that are difficult to manage. Fourth, the findings of this research suggest that organizations faced with the challenge of adopting complex IT solutions need to take into account their previous strategies and planned new ones in order to devise a comprehensive strategic approach since the coexistence of radically different strategies may cause uncertainty and inertia within the overall assimilation process. Fifth, this research indicates that IT management and information management (IM) are highly interrelated activities, but are not mutually exclusive. Thus, organizations adopting technologies that are specifically focused on information management may benefit from developing distinct areas of responsibility and clear communication channels between the involved organizational units. Furthermore, these findings suggest that future research should pay careful attention to, and specifically investigate, the exact nature of the relationship between information management and IT management. Finally, this research demonstrates how a dialectical approach may be used to adequately investigate organizational information management, specifically in relation to the adoption and assimilation of IT.
Hur barn förhåller sig till regler har belysts i forskning som visat att barnen lägger stor vikt vid moralrelaterade regler. Hur barnen accepterar konventionella regler beror på vilken funktion regeln upplevs fylla. Det som saknas i forskningen är ett dynamiskt perspektiv som tar hänsyn till interagerande aktörers ömsesidiga inflytande över varandra när förutsättningarna förändras och hur detta i sin tur skapar nya förutsättningar. För att belysa detta utgår studien från Giddens struktureringsteori som stipulerar att människors sociala handlingar både formar och formas av de strukturella förutsättningarna till skillnad från ett mer strukturalistiskt perspektiv där aktörerna ses som underkastade den struktur som de verkar inom. Struktureringsteorin möjliggör också för underordnade aktörer att utöva kontroll över de med mera makt. Datainsamlingen har genomförts genom deltagande observationer på en skola. Observationsobjektet har varit incidenter där eleverna agerat på ett sätt som inte är förenligt med verksamhetens konventioner. Fokus har legat på elevernas utnyttjande av resurser i form av material och lokaler. Resultatet visar att inbyggda motsättningar i de strukturella förutsättningarna öppnar en möjlighet för eleverna att ta kontroll över de resurser som personalen försöker reglera. När personalen försöker återta kontrollen resulterar det i oavsiktliga konsekvenser på grund av faktorer som inte uppmärksammats vilket i regel förskjuter problematiken och upprätthåller det olovliga resursutnyttjandet. / How children relate to rules has been highlighted in research in which children attach great importance to moral-related rules. How children accept conventional rules depends on what function the rule is perceived to fulfill. What is missing from the research is a dynamic perspective that considers how interacting actors influence each other when conditions change and how this in turn creates new conditions. To illuminate this, the study is based on Gidden's theory of structuration which stipulates that people's social actions both shape and are shaped by the structural conditions as opposed to a more structuralist perspective where the actors are seen as subjects to the structure in which they operate. The theory of structuration also enables subordinate actors to exercise control over those with more power. The data collection was carried out through participant observations at one school. The object of observation has been incidents where the students acted in a manner incompatible with the conventions of the school. The focus has been on students' utilization of resources in the form of materials and premises. The result shows that built-in contradictions in the structural conditions open opportunities for students to take control of the resources that the staff is trying to regulate. When staff try to regain control, it results in unintended consequences due to factors that have not been recognized, which usually offsets the problem and maintains the unwanted utilization of resources.
Unintended Social and Economic Consequences Resulting from the Implementation of New Construction Technologies in the Developing WorldSouth, Andrew J. 11 July 2011 (has links) (PDF)
One of the key components of international development is to provide adequate shelter for citizens of developing countries. This is often accomplished by governmental, non- governmental, and private organizations that seek to lower the cost, increase the quality, and expand the availability of safe, sustainable housing through the use of innovative technologies. These new technologies can affect the social and/or economic structure within communities. This paper is a case study resulting from the construction of a seventy-one-home village, including infrastructure, near Yogyakarta, Indonesia by a foreign, aid-based non-governmental organization (NGO). The village was relocated less than two kilometers from its original site after a massive landslide, triggered by the 2006 earthquakes of Central Java, virtually destroyed the entire community. Four years after construction the researcher took an inductive inquiry approach through interviews with residents of the community and residents of neighboring communities to understand the social and economic impacts. The research project explored the unintended consequences to the community resulting from the NGO's use of innovative housing technologies (steel reinforced concrete domes and planned community development) without a thorough understanding of underlying community culture and interactions.
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