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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
81

Development and evaluation of intervention programs for HIV/ AIDS persons in the workplace

Ntuli, Thandeka January 2004 (has links)
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in the Department of Psychology, University of Zululand, 2004. / The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention programs do enhance performance of HIV/AIDS infected persons in the workplace using a qualitative design. The study explored the experience of two categories of persons in the work environment i.e. professional nurses involved in administering the program and the HIV/AIDS infected persons as recipients. Data was collected from each category in four organizations through in-depth interviews using the qualitative approach. The phenomenological method supports the assumption that an individual's experience is more valid and reliable as it gives a realistic picture that people can relate to and agree with the findings (Chasi & de Wet, 2002). Data collected from work policy documents was used to establish what programs were in place to deal with HIV/AIDS at organizational level. The following conclusions were made: ♦ Intervention programs enhance work performance of HIV/ AIDS infected persons ♦ Policies provide a guideline as to what strategies organizations use to deaf with HIV/AIDS ♦ Monitoring and evaluation of intervention programs is essential in any organisation
82

The attitudes of primary caregivers towards caring for HIV/AIDS orphans in the Ingwavuma District

Gumede, Nokuthula Veronica. January 2003 (has links)
Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER of ARTS in Community Work in the Department of Social Work at the University of Zululand, South Africa, 2003. / This study is about the attitudes of primary care givers who are caring for HIV/ AIDS orphans in the Ingwavuma area. As an evaluative research semi-structured interviews were conducted. A sample of -twenty primary care givers was drawn, 10 files were drawn from the Department of Welfare and Population Development Office and 10 files were drawn from the local non-government organisation called Ingwavuma Orphan Care. Permission to use departmental files was sought from the department concerned. Related literature that focuses on a HIV/AIDS and Orphanhood has been reviewed. Various recommendations have been made based on the findings of the study. The findings indicate that a need exist for training on parenting and coping skills. HIV/AIDS orphans need to be involved in counselling especially on trauma counselling, this can help a lot in improving the relationship between primary care givers and vulnerable children.
83

High school learners' perception of HIV/AIDS preventive strategies

Kolawole, Ibidayo Ebun January 2003 (has links)
Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education in the Faculty of Education at the University of Zululand, South Africa, 2003. / This study investigated the perceptions of high school learners about HTV7AIDS preventive strategies. The study reveals that the age of the learner, their gender, grade level, and the school they attend influences their perceptions. The study also reveals that the learners hold positive perceptions about abstaining from sex, delaying sex until marriage as well as knowing the HIV/AIDS status of potential partners as of paramount importance while those who do not hold positive perceptions about abstinence hold positive perception about practicing safe sex. The study reveals that there was no relationship between religion and the acceptance of circumcision as a cultural practice through which infection could be avoided; but racial grouping and age greatly influence the acceptance of this alternative strategy.
84

Attitudes of teachers towards sexuality and HIV and AIDS education

Nqoloba, Tembela January 2001 (has links)
A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Education in fulfilment requirement for the Degree of Master of Education in the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education at the University of Zululand, South Africa, 2001. / This study investigated the attitudes of teachers towards sexuality "and HIV/AIDS education in Mthatha schools. The objectives were threefold. First, the study intended to determine the attitudes of educators towards the inclusion of sexuality education. Second, it investigated whether the attitude of educators has an impact on their teaching of sexuality education. Third, it wanted to determine if there are gender-related differences in the attitudes of educators towards the inclusion of sexuality education in the curriculum. A purposive sampling method was used and 56 (27 female and 29 male) Mthatha teachers were selected. Permission to conduct the research was requested and obtained from the District Director of the Department of Education in Mthatha. A questionnaire was used to collect data. It was delivered to the targeted respondents together with a request and short briefing about the study. The researcher also provided them with information to ensure that ethical guidelines were followed. The questionnaires were collected after a week for some and two weeks for others. With the help of a statistician the analysis was made. The cases showed mixed feelings and inconsistencies on certain issues, but were generally supportive of the idea of teaching sexuality and related aspects in schools. That is, teachers held positive attitudes. However, while females seemed to have assumed that good courses would be delivered when introduced, men provided a critique based on past experience. The males were concerned that past development programmes did not live up to expectations, they were ineffective but expensive, and did not contain the relevant topics. They suggested that any HIV and AIDS and sexuality education programmes developed should be conducted with more purpose and should be effective.
85

South African Police Service officer's perceptions of HIV/AIDS from Umtata Central Police Station

Titi, Punyuzwa January 2007 (has links)
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the MASTER OF EDUCATION (EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY) UNIVERSITY OF ZULULAND, 2007. / This study investigates the perceptions of South African Police Service officials towards HIV/AIDS at Mthatha Central Accounting Police Station towards HIV/AIDS. Selection of the respondents was done through stratified random sampling. Data was obtained from a sample of 115 police officials. These officials were of different ranks from the level of Constable up to that of the Director of the South African Police Service. Male respondents were in the majority, and Grade 12 was the dominant highest qualification amongst the police officials. The main research instrument was a questionnaire. The questionnaire had three sections: the first was compiling profile, the second poses closed-ended questions generally requiring "yes/no" responses, and the third asks open-ended questions requiring perceptions about HIV/AIDS. Collection of data was done through semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using Excel where tables and graphs were used for closed-ended questions, while themes were formed in the analysis of open-ended questions. The findings of the study revealed that the police officials had different impressions about HIV/AIDS Furthermore, police officials indicated that they would treat cases of HIV/AIDS differently and generally believe that condoms are not reliable
86

Prevalência da coinfecção HIV/tuberculose em indivíduos residentes no município de Ribeirão Preto - SP / Prevalence of HIV/tuberculosis co-infection in residents of Ribeirão Preto - São Paulo

Castrighini, Carolina de Castro 28 January 2014 (has links)
Introdução: A infecção pelo HIV associada com o adoecimento por tuberculose influencia na dinâmica de ambas patologias.Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência e fatores associados da coinfecção HIV/tuberculose em indivíduos com tuberculose no período de 2003 a 2011, notificados no município de Ribeirão Preto - SP. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, transversal, retrospectivo; tendo como sujeito todos os indivíduos com a coinfecção HIV/tuberculose, residentes no município de Ribeirão Preto, que foram diagnosticados, e tiveram seu caso notificado e cadastrado no programa TBweb. Os dados foram obtidos inicialmente a partir do Sistema de Informações para tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo, TBweb. Após a seleção, foi realizado a técnica de \"linkage\" entre os bancos de dados SINAN, SISCEL e SICLOM que contem informações do HIV/aids. Os dados foram analisados por meio do programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), versão 17.0 for Windows, utilizando-se estatística descritiva, teste qui- quadrado e Odds Ratio. Resultados: Dos 1.277 indivíduos com tuberculose cadastrados no TBweb entre 2003 e 2011, 338 apresentavam a coinfecção HIV/tuberculose, mostrando uma prevalência de 26,5%. Em relação às características demográficas, 244 (72,2%) eram do sexo masculino, a faixa etária predominante foi de 35 a 44 anos (45,0%). Quanto à raça/cor, 151 (44,7%) eram branca. Quanto ao tipo de caso, 308 (91,1%) dos casos eram novos. Referente ao encerramento do caso, a maioria dos indivíduos (58,9%) com a coinfecção HIV/tuberculose obteve cura. A forma clínica mais encontrada foi a pulmonar em 201 (59,5%) casos, seguida pela extrapulmonar em 90 (26,6%) indivíduos. No que diz respeito à identificação de qual doença foi notificada em primeiro lugar, evidenciou- se que a maioria 246 (72,8%) teve o registro do caso de HIV/aids antes de ter a notificação de tuberculose. Com relação à contagem de linfócitos TCD4+, 189 (55,9%) apresentaram taxas menores que 200 células/mm³ de sangue, 201 (59,5%) faziam uso de terapia antirretroviral e 102 (30,2%) apresentaram carga viral entre 1.001 e 100.000 cópias. Conclusão: A prevalência de indivíduos coinfectados foi de 26,5% taxa superior a nacional, sendo a maioria do sexo masculino, com faixa etária predominante em idade produtiva, com baixa contagem de linfócitos TCD4+, com o diagnóstico do HIV/aids anterior ao de tuberculose, evidenciando a necessidade de mais ações voltadas para a prevenção de ambas as doenças / Introduction: HIV infection associated with tuberculosis affects the dynamics of both pathologies. Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with HIV/tuberculosis co-infection in individuals with tuberculosis between 2003 and 2011, registered in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto - SP. Methodology: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective study; the subjects were all individuals with HIV/tuberculosis co-infection, residents of the municipality of Ribeirão Preto, who had been diagnosed, notified and registered in the TBweb program, the tuberculosis information system of the state of São Paulo. Data were initially obtained from TBweb. After the selection, the database was created using the linkage technique between the TBweb, SINAN, SISCEL and SICLOM databases, which contain information on HIV/Aids. Data were analyzed by means of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 17.0 for Windows, using descriptive statistics, chi-square test and Odds Ratio. Results: Out of the 1277 individuals with tuberculosis registered in the TBweb between 2003 and 2011, 338 presented HIV/tuberculosis co-infection, showing a prevalence of 26.5%. Regarding demographic characteristics, 244 (72.2%) were male and the predominant age range was between 35 and 44 years (45.0%). As for race/skin color, 151 (44.7%) were Caucasian. A total of 308 (91.1%) cases were new. Regarding the outcome of the case, most of the individuals (58.9%) with the HIV/tuberculosis co-infection were cured. Pulmonary tuberculosis was the most common clinical form of the disease, found in 201 (59.5%) cases, followed by extrapulmonary tuberculosis in 90 (26.6%) individuals. With regard to the identification of which disease was notified first, most cases, 246 (72.8%), had records of the HIV/aids case prior to the notification of tuberculosis. A total of 189 (55.9%) individuals had a CD4-Positive T-Lymphocyte count lower than 200 cells/mm³ of blood, 201 (59.5%) followed antiretroviral therapy and 102 (30.2%) had a viral load between 1,001 and 100,000 copies. Conclusion: The prevalence of co-infected individuals was 26.5%, which is above the national rate. Most individuals were male, in a productive age and had a low CD4-Positive T- Lymphocyte count, with a prior diagnosis of HIV/aids to that of tuberculosis, evidencing the need for more actions aimed at the prevention of both diseases
87

Gestantes soropositivas ao HIV: histórias sobre ser mulher e mãe / HIV-positive pregnant women: stories about being a woman and mother.

Bertagnoli, Marina Simões Flório Ferreira 28 September 2012 (has links)
Os primeiros casos de Aids surgiram no início da década de 1980 provocando reações de medo, preconceito e impotência na população e também na comunidade científica. Estudos epidemiológicos indicaram, naquela época, maior incidência de casos entre indivíduos homossexuais estabelecendo, inicialmente, uma relação entre os casos de adoecimento e a conduta de integrantes de grupos historicamente marginalizados. Paralelamente, investigações clínicas demonstraram fragilidade imunológica entre os indivíduos acometidos e conduziram as pesquisas à descoberta de um agente infeccioso, o HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). As mudanças na forma de compreender e descrever a epidemia de HIV/Aids acompanharam estes processos e passaram, por fim, a considerar condições materiais e subjetivas de vida como elementos estruturantes da vulnerabilidade à contaminação. Neste contexto, as relações de gênero e a submissão do feminino são elementos importantes para a discussão da vulnerabilidade entre mulheres e seus efeitos para as práticas de prevenção. Este estudo buscou identificar, no relato de gestantes soropositivas ao HIV, sentidos acerca de suas vivências na(s) relações conjugais, relações familiares e sociais, convivência com a soropositividade, saúde reprodutiva e a experiência da maternidade, analisando-os sob a perspectiva das relações de gênero e da vulnerabilidade feminina. Foram realizadas entrevistas individuais com dez gestantes soropositivas ao HIV em atendimento pré-natal junto ao Ambulatório de Moléstias Infecciosas em Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (AMIGO) do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto USP (HCFMRP-USP), serviço público de saúde e referência para a região. Os resultados apontam que dificuldades para distribuição do poder nas relações de gênero e a precarização das condições de vida são elementos estruturantes do processo de vulnerabilização ao contágio por HIV; há ainda rompimento de relações sociais e descontinuidade das perspectivas de vida em decorrência do medo do preconceito e da morte provocados pelo diagnóstico de soropositividade e um esforço para o redimensionamento do cuidado com os filhos, além de estratégias para reorganização da vida que vão se configuram ao longo do processo de enfrentamento ao contágio. Na maioria dos casos analisados, as mulheres reconhecem a si como vítimas da ação de seus parceiros, culpando-os pelo contágio. Aponta-se a necessidade de reestruturação das práticas de saúde no atendimento a mulheres soropositivas ao HIV, considerando a necessidade de fortalecimento de seus recursos cognitivos e afetivos para o enfrentamento das vicissitudes do contágio e consequente ruptura com a naturalização como vítimas. Dentre as estratégias para o fortalecimento destas mulheres, a discussão de sua apropriação do processo do contágio e a problematização do aceite tácito da pretensa superioridade masculina e das exigências do parceiro ou da família, são propostas para que se reconheça a passividade feminina como elemento que vulnerabiliza as mulheres, além de fragilizar práticas preventivas (CAPES). / The first AIDS cases appeared at the begining of 1980s provoking fear reactions, prejudice and impotence on the population and also on the scientific community. Epidemical studies indicated, in that time, a larger number of cases incidence among homosexual individuals demonstrating, at the beginning, a relationship between the illness cases and the group integrals marginal behaviour historically. Parallel, clinical investigations demonstrated immunology weakness among the onset individuals and conducted the researches to find out an infectious agent, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). Changes on the form of understanding and describing the HIV/AIDS epidemic followed these processes and at the end turned into considering material and subjective conditions of life as structural elements of the vulnerability among women and its effects for the prevention practices. This study searched to identify, concerning to HIV-positive pregnant women, considering their married, family and social relationship life history, familiarity with positive serum, reproductive health and maternity experience, analysing them under a perspective of female gender vulnerability relations. Individual interviews with ten HIV-positive pregnant women, who were pre-natal assisted in a gynaecology and obstetrics infectious deseases ambulatory (AMIGO) in Hospital das Clinicas da Faculadae de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto USP (HCFMRP-USP), a public health service as well as a reference for the region, were carried out. The results show that difficulties to the power distribution on gender relations and precariousness conditions of life are structural elements of HIV vulnerabity; yet there is a break of social relations and life perspectivity discontinuity due to prejudice and fear of death coming from the positivity serum and also an effort to redeem their childrens care, besides strategies to reorganize their lives occurences that will appear together with facing the contagion process. In the majority of the analysed cases, these women recognize themselves as being her partners actions, victims, blaming them for the contagion. Practice structures needs, in health attendance to these women, are pointed out, considering the necessity to reenforce their cognitive and affective resources, in order to face contagion vicissitudes and consequently rapture with the naturalization as victims. Among the strategies to the reenforcement of these women, the discussion of their appropriation contagion process as well as the assumed male superiority tacit acceptance problematic and families and husbands demandings are proposals to female passiviness as an element of women vulnerability, besides weakening preventive practices (CAPES).
88

Avaliação e acompanhamento de um programa de orientação e suporte psicossocial ao atendimento em atividades físicas para portadores de HIV/Aids / Avaliação e acompanhamento de um programa de orientação e suporte psicossocial ao atendimento em atividades físicas para portadores de HIV/AIDS

Pereira, Alexandre Vinicius da Silva 13 July 2009 (has links)
O trabalho voltado à saúde tem recebido uma atenção especial em dois enfoques: a humanização do atendimento e a formação de equipes multidisciplinares. A primeira propõe a valorização da dimensão psicossocial do atendimento, processo amplo, complexo, que passa pela quebra de protocolos, como a relação de autoridade entre profissional e paciente; a formação de equipes multidisciplinares encontra dificuldades inerentes ao caráter racional das ciências especializadas, que fragmenta o saber, perdendo a visão de totalidade. Promover a humanização e o trabalho multidisciplinar, foi a proposta de uma equipe atuando em uma academia de ginástica, criada para atender portadores de HIV/Aids. Formada por alunos e profissionais da Educação Física, Fisioterapia, Nutrição e Psicologia, a equipe reunia-se para discutir aspectos técnicos e psicossociais referentes ao atendimento. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar elementos relacionados à apropriação do trabalho, produção de conhecimento derivado do atendimento prestado, e seus desdobramentos para a formação do profissional envolvido. Entrevistas individuais, realizadas junto aos participantes da equipe, permitiram a identificação de conteúdos referentes à avaliação do trabalho realizado, cujos significados foram, posteriormente, agrupados em categorias temáticas: a) Integração, cujos conteúdos se referiam à interação na equipe e desta com as pessoas atendidas; b) Produção do Conhecimento, envolvendo elementos para a construção do saber dentro da equipe, enquanto produto da apropriação da experiência informal ou acadêmica; c) Avaliação, enquanto crítica e autocrítica sobre o trabalho realizado, em função de metas não atingidas ou relacionadas ao trabalho multidisciplinar; d) Perspectivas, ou propensões para a continuidade das atividades, sejam no programa ou na carreira profissional. Tais categorias temáticas, enquanto elementos subsidiários á criação de um background para o atendimento humanizado em saúde, apontam para necessidades de mudanças importantes nos processos de formação em saúde, envolvendo formas de apropriação do trabalho no interior das equipes multidisciplinares. / The work directed to health has received special attention in two approaches: the humanization of health service and the formation of multidisciplinary teams. The first one is considered to ad value to the psychosocial service, a wide and complex process which goes through protocol breaks, such as, the relation between professionals and patients; the formation of multidisciplinary teams finds difficulties inherent to the rational aspect of specialized sciences, that breaks up knowledge, losing the global vision. To promote the humanization and multidisciplinary approach was the proposal of a team working in a health club, established to take care of HIV/Aids patients. Created by students and professionals from Physical Education, Physiotherapy, Nutrition and Psychology, the team congregated itself to discuss technical and psychosocial aspects referring to the service. The present study had as a purpose, to identify elements related to the appropriation of work, knowledge production derived from the service, and its developments to the formation of involved professionals. Individual interviews, carried through the team´s participants, allowed the identification of contents referred to the evaluation of work covered, whose meanings were, later, grouped in thematic categories: a) Integration, whose contents related to the teams interaction and its interaction with the people taken care of; b) Knowledge production, involving elements to the construction of knowledge in the team, while a result of the appropriation of informal academic experience; c) Evaluation, while critical and self-critical on the carried work, either as a matter of unreached goals or not related to multidisciplinary work; d) Perspectives, or propensities for the continuity of the activities, either in the program or in the professional career. Such thematic categories, while subsidiary elements to the creation of a humanized service background in health, point to necessary and important changes in the process of health formation, involving forms of appropriation work inside the multidisciplinary teams.
89

O processo de trabalho em HIV/Aids: a visão dos profissionais / Work Process of HIV/Aids: perspectives of healthcare professionals.

Joana Filipa Afonso Monteiro Frateschi da Fonseca 26 January 2007 (has links)
A fragmentação do trabalho em saúde, atualmente, tem sido muito estudada. Os estudos apontam que esta além de esvaziar o trabalho de sentido, gerando conseqüências emocionais para os profissionais, trás repercussões na vida dos pacientes, uma vez que, entre outras coisas, prioriza os aspectos técnicos do atendimento em detrimento dos aspectos psicossocias. Considerando que a infecção ao HIV trás desdobramentos psicossociais na vida da pessoa contaminada, a atuação voltada para estes aspectos torna-se primordial. Assim sendo, este estudo tem como objetivo recuperar a síntese do processo de trabalho em HIV/Aids a partir dos profissionais envolvidos neste processo. Dentro da abordagem de pesquisa qualitativa foram realizadas 10 entrevistas com profissionais da Unidade Especial de Tratamento de Doenças Infecciosas do HC de Ribeirão Preto. Estas foram semi-estruturadas e realizadas segundo procedimentos de evocação-enunciação-verificação. As falas dos profissionais foram agrupadas conforme as semelhanças de seus conteúdos temáticos e analisadas à luz do materialismo histórico. Os dados mostraram que três Elementos constituem a síntese do processo de trabalho em HIV/Aids: Elementos de Competência Psicossocial; Elementos de Controle Sócio-Político e Administrativo; Elementos de Competência Técnica. Embora os profissionais estudados tenham privilegiado em suas reflexões os Elementos de Competência Psicossocial, a dicotomia entre habilidade técnica e competência psicossocial se faz presente na atuação. Todavia com novas configurações, pois não há a negação destes aspectos e estes não pareceram ser relegados a segundo plano. No entanto, as reflexões apontaram a dificuldade da atuação contemplando plenamente estes aspectos. Estas dificuldades embora tenham como fundamento a fragmentação do saber, conseqüentemente associam-se a estruturação do serviço que se liga às formas protocolares de controle do trabalho em todos os seus níveis. Desta forma, o trabalho se dá a partir da complementariedade de abordagens. Esta fragmentação, além de prejudicar a qualidade do atendimento prestado, dificulta o sentimento de apropriação do trabalho por parte do profissional. Assim sendo, consideramos que a sistematização da aprendizagem informal decorrente da atuação seria uma das alternativas para esta questão. Esta tornaria os profissionais mais ativos no processo de trabalho o que favoreceria a apropriação deste e tornaria a equipe de trabalho mais coesa, uma vez que juntos, os profissionais estariam construindo sua práxis. Além disto, este estudo nos deu a visibilidade que, em algumas situações, a relação estabelecida entre profissional e paciente propicia esta aprendizagem. No entanto, sabemos que a implementação de tal proposta não será fácil, haja visto que rompe com o modelo de atuação vigente e com a estruturação do ensino em saúde, no qual o saber é compartimentado não havendo espaço na atuação para os sentimentos dos profissionais nem dos pacientes. No entanto, observamos que estes sentimentos, entre outras coisas, tem que ser o pano de fundo da atuação. Desta forma, consideramos também, que se faz necessária a discussão em grupo dos sentimentos suscitados pela atuação, pois estes seriam socializados e discutidos entre pessoas que passam pelas mesmas vivências. Isto minimizaria os desdobramentos destes na vida dos profissionais e favoreceria a atuação voltada para os aspectos psicossociais. / Nowadays the fragmentation of health work has been studied a lot. Studies point out that besides giving no sense to work, fragmentation brings emotional consequences to healthcare professionals and results in changes into patients life, because it privileges the technical aspects of care in detriment of psychosocial aspects. Considering that HIV infection results in many psychosocial problems to people living with HIV/Aids, it is primordial to give more attention to these aspects. Therefore, this study aims the recuperation of HIV/Aids work process synthesis considering first all professionals who are involved in this process. Qualitative analysis was the methodological strategy and it included 10 healthcare professionals of Special Unit of Infectious Diseases of HC of Ribeirão Preto. The analysis was semi-structured and according to procedures of evocation- enunciation- verification. The discourses of the professionals were grouped according to thematic contents, and analyzed by historical materialism. Data showed that three Elements constitute work process synthesis in HIV/Aids: Elements of Psychosocial Competency; Elements of Administrative and Socio-Political Control; Elements of Technical Competency. Although the healthcare professionals showed emphasis on reflections about Elements of Psychosocial Competency, the dichotomy between technical skill and psychosocial competency is presented in the during work, but it brings different aspects because there is no denial of any of them, and they do not seem to be relegated as a second place. However, the reflections indicate difficulties in fully consider these aspects during patients care. Although these difficulties are based on fragmentation of knowledge, consequently it is associated with service structure which is linked to work control protocols. The fragmentation impairs patient treating quality and raises objections to healthcare professionals feelings of misappropriation of their job. In such case, we consider that the systematization of informal learning according to work practice would be one of the alternatives, which would result into more functional healthcare professionals and cohesive work teams, and they would be building together their praxis. Furthermore, this study shows that, in some situations, the relationship between patient and healthcare professionals favors this learning. Nevertheless, we are aware that such implementation is not an easy task, because it is not according to the model in vigor, nor to health teaching structure that does not take account patients or professionals feelings. These feelings, among other issues, must be considered during healthcare professionals work. So, we consider the necessity of a group discussion about feelings raised by the work practice, because they would be discussed and socialized among people who have experienced the same situations. This would minimize the problems faced by these healthcare professionals and it would favor psychosocial aspects during work practice.
90

O processo de trabalho em HIV/Aids: a visão dos profissionais / Work Process of HIV/Aids: perspectives of healthcare professionals.

Fonseca, Joana Filipa Afonso Monteiro Frateschi da 26 January 2007 (has links)
A fragmentação do trabalho em saúde, atualmente, tem sido muito estudada. Os estudos apontam que esta além de esvaziar o trabalho de sentido, gerando conseqüências emocionais para os profissionais, trás repercussões na vida dos pacientes, uma vez que, entre outras coisas, prioriza os aspectos técnicos do atendimento em detrimento dos aspectos psicossocias. Considerando que a infecção ao HIV trás desdobramentos psicossociais na vida da pessoa contaminada, a atuação voltada para estes aspectos torna-se primordial. Assim sendo, este estudo tem como objetivo recuperar a síntese do processo de trabalho em HIV/Aids a partir dos profissionais envolvidos neste processo. Dentro da abordagem de pesquisa qualitativa foram realizadas 10 entrevistas com profissionais da Unidade Especial de Tratamento de Doenças Infecciosas do HC de Ribeirão Preto. Estas foram semi-estruturadas e realizadas segundo procedimentos de evocação-enunciação-verificação. As falas dos profissionais foram agrupadas conforme as semelhanças de seus conteúdos temáticos e analisadas à luz do materialismo histórico. Os dados mostraram que três Elementos constituem a síntese do processo de trabalho em HIV/Aids: Elementos de Competência Psicossocial; Elementos de Controle Sócio-Político e Administrativo; Elementos de Competência Técnica. Embora os profissionais estudados tenham privilegiado em suas reflexões os Elementos de Competência Psicossocial, a dicotomia entre habilidade técnica e competência psicossocial se faz presente na atuação. Todavia com novas configurações, pois não há a negação destes aspectos e estes não pareceram ser relegados a segundo plano. No entanto, as reflexões apontaram a dificuldade da atuação contemplando plenamente estes aspectos. Estas dificuldades embora tenham como fundamento a fragmentação do saber, conseqüentemente associam-se a estruturação do serviço que se liga às formas protocolares de controle do trabalho em todos os seus níveis. Desta forma, o trabalho se dá a partir da complementariedade de abordagens. Esta fragmentação, além de prejudicar a qualidade do atendimento prestado, dificulta o sentimento de apropriação do trabalho por parte do profissional. Assim sendo, consideramos que a sistematização da aprendizagem informal decorrente da atuação seria uma das alternativas para esta questão. Esta tornaria os profissionais mais ativos no processo de trabalho o que favoreceria a apropriação deste e tornaria a equipe de trabalho mais coesa, uma vez que juntos, os profissionais estariam construindo sua práxis. Além disto, este estudo nos deu a visibilidade que, em algumas situações, a relação estabelecida entre profissional e paciente propicia esta aprendizagem. No entanto, sabemos que a implementação de tal proposta não será fácil, haja visto que rompe com o modelo de atuação vigente e com a estruturação do ensino em saúde, no qual o saber é compartimentado não havendo espaço na atuação para os sentimentos dos profissionais nem dos pacientes. No entanto, observamos que estes sentimentos, entre outras coisas, tem que ser o pano de fundo da atuação. Desta forma, consideramos também, que se faz necessária a discussão em grupo dos sentimentos suscitados pela atuação, pois estes seriam socializados e discutidos entre pessoas que passam pelas mesmas vivências. Isto minimizaria os desdobramentos destes na vida dos profissionais e favoreceria a atuação voltada para os aspectos psicossociais. / Nowadays the fragmentation of health work has been studied a lot. Studies point out that besides giving no sense to work, fragmentation brings emotional consequences to healthcare professionals and results in changes into patients life, because it privileges the technical aspects of care in detriment of psychosocial aspects. Considering that HIV infection results in many psychosocial problems to people living with HIV/Aids, it is primordial to give more attention to these aspects. Therefore, this study aims the recuperation of HIV/Aids work process synthesis considering first all professionals who are involved in this process. Qualitative analysis was the methodological strategy and it included 10 healthcare professionals of Special Unit of Infectious Diseases of HC of Ribeirão Preto. The analysis was semi-structured and according to procedures of evocation- enunciation- verification. The discourses of the professionals were grouped according to thematic contents, and analyzed by historical materialism. Data showed that three Elements constitute work process synthesis in HIV/Aids: Elements of Psychosocial Competency; Elements of Administrative and Socio-Political Control; Elements of Technical Competency. Although the healthcare professionals showed emphasis on reflections about Elements of Psychosocial Competency, the dichotomy between technical skill and psychosocial competency is presented in the during work, but it brings different aspects because there is no denial of any of them, and they do not seem to be relegated as a second place. However, the reflections indicate difficulties in fully consider these aspects during patients care. Although these difficulties are based on fragmentation of knowledge, consequently it is associated with service structure which is linked to work control protocols. The fragmentation impairs patient treating quality and raises objections to healthcare professionals feelings of misappropriation of their job. In such case, we consider that the systematization of informal learning according to work practice would be one of the alternatives, which would result into more functional healthcare professionals and cohesive work teams, and they would be building together their praxis. Furthermore, this study shows that, in some situations, the relationship between patient and healthcare professionals favors this learning. Nevertheless, we are aware that such implementation is not an easy task, because it is not according to the model in vigor, nor to health teaching structure that does not take account patients or professionals feelings. These feelings, among other issues, must be considered during healthcare professionals work. So, we consider the necessity of a group discussion about feelings raised by the work practice, because they would be discussed and socialized among people who have experienced the same situations. This would minimize the problems faced by these healthcare professionals and it would favor psychosocial aspects during work practice.

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