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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Protect neurons from ischemia-induced death by targeting BNIP3 gene family

Weng, Jiequn 20 July 2012 (has links)
The BNIP3 family, a group of death-inducing mitochondrial proteins, includes BNIP3, NIX and BNIP3h. These proteins share structural and functional similarities. BNIP3 causes neuronal cell death in a necrosis-like, caspase-independent manner with mitochondrial dysfunction. We reported that BNIP3 plays a role in delayed neuronal death in stroke models. Over-expression of BNIP3 causes up to 70% neuronal death, while knockdown of BNIP3 only protects 23% neurons from hypoxia. Thus, we hypothesize that other members of the BNIP3 subfamily compensate for the loss of BNIP3. BNIP3 and NIX were highly upregulated in the oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation model, and knockdown of BNIP3 or NIX protected about 20% - 44% of neurons. Knockdown of BNIP3 family reduced neuronal death by 48%. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were all significantly attenuated by BNIP3 and/or NIX inhibition. AIF and EndoG were reported involving in caspase-independent cell death in ischemic stroke. We found that AIF was released from mitochondria and translocated into nuclei in neurons after OGD/reoxygenation, while inhibition of BNIP3 blocked AIF and EndoG translocation and prevented neuronal death. Over-expression of BNIP3 and NIX caused AIF translocation and subsequent neuronal death. These data reveal the effects of the BNIP3 family in neuronal death and indicate that AIF and EndoG are two downstream factors in the BNIP3-mediated cell death pathway. Meanwhile, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), an inhibitor for a caspase-independent necrotic cell death, is able to protect neurons from death in stroke, mechanism of which is unclear. Here, we confirmed that Nec-1 significantly increased survival of neurons in models of stroke in vivo and in vitro. It also attenuated hypoxia or BNIP3-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and prevented mitochondrial release of AIF. Nec-1 did not affect the expression levels of BNIP3 but prevented its integration into mitochondria. These results suggest that Nec-1 protects neurons against ischemia by targeting BNIP3. In summary, this research indicates that the BNIP3 family is one of the regulators of caspase-independent neuronal death in stroke and that Nec-1 is an inhibitor for BNIP3 and a potential therapeutic agent for stroke.
2

Protect neurons from ischemia-induced death by targeting BNIP3 gene family

Weng, Jiequn 20 July 2012 (has links)
The BNIP3 family, a group of death-inducing mitochondrial proteins, includes BNIP3, NIX and BNIP3h. These proteins share structural and functional similarities. BNIP3 causes neuronal cell death in a necrosis-like, caspase-independent manner with mitochondrial dysfunction. We reported that BNIP3 plays a role in delayed neuronal death in stroke models. Over-expression of BNIP3 causes up to 70% neuronal death, while knockdown of BNIP3 only protects 23% neurons from hypoxia. Thus, we hypothesize that other members of the BNIP3 subfamily compensate for the loss of BNIP3. BNIP3 and NIX were highly upregulated in the oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation model, and knockdown of BNIP3 or NIX protected about 20% - 44% of neurons. Knockdown of BNIP3 family reduced neuronal death by 48%. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were all significantly attenuated by BNIP3 and/or NIX inhibition. AIF and EndoG were reported involving in caspase-independent cell death in ischemic stroke. We found that AIF was released from mitochondria and translocated into nuclei in neurons after OGD/reoxygenation, while inhibition of BNIP3 blocked AIF and EndoG translocation and prevented neuronal death. Over-expression of BNIP3 and NIX caused AIF translocation and subsequent neuronal death. These data reveal the effects of the BNIP3 family in neuronal death and indicate that AIF and EndoG are two downstream factors in the BNIP3-mediated cell death pathway. Meanwhile, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), an inhibitor for a caspase-independent necrotic cell death, is able to protect neurons from death in stroke, mechanism of which is unclear. Here, we confirmed that Nec-1 significantly increased survival of neurons in models of stroke in vivo and in vitro. It also attenuated hypoxia or BNIP3-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and prevented mitochondrial release of AIF. Nec-1 did not affect the expression levels of BNIP3 but prevented its integration into mitochondria. These results suggest that Nec-1 protects neurons against ischemia by targeting BNIP3. In summary, this research indicates that the BNIP3 family is one of the regulators of caspase-independent neuronal death in stroke and that Nec-1 is an inhibitor for BNIP3 and a potential therapeutic agent for stroke.
3

Modélisation pharmacocinétique combinée IRM-TEP

Poulin, Éric January 2012 (has links)
Au cours des dernières années, des modalités d'imagerie comme la tomographie d'émission par positrons (TEP) et l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) ont été utilisées pour caractériser le microenvironnement tumoral et prédire la réponse au traitement durant la thérapie. La TEP est reconnue pour sa fonctionnalité et elle est utilisée avec une multitude de radiotraceurs. Par contre, sa résolution spatiale est limitée. L'IRM apporte une localisation anatomique précise et une information sur la perfusion des tissus. La modélisation pharmacocinétique augmente le potentiel de ces deux modalités en permettant des études quantitatives. Cependant, ces analyses quantitatives nécessitent l'acquisition de plusieurs images successives afin de suivre la distribution d'un agent de contraste (AC) en IRM et d'un radiotraceur en TEP. Plusieurs types d'analyse pharmacocinétique en IRM et en TEP requièrent la concentration de l'agent en fonction du temps dans le sang, nommée fonction d'entrée artérielle (AIF). Toutefois, cette dernière est difficile à mesurer. En IRM, pour la modélisation, il existe un compromis à faire entre la résolution spatiale et la résolution temporelle. Dans ce mémoire, une approche pour convertir l'AIF d'une modalité à l'autre est proposée pour le petit animal. L'AC gadolinium-acide diéthylène-triamine penta-acétique (Gd-DTPA) en IRM et le radiotraceur [indice supérieur 18] F-fluorodésoxyglucose (FDG) en TEP ont été utilisés. Un modèle mathématique a été développé pour effectuer la conversion et comparer les AIFs. Afin d'évaluer l'efficacité de la méthode, les paramètres pharmacocinétiques ont été calculés pour l'AIF obtenue par prélèvements sanguins et par notre méthode de conversion. Aucune différence statistique n'a été trouvée entre les paramètres des deux méthodes. Ces résultats suggèrent donc qu'une seule AIF serait nécessaire pour faire la modélisation dans les deux modalités. Une méthode qui optimise le temps d'acquisition d'images de même que la résolution spatiale en IRM a été proposée afin d'obtenir une quantification tumorale plus juste. Le temps d'acquisition a été réduit d'un facteur 3,2 avec une perte négligeable (1,5%) de résolution spatiale. Il a également été démontré qu'il est possible d'utiliser la méthode de région de référence combinée avec notre méthode de conversion d'AIF afin de faire la modélisation dans les deux modalités. Il s'agit, à notre connaissance, du premier travail évaluant la synergie entre les acquisitions IRM et TEP combinées. Ce travail pourrait donc avoir un impact significatif sur l'exploitation des deux modalités d'imagerie.
4

Vad vill vi med idrotten? : En studie om arbetarpressens syn på den nationella och internationella arbetaridrottsrörelsen under mellankrigstiden / What do we want from sports? : A study of the national and international worker’s sport movement from the perspective of the working-class media during the interwar period

Pettersson, Niklas January 2018 (has links)
Under mellankrigstiden växte arbetaridrotten i flertalet länder runt om i världen och den nya socialistiska idrotten firades med arbetarolympiader. I Sverige lyckades aldrig arbetaridrotten få sitt stora genombrott och Sverige deltog varken i arbetarolympiader eller hade särskilt stort samarbete med den internationella arbetaridrottsrörelsen. Denna studie har undersökt varför Sveriges samarbete med den internationella arbetaridrottsrörelsen nästintill uteblev  och följaktligen varför Sverige aldrig deltog i arbetarolympiaderna. Genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys av arbetarpressen under mellankrigstiden har denna studie kartlagt huvudanledningarna till varför Sveriges samarbete med den internationella arbetaridrottsrörelsen var förhållandevis liten. Det svenska socialdemokratiska arbetarpartiet ansåg till skillnad från andra socialdemokratiska partier att den vanliga idrotten var bra för arbetare då detta utgjorde ett neutralt forum som tillät umgänge över klassgränserna. Arbetaridrotten hade inte en naturlig plats i det svenska samhället och man ansåg att den bröt mot idrottens allra heligaste, dess politiska neutralitet. Svenska kommunister var därmot av en annan åsikt och ansåg att idrotten inte alls var politiskt neutral utan ett medel som borgerligheten använde för att förblinda och fördumma arbetarklassen. Arbetaridrotten ansågs därför av kommunister som nödvändig för att arbetare ska kunna bedriva idrott. Det var även kommunister som grundade Arbetarnas Idrottsförbund (AIF). Den internationella arbetaridrotten leddes nästan uteslutande av socialdemokrater. Följaktligen ville det kommunistiska AIF inte beblanda sig med dem och man talade i termer som att ledarna för den internanationella arbetaridrotten var "socialfascister". Socialdemokrater hade heller ingen större vilja att engagera sig för den internationella arbetaridrotten då man ansåg att den vanliga idrotten var en tillräckligt god representant för arbetarnas intressen. På Sovjetunionens initiativ inleddes i mitten av 1930-talet det som kom att kallas för folkfrontspolitiken. Detta innebar ett närmande från kommunister till socialdemokrater för att visa en enad socialistisk front mot den växande fascismen. Detta skedde även i Sverige och från den undersökta kommunistiska pressens reportage från arbetarolympiaden i Antwerpen 1937 finner enbart lovord. Delar av den socialdemokratiska pressen som undersökts tycks också ha ändrat inställning till ett eventuellt svenskt deltagande i arbetarolympiaden i samband med 1937-års arbetarolympiad. Detta verkar dock bero på det svenska deltagandet i de olympiska spelen i Berlin år 1936. Dessa olympiska spel hade varit uppenbart politiskt och Nazityskland tilläts demonstrera sin oerhörda propagandamaskin. Därmed var idéen om idrottens politiska neutraliet bruten och det endast genom svenskt deltagade i dess motpart, arbetarolympiaderna, kunde den återupprättas.
5

The Role of ADP-Ribosylation in Mitochondria-Mediated Cell Death

Whatcott, Clifford Jason January 2009 (has links)
Poly(ADP)ribose (PAR) metabolism is essential to many cellular functions, including the maintenance of genomic integrity, the regulation of cell death mechanisms, as well as the regulation of gene expression. Recent work has uncovered many new players in the expanding effort to understand PAR metabolism and its cellular impact. PARP-1, the prototypical poly(ADP)ribose polymerase, was the first to be discovered, and has since been shown to be vital in the cellular response to DNA damage. Indeed, one report demonstrating that PARP-1 activation is required for apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release from mitochondria uncovered a novel link between DNA damage and signaling for cell death. The events following PARP activation, leading to signaling for AIF release, however, are still poorly understood. Based on our observations, we have developed a model to explain the nuclear/mitochondrial crosstalk that occurs following PARP activation. The work presented here answers several important questions regarding the relationship between ADP-ribose metabolism and mitochondria, including the role of PAR in signaling for the release of AIF, the presence of ADP-ribose metabolism protein members in mitochondria, and mitochondrial transcriptional effects following PARP activation. This work presents several novel findings, including the first report of a mitochondrial matrix isoform of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) as well as direct evidence of mitochondria-associated PARP activity. Furthermore, it provides evidence for a novel effect of PARP-1 activation, in the specific transcriptional upregulation of the mitochondrial gene, NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 1 (ND1). Our data is consistent with the hypothesis that uncontrolled PARP activity results in energy metabolism dysfunction and cell death. Furthermore, it supports a model in which PARP activity is required for normal transcriptional responses in mitochondria following DNA damage. In total, this report adds to the body of work outlining the roles of PARP following DNA damage recognition and activation, demonstrating that ADP-ribose metabolism plays an important role in cell death regulation by both direct and indirect means.
6

Crime and punishment on the Western Front: the Australian Imperial Force and British Army discipline

jgarstang@bermudasun.bm, Edward John Garstang January 2009 (has links)
The Australian Imperial Force in the First World War had a deserved reputation as an effective fighting force, and at the same had the worst disciplinary record away from the frontline when compared with other Dominion forces and the rest of the British Army. Australian indiscipline is a subject that has been largely ignored, or when dealt with as in the Official History by C. E. W. Bean, has had to pass through the filter of the Australian Legend. This study examines the link between Australian indiscipline and the privileged position they held of being the only force immune from the death penalty, except for mutiny, desertion to the enemy and traitorous activity. This simple fact would have a major influence on the relatively high numbers of absentees and desertions within Australian ranks. General Headquarters in France (GHQ) saw these high levels of indiscipline as a direct result of Australian authorities not allowing their soldiers to be placed under the Army Act in full. Further differences surfaced between the British and Australians when it came to punishment, with Australian courts criticised by British Army authorities for not using the powers they possessed to impose penalties that would act as a deterrent, as well as their reluctance to impose Field Punishment No. 1. This study examines these general differences as well as dealing with a specific case of an Australian soldier charged with the murder of a French civilian, a case that attracted the attention of senior political and military figures when it transpired Australians were immune from the death penalty for murder. Maintaining discipline was a constant struggle for the authorities when faced with those determined to avoid frontline duty either by committing military crime or through self-maiming. In this context the high venereal disease rate is discussed and evidence presented that this could be considered as a self-inflicted wound. The mutiny in the 1st Battalion of September 1918 is examined as well as a mutiny in a military prison in France in 1919. It is not the purpose of this study to tarnish the reputation of the many thousands of brave men who fought in the AIF, rather it is an attempt to understand the high levels of indiscipline within the context of the war on the Western Front and the disciplinary code under which they operated.
7

Efeitos das mudanças climáticas na regulação de biomarcadores em Echinaster brasiliensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) / Effects of climate changes on biomarkers regulation in Echinaster brasiliensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)

Silva, Patrícia Lacouth da 10 December 2015 (has links)
Diante do quadro atual de previsões de mudanças climáticas, estudos a respeito das possíveis respostas dos organismos a estas alterações são importantes. Com a finalidade de prever e verificar se estas serão de fato deletérias ou se os organismos são capazes de lidar com elas sem alterações na sua fisiologia, e consequentemente na estrutura do ambiente, E. brasiliensis foi utilizada como modelo para estudar possíveis impactos do aumento da temperatura e acidificação dos oceanos na sua fisiologia. Para isso, espécimes foram expostos a 9 possíveis combinações de temperatura (24ºC, 28ºC e 30ºC) e pH (8.0, 7.7 e 7.3) em diferentes intervalos de tempo (1, 3, 12, 24 e 48 h). Amostras de gônadas e fluido celomático foram coletadas para avaliar a expressão das proteínas de estresse HSP70, AIF-1 e p38-MAPK, e a variação no número e viabilidade dos celomócitos. Nossos resultados mostram que o modelo é sensibilizado pelas mudanças no ambiente, através da hiper-regulação das proteínas de estresse. O cenário considerado mais extremo (30°C + pH7.3) ocasionou a morte de 100% dos organismos após 24horas. E o segundo cenário mais severo (30°C + pH7.7) desencadeou o desenvolvimento de ulceração de pele. Os efeitos são mais pronunciados nos celomócitos e a acidificação da água parece ter efeitos antagônicos com a temperatura nos celomócitos e sinérgicos nas gônadas. Embora a resposta tenha sido sistêmica, o grau e a dinâmica foram distintos em relação às diferentes amostras e estresses. Podendo causar modificações na resposta imune dos organismos e consequentemente na sobrevivência da espécie a longo prazo. / Under the current Climate Change context, studies about the potential responses of the organisms to their changing environment are of extreme importance. Recent studies point out the synergy of temperature and ocean acidification altogether. In this study, we used the sea star E. brasiliensis to assess the physiological effects of rising temperature, seawater acidification and the interaction of both factors. Independent individuals (N=225) were exposed to 9 possible combinations of temperature (24ºC, 28ºC and 30ºC) and pH (8.0, 7.7 and 7.3), for 1, 3, 12, 24 and 48 h. We compared the stress produced by these treatments measuring the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP70), the production of the allograft inflammatory factor (AIF−1) and the activation of mitogen kinases (MAPKs) at both gonad and celomic fluid. Furthermore, we assessed the quantity and quality of coelomocytes. Our results demonstrated that E. brasiliensis is vulnerable to the interaction of temperature and acidification. All the stress proteins evaluated were upregulated. The extreme scenario (30°C + pH7.3) caused the death of 100% of organisms after 24 hours, while the second most severe scenario (30°C + pH7.7) triggered skin ulceration. Nevertheless, we found that water acidification produces antagonistic effects to the temperature in coelomocytes and synergistic effects in gonad cells. Furthermore, these effects were more pronounced in the coelomocytes than in the gonads. The systemic response found in this study suggest that the interactive effects of elevated temperatures in conjunction with ocean acidification may endanger the survival of this species, and it could compromise the ecosystem functioning at long term.
8

Efeitos das mudanças climáticas na regulação de biomarcadores em Echinaster brasiliensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) / Effects of climate changes on biomarkers regulation in Echinaster brasiliensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)

Patrícia Lacouth da Silva 10 December 2015 (has links)
Diante do quadro atual de previsões de mudanças climáticas, estudos a respeito das possíveis respostas dos organismos a estas alterações são importantes. Com a finalidade de prever e verificar se estas serão de fato deletérias ou se os organismos são capazes de lidar com elas sem alterações na sua fisiologia, e consequentemente na estrutura do ambiente, E. brasiliensis foi utilizada como modelo para estudar possíveis impactos do aumento da temperatura e acidificação dos oceanos na sua fisiologia. Para isso, espécimes foram expostos a 9 possíveis combinações de temperatura (24ºC, 28ºC e 30ºC) e pH (8.0, 7.7 e 7.3) em diferentes intervalos de tempo (1, 3, 12, 24 e 48 h). Amostras de gônadas e fluido celomático foram coletadas para avaliar a expressão das proteínas de estresse HSP70, AIF-1 e p38-MAPK, e a variação no número e viabilidade dos celomócitos. Nossos resultados mostram que o modelo é sensibilizado pelas mudanças no ambiente, através da hiper-regulação das proteínas de estresse. O cenário considerado mais extremo (30°C + pH7.3) ocasionou a morte de 100% dos organismos após 24horas. E o segundo cenário mais severo (30°C + pH7.7) desencadeou o desenvolvimento de ulceração de pele. Os efeitos são mais pronunciados nos celomócitos e a acidificação da água parece ter efeitos antagônicos com a temperatura nos celomócitos e sinérgicos nas gônadas. Embora a resposta tenha sido sistêmica, o grau e a dinâmica foram distintos em relação às diferentes amostras e estresses. Podendo causar modificações na resposta imune dos organismos e consequentemente na sobrevivência da espécie a longo prazo. / Under the current Climate Change context, studies about the potential responses of the organisms to their changing environment are of extreme importance. Recent studies point out the synergy of temperature and ocean acidification altogether. In this study, we used the sea star E. brasiliensis to assess the physiological effects of rising temperature, seawater acidification and the interaction of both factors. Independent individuals (N=225) were exposed to 9 possible combinations of temperature (24ºC, 28ºC and 30ºC) and pH (8.0, 7.7 and 7.3), for 1, 3, 12, 24 and 48 h. We compared the stress produced by these treatments measuring the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP70), the production of the allograft inflammatory factor (AIF−1) and the activation of mitogen kinases (MAPKs) at both gonad and celomic fluid. Furthermore, we assessed the quantity and quality of coelomocytes. Our results demonstrated that E. brasiliensis is vulnerable to the interaction of temperature and acidification. All the stress proteins evaluated were upregulated. The extreme scenario (30°C + pH7.3) caused the death of 100% of organisms after 24 hours, while the second most severe scenario (30°C + pH7.7) triggered skin ulceration. Nevertheless, we found that water acidification produces antagonistic effects to the temperature in coelomocytes and synergistic effects in gonad cells. Furthermore, these effects were more pronounced in the coelomocytes than in the gonads. The systemic response found in this study suggest that the interactive effects of elevated temperatures in conjunction with ocean acidification may endanger the survival of this species, and it could compromise the ecosystem functioning at long term.
9

Automatiserad sårbarhetsskanning i en virtualiserad CentOS-miljö : En lösning till ett mer härdat C2-ledningstödssystem / Automated vulnerability scan in a CentOS virtual environment : Asolution to a more hardened C2-system

Johansson, Frida January 2022 (has links)
Ett stridsledningssystem fungerar som ett maskinellt stöd för manövrering och kontroll över trupper. Det är via det systemet information ges och eftersom den informationen innehåller hemlig — och viktig — data är det angeläget att den datan är pålitlig. En grundläggande del i utveckling och underhåll av sådana system är att utföra sårbarhetsskanningar och att konfigureringskrav uppfylls så säkra dataförbindelser upprätthålls. Med teknikutvecklingen upptäcks ständigt nya sårbarheter som kan utnyttjas för att ta sig in i ett system vilket ställer nya krav för systemets säkerhet. Genom automatiserade tester sker skanningen kontinuerligt vilket upprätthåller säkerheten i systemet. Två exempel på verktyg som förenklar denna skanningsprocess är Nessus och Tenable.sc, där Nessus utför de aktuella skanningarna och Tenable.sc tillhandahåller ett effektivt gränssnitt för skanningens analys. Denna rapport undersöker skanningsförfarandet på stridsledningssystemet ASTERIX Intag Försvarsmakten (AIF). Det är ett system med fyra servrar där radardata hämtas från Luftfartsverkets nätverk och skickas vidare till försvarsmaktens nätverk. I systemet finns brandväggar medmycketstrikta regler som gör att en skanning inte går att automatisera utan att äventyra den säkerhet som redan är implementerad. Genom att virtualisera AIF kan en annan virtuell maskin få åtkomst till systemet vilket gör en automatiserad skanning genomförbar. Den virtuella maskinen fungerar som en skanningsdator där Nessus och Tenable.sc installeras och som skanningen utgår ifrån. All kommunikation med verktygen hanteras med ett pythonskript för att exempelvis starta en skanning eller ladda ner en rapport där tillgången till servrarna ges via Secure Shell (SSH) när skanningen ska utföras. Att automatisera skanningen i virtualiserade miljöer gör testningsprocessen skalbar. Det möjliggör automatiserade masstester vilket kan användas som ett verktyg för en sårbarhetsanalys, och som i sin tur bidrar och upprätthåller en mer säker IT-infrastruktur. / A command and control system serves as a support for maneuvering and control of troops. It is through that system information is given and since the information contains confidential — and significant — data, it is important that the data is reliable. A fundamental part in the development and maintenance of such systems are to perform vulnerability scans and that configuration requirements are met so that secure data connections are maintained. With technological development, new vulnerabilities are constantly being discovered that can be used to break into a system, which places new demands on the system’s security. Through automated tests, the scanning takes place continuously, which maintains the security of the system. Two examples on tools that simplify this scanning process are Nessus and Tenable.sc, where Nessus performs the actual scans and Tenable.sc provides one effective interface for scanning analysis. This report examines the scanning procedure on the command and control system AIF. It is a system with four servers where radar data is retrieved from the Civil Aviation Administration’s (Luftfartsverket) network and forwarded to the Armed Forces’ (Försvarsmaktens) network. The system has firewalls with very strict rules that make the automation of the scan impossible without compromising the security that already been implemented. By virtualizing AIF, another virtual machine can access the system, making an automated scan feasible. The virtual machine functions as a scanning computer where Nessus and Tenable.sc are installed and on which the scanning is based. All communication with the tools is handled with a python script to, for example, start a scan or download a report where access to the servers is given via Secure Shell (SSH) when the scan is to be performed. Automating scanning in virtualized environments makes the testing process a scalable one. It enables automated mass testing, which can be used as a tool for a vulnerability analysis, and which in turn contributes to and maintains a more secure IT infrastructure.
10

Konsekvensanalys av olika förändringar i intäktsrams-regleringen avseende hänsyn till leveranssäkerhet / Analyses of changes in the regulatory framework with respect to security of supply

Majlund, Åsa January 2018 (has links)
The distribution of electricity is a natural monopoly. The infrastructure of the electricity grid is divided into areas and the distribution system operator (DSO) has concession for the distribution of the defined area. The concession is governed by laws and regulation.The Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (Ei) is the national regulatory authority. The continuity of supply of electricity is a part of the regulation. The incentive is given by a revenue cap regulation which may result in a reward or penalty.The performance indicators are a measure of the continuity of supply and used in the calculation of the revenue cap regulation.The Master thesis aims to specify the possible consequences for the electricity distribution system operators and their customers utilizing the electricity grid in case of a change of the current methods used to measure the continuity of supply in Sweden.With the current methods, the Ei regulation for year 2016-2019, is the continuity of supply in the local electrical grid estimated from a view where each disruption is treated equal and therefore is SAIFI and SAIDI used. In the regional electrical grid is another method used to measure the continuity of supply, estimated from a view where the loss of supplied energy is considered, therefore uses PNS and ENS. In the documentation is the term ILE used for ENS and ILEffekt for PNS.The Master thesis is constructed to analyze new performance indicators for the local and regional distribution grid. The new performance indicator is the mathematically instrument to measure the continuity of supply and is supported by analytically advantages and disadvantages.The result shows the choice of performance indicators cause a great impact in the revenue cap regulation. AIT, AIF corresponds to ENS and PNS, respectively, divided by power. The three most important results are given by:1. Mathematical and theoretical results show that ENS, PNS are not good indicators individually or in combination with SAIDI, SAIFI and CEMI4 as power consumption within each customer group varies in the local electrical grid.In the regional electrical grid, power consumption may also vary between the norm period and the supervisory period, which means that ENS, PNS can sometimes be misleading.2. The inclusion of power disruption over 12 hours generate stronger incentives in the regulation. Because it requires long term planning to avoid interruptions exceeding 12 hours. The difference is shown mainly in local electrical grid with the indicators SAIDI, SAIFI and CEMI4 and gives a slight increase in rewards in the regulation. This affects the DSO’s and their customers with a marginal difference.3. In the short term, the introduction of AIT, AIF as quality indicators means that customers who consume more power within their customer group get higher-value interruptions. An interruption of a high-consumption customer would then be prioritized compared to a customer with a lower consumption. One way to counteract this is to use CEMI4, in order to capture these customers' interruptions in the regulation.In the long term, the regulation does not become cyclically sensitive, meaning that reasonable rewards or penalties are made. This should benefit a long-term planning of the electrical grid, as the DSO’s do not have to compensate for this. / Det elektriska distributionsnätet är ett naturligt monopol. Infrastrukturen av nätet är uppdelat i områden och där nätägaren har nätkoncession för området som omfattas. Koncessionen är styrd av lagar och reglering.Energimarknadsinspektionen (Ei) är en tillsynsmyndighet som arbetar med uppdrag från regeringen. En del av tillsyn för energimarknaden, är reglering av leveranssäkerhet i det elektriska distributionsnätet. Incitamentet i regleringen ges av intäktsramens begränsning vilket kan resultera i en ökning eller minskning av intäktsramen.Kvalitetsindikatorer är ett matematiskt verktyg för att mäta leveranssäkerhet och används i regleringen av intäktsramen.Examensarbetet syftar till att synliggöra de möjliga konsekvenserna för nätföretagen respektive deras kunder av olika förändringar av de mätmetoder som används för att uppskatta leveranssäkerhet.De mätmetoder som används styrs av indikatorer. Indikatorer som mäter antal avbrott per totalt antal kunder kallas SAIFI. Indikatorer som mäter tid för dessa avbrott per totalt antal kunder kallas SAIDI. En annan metod är att de ingående indikatorerna ska mäta icke levererad energi eller effekt och då kallas de ILE respektive ILEffekt.Energimarknadsinspektionen har inför reglerperioden år 2016-2019 tillämpat SAIDI och SAIFI för kunder kopplade till lokalnät och ILE och ILEffekt för kunder och gränspunkter inom regionnätetExamensarbetet är utformat för att analysera nya typer av kvalitetsindikatorer i lokalnät och regionnät. De nya kvalitetsindikatorerna är olika matematiska verktyg för att mäta leveranssäkerheten och motiveras med analytiska för- och nackdelar.Resultatet visar att valet av indikator har stor betydelse i intäktsramens reglering. AIT, AIF motsvarar ILE respektive ILEffekt dividerat med effekt. De tre viktigaste resultaten ges av:1. Matematiska och teoretiska resultat visar att ILE, ILEffekt är inte bra indikatorer enskilt eller i kombination med SAIDI, SAIFI och CEMI4 då effektförbrukningen inom varje kundgrupp varierar för lokalnät.I regionnät så kan effektförbrukningen också variera mellan normperiod och tillsynsperiod vilket ger att ILE, ILEffekt ibland kan bli missvisande.2. Avbrott över 12 timmar genererar ett starkare incitament i regleringen. Eftersom det kräver långsiktig planering för att undvika avbrott som överstiger 12 timmar. Skillnaden visas främst i lokalnät med indikatorerna SAIDI, SAIFI och CEMI4 och ger en svag höjning av tillägg i regleringen sett på en systemnivå. Det påverkar nätföretagen och deras kunder med en marginell skillnad.3. På kort sikt innebär införandet av AIT, AIF som kvalitetsindikatorer att de kunder som förbrukar mer inom sin kundgrupp får högre värderade avbrott. Ett avbrott hos en kund med hög förbrukning skulle då prioriteras före en kund med lägre förbrukning. Ett sätt att motverka detta är att använda CEMI4 för att fånga upp dessa kunders avbrott i regleringen.På lång sikt innebär det att regleringen inte blir konjunkturkänslig, vilket innebär att rimliga tillägg eller avdrag görs. Det borde gynna en långsiktig planering av elnätet då elnätsföretagen inte behöver kompensera för detta inom regionnäten och lokalnäten.

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